About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Anthropology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 549521, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/549521
Review Article

American Indian Identity and Blood Quantum in the 21st Century: A Critical Review

Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula 32 Campus Dr., Missoula, MT 59812, USA

Received 8 November 2011; Accepted 29 December 2011

Academic Editor: Santos Alonso

Copyright © 2011 Ryan W. Schmidt. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. P. Castile, “The commodification of Indian identity,” American Anthropologist, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 743–749, 1996. View at Scopus
  2. M. L. Meyer, “American Indian blood quantum requirements: blood is thicker than family,” in Over the Edge: Remapping the American West, V. J. Matsumoto and B. Allmendinger, Eds., pp. 231–49, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1999.
  3. W. Churchill, “The crucible of American Indian identity: native tradition versus colonial imposition in postconquest North America,” American Indian Culture and Resource Journal, vol. 23, pp. 39–67, 1999.
  4. D. E. Wilkins, American Indian Politics and the American Political System, Rowman & Littlefield, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2007.
  5. A. Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 3rd edition, 2007.
  6. G. Broberg, “Homo sapiens—Linnaeus’s classification of man,” in Linnaeus: The Man and His Work, T. Frängsmyr, Ed., pp. 156–194, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1983.
  7. J. H. Mielke, L. W. Konigsberg, and J. H. Relethford, Human Biological Variation, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  8. D. L. Beaulieu, “Curly hair and big feet: physical Anthropology and the implementation of land allotment on the White Earth Chippewa reservation,” The American Indian Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 281–314, 1984.
  9. A. Jenks, “The practical value of Anthropology to our nation,” reprinted from Science, vol. 4, p. 4, in Albert E. Jenks papers, University of Minnesota archives, 1916.
  10. C. L. Brace, “On the race concept,” Current Anthropology, vol. 5, pp. 313–320, 1964.
  11. F. B. Livingstone, “On the non-existence of human races,” Current Anthropology, vol. 3, pp. 279–281, 1962.
  12. J. H. Relethford, “Craniometric variation among modern human populations,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 53–62, 1994. View at Scopus
  13. W. T. Hagan, “Full blood, mixed blood, generic, and ersatz: the problem of Indian identity,” Arizona and the West, vol. 27, pp. 309–326, 1985.
  14. A. M. Jaimes, “Federal Indian identification policy: a usurpation of indigenous sovereignty in North America,” in The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance, A. M. Jaimes, Ed., pp. 123–139, South End Press, Boston, Mass, USA, 1992.
  15. M. Neath, “American Indian gaming enterprises and tribal membership: race, exclusivity, and a perilous future,” University of Chicago Law School Roundtable, vol. 2, pp. 689–709, 1995.
  16. E. Beckenhauer, “Redefining race: can genetic testing provide biological proof of indian ethnicity?” Stanford Law Review, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 161–190, 2003. View at Scopus
  17. K. Tallbear, “DNA, blood, and racializing the tribe,” Wicazo Sa Review, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 81–107, 2003.
  18. P. Spruhan, “A legal history of blood quantum in federal Indian law to 1935,” South Dakota Law Review, vol. 51, pp. 1–50, 2006.
  19. K. Gover, “Genealogy as continuity: explaining the growing tribal preference for descent rules in membership governance in the United States,” American Indian Law Review, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 243–309, 2008.
  20. J. D. Forbes, Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill, USA, 1993.
  21. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 30 U.S. 1, 1831.
  22. Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez, 436 U.S. 49, 1978.
  23. Cotton Petroleum Corp. v. New Mexico, 490 U.S. 163, 1989.
  24. Elk v. Wilkins, 112 U.S. 94, 99, 1884.
  25. Halbert v. United States, 283 U.S. 753, 1931.
  26. T. Biolsi, “The birth of the reservation: making the modern individual among the Lakota,” American Ethnologist, vol. 22, pp. 28–54, 1995.
  27. Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 187 U.S. 553, 1903.
  28. A. Harmon, “Tribal enrollment councils: lessons on law and Indian identity,” Western Historical Quarterly, vol. 32, pp. 175–200, 2001.
  29. Waldron v. United States et al., 413, 1905.
  30. R. L. Trosper, “Native American boundary maintenance: the Flathead Indian reservation, Montana, 1860&1970,” Ethnicity, vol. 3, pp. 256–274, 1976.
  31. P. N. Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
  32. R. Thornton, “Tribal membership requirements and the demography of “old” and “new” Native Americans,” Population Research and Policy Review, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 33–42, 1997.
  33. F. M. Bordewich, “Revolution in Indian country,” American Heritage, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 34–46, 1996.
  34. C. Sturm, Blood Politics: Race, Culture, and Identity in the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 2002.
  35. M. Neath, “American Indian gaming enterprises and tribal membership: race, exclusivity, and a perilous future,” University of Chicago Law School Roundtable, vol. 2, pp. 689–709, 1995.
  36. J. H. Moore and J. E. Campbell, “Blood quantum and ethnic intermarriage in the Boas data set,” Human Biology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 499–516, 1995.
  37. M. H. Crawford, The Origins of Native Americans: Evidence from Anthropological Genetics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998.
  38. R. L. Jantz and D. W. Owsley, “Variation among early North American crania,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 114, pp. 146–155, 2001.
  39. S. I. Perez, V. Bernal, P. N. Gonzalez, M. Sardi, and G. G. Politis, “Discrepancy between cranial and DNA data of early Americans: implications for American peopling,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 5, Article ID e5746, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed