Journal of Anthropology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations Thu, 31 Dec 2015 08:58:03 +0000 Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological). The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70%) and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25%) (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, ). Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency. Ingrid Sierp and Maciej Henneberg Copyright © 2015 Ingrid Sierp and Maciej Henneberg. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “New Data on Food Consumption in Pre-Hispanic Populations from Northwest Argentina (ca. 1000–1550 A.D.): The Contribution of Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Human Bones” Tue, 25 Aug 2015 10:27:28 +0000 María Soledad Gheggi and Verónica Isabel Williams Copyright © 2015 María Soledad Gheggi and Verónica Isabel Williams. All rights reserved. Traditional and Skilled Birth Attendants in Zimbabwe: A Situational Analysis and Some Policy Considerations Mon, 18 May 2015 07:38:41 +0000 The paper focuses on the situational analysis of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in Zimbabwe. Against a background of a frail health care system, characterised by a shortage in skilled professionals, increased cost of medical care, and geographic and economic inaccessibility of health care centres among others, TBAs have remained a life-line for especially many rural women in maternal health care provision. Moreover, TBAs have also found their way into the urban areas of Zimbabwe. The shift in international policy and health funding toward skilled birth attendants (i.e., an accredited health professional) has materialized into concerted government efforts to increase numbers of both midwifery training institutions and midwives themselves. The call for SBAs, though a worthy ideal, is out of touch with the lived realities of pregnant women in low resource settings such as Zimbabwe. The study is concerned with situational analysis of TBAs and SBAs in maternal health care service provision in Zimbabwe analysing and evaluating policy considerations. Naume Zorodzai Choguya Copyright © 2015 Naume Zorodzai Choguya. All rights reserved. Globally Declining Population of Women Folk Causing Sex Imbalance Is a Serious Concern: An Analysis of Sex Ratio around the Globe Tue, 12 May 2015 13:35:36 +0000 Successful existence and perpetuation of any species depend on its reproductive success. In case of humans, the theoretical proportion of males and females should be 1 : 1, but this equilibrium was disturbed in many parts of the world. What are the determinants of sex imbalance in human should be found out to combat the problem. The data were gathered for 227 countries. The sex ratio for human population of the world was found 101 males for 100 females, but it varies from 74 to 219 among the countries. The number of countries having higher number of females as compared to males is 132, as they have 99 or less males per 100 females, whereas in 71 countries the total population of males is greater than the females. And only 24 countries have balanced sex ratio. Regression analysis shows that fertility, rate of natural increase, mortality, and gender inequality index have inverse effect, and they account for 24.4%, 23.1%, 18.8%, 18.9%, 16.3%, 16.1%, and 5.1% of variability, respectively. There is great need to identify such countries and region where sex selective abortion is being practiced and to find out appropriate strategies to combat such problem. Rajesh K. Gautam, Jyoti Jhariya, and Pardeep Kumar Copyright © 2015 Rajesh K. Gautam et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Mercurial Teeth in a Possible Case of Congenital Syphilis and Tuberculosis in a 19th Century Child Skeleton Sun, 29 Mar 2015 11:54:00 +0000 Without the presence of “caries sicca,” “sabre shins,” and nodes/expansion of the long bones with superficial cavitation, differential diagnosis of venereal syphilis and tuberculosis (TB) may be difficult as various infections produce similar responses. However, congenital syphilis has distinctive features facilitating a diagnosis. A case study of remains of a juvenile European settler (probably male, 8–10 years old) (B70) buried in the 19th century and excavated in 2000 from the cemetery of the Anglican Church of St. Marys in South Australia is presented. B70 demonstrated that the two diseases might have been present in the same individual, congenital syphilis and TB. Widespread destruction of vertebral bodies and kyphosis-related rib deformations indicate advanced TB. Severe dental hypoplasia is limited to permanent incisors and first molars; there is pitting on the palate, periosteal reaction on the skull vault, and thinned clavicles. Dental signs are not limited to “screwdriver” central incisors and mulberry molars. Apical portions of the crowns of permanent upper, lower, central, and lateral incisors have multiple hypoplastic-disorganized defects; deciduous canines have severely hypoplastic crowns while possibly hypoplastic occlusal surfaces of lower deciduous second molars are largely destroyed by extensive caries. These dental abnormalities resemble teeth affected by mercurial treatment in congenital syphilitic patients as described by Hutchinson. Stella Ioannou, Maciej Henneberg, Renata J. Henneberg, and Timothy Anson Copyright © 2015 Stella Ioannou et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometric Characteristics of Underprivileged Adolescents: A Study from Urban Slums of India Wed, 24 Dec 2014 00:10:00 +0000 Purpose. The anthropometric status and growth of adolescents living in challenging conditions such as slums are insufficiently studied. The purpose here was to describe anthropometric characteristics and nutritional status of adolescents from urban slums of India and to study the factors affecting it. Methods. Anthropometric, socioeconomic and dietary habit data were collected using structured questionnaires of six hundred adolescents aged 10–19 years by house-to-house survey conducted in two randomly selected slums of Nashik, Western India. The growth of adolescents was compared using WHO and Indian reference populations. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to examine associations between anthropometric measures and income, mother’s education, household size, and dietary intake. Results. Prevalences of stunting and thinness were lower using the Indian reference population compared to that of WHO. Stunting was more prevalent than thinness in the study subjects, and boys suffered more than girls. The effect of age on stunting was different among boys than girls. A mother’s education was highly significantly associated with both stunting and thinness in both sexes. Household size and income were significantly associated with the nutritional status of girls. Conclusions. Educating mothers about the nutritional needs of adolescents may help to improve adolescents’ anthropometric profile and future health. Sushama A. Khopkar, Suvi M. Virtanen, and Sangita Kulathinal Copyright © 2014 Sushama A. Khopkar et al. All rights reserved. Dolicocephalization in Cephalic Indices of Adult Yorubas of Nigeria Wed, 03 Dec 2014 12:26:51 +0000 Cephalic index is an important parameter useful in establishing racial and sexual dimorphism. This study was carried out to determine the cephalic indices of adult Yorubas of age 18 to 40 years. One thousand and twenty (1020) Yoruba adults consisting of 493 males and 527 females were recruited randomly for the study. These were all residents of Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria. The mean cephalic index of Yorubas without reference to gender was 74.39 ± 5.41. Dominant and rare types of head shapes are dolicocephalic (68.33%) and hyperbrachycephalic (5.00%), respectively. The mean cephalic indices were 75.02 ± 4.76 (mesocephalic) in males and 73.75 ± 5.13 (dolicocephalic) in females. We conclude that Yoruba males are mesocephalic while Yoruba females are dolicocephalic. Besides, this study also reveals dolicocephalization tending towards mesocephalization amongst Yorubas. These findings will be very useful in forensic science, physical and medical anthropology, and clinical practice, most especially craniofacial surgery as it presents a characteristic feature of the head configuration for this Nigerian race. G. S. Oladipo, K. C. Anugweje, and I. F. Bob-Manuel Copyright © 2014 G. S. Oladipo et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Facial Index among Malay Population Thu, 13 Nov 2014 10:13:31 +0000 Facial analysis is anthropologically useful to identify the racial, ethnical, and sexual differences. The present study was done to see the sex difference and variation of facial index among Malaysian population. Cross-sectional descriptive type of study was done in Anatomy Department in UniKL RCMP which was performed on 81 Malay people (40 males, 41 females) aged 19–30 years. To measure the morphological parameters (facial height, facial width, and facial index), digital slide calliper and scale were used. There were significant differences found in all facial parameters of males compared with the females. The mean morphological facial height was 111.9 ± 8.4 and morphological facial width was 127.3 ± 8.0. The range of facial index was 67.44–106.90 for males and 75.21–97.99 for females. The total facial index was calculated according to the formula and the results obtained were analyzed statistically using the -test which was statistically significant (0.003). The dominant phenotype in Malay population was mesoprosopic or round face (45%) and least common face type was hyperleptoprosopic or very long face (5%). There were significant variations in the face index between Malay males and females; further study with large sample size in different races in Malaysia is recommended. Tahamida Yesmin, San San Thwin, Shazia Afrin Urmi, Mar Mar Wai, Pu. Fazlin Zaini, and Khairil Azwan Copyright © 2014 Tahamida Yesmin et al. All rights reserved. Sacred Groves: The Consequence of Traditional Management Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:37:28 +0000 The Western Ghats are one of the globally recognized “hot spots” of biodiversity in India. In Maharashtra small patches of forest in the Ghats are protected by local people as “sacred groves.” They are called “Devrai” which have been managed by local people and are dedicated to the deity in the grove. These groves act as benchmarks of less disturbed vegetation. The study has been conducted on fifteen groves through detailed expert and semistructured interviews of their priests and locals have been conducted to appreciate their traditional management systems. There is no evidence to show that the groves were intended primarily for biodiversity conservation or as a science based natural resource management strategy. Biodiversity conservation of groves is thus a by-product of a traditional belief of locals in the supernatural power of the forest deity. The concept of ICCAs (Indigenous Community Conserved Areas) and making registries of local knowledge of biodiversity as a tool for developing future conservation initiatives can act as a useful strategy to preserve the groves in the face of regional development pressures and gain government recognition for protecting the groves in the long term. Arpita Vipat and Erach Bharucha Copyright © 2014 Arpita Vipat and Erach Bharucha. All rights reserved. Improving Households Knowledge and Attitude on Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices through School Health Programme in Nyakach, Kisumu County in Western Kenya Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:36:23 +0000 The global problem of access to improved sanitation and water management practices has been compounded by the gap existing between knowledge and practice as well as attitude. The aim of this study was to assess households' knowledge and attitude on water, sanitation, and hygiene practices through a school health programme. Semistructured questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and observation checklist were used to obtain information from 95 households which were systematically sampled. It was found that a school programme may not improve the gap between knowledge, attitude, and practice but may be good for future generations. This was found to be due to sociocultural issues which impede hygiene transformation. The implication is that health programmes must find innovative ways of bridging this gap in order to bring change in households through culture sensitive interventions. Job Wasonga, Charles Omondi Olang’o, and Felix Kioli Copyright © 2014 Job Wasonga et al. All rights reserved. Nutritional Status among Females of Bhaina Tribe of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India: An Anthropological Insight Tue, 23 Sep 2014 05:14:02 +0000 Problem of malnutrition increases, being one of the significant national issues in a developing country like India. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the sociodemographic profile and nutritional status among the Bhaina tribes of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. A total of 161 females (2–75 years) were screened for anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was evaluated in four groups of female categories: preschool: 2–5 years (), children: 6#x2013;12 years (), adolescent: 13–18 years (), and adults >18 years () using the age specific cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). Statistical analysis was performed using MS EXCEL and SPSS software. More than 30% of the studied population is observed to be illiterate and unemployed. Significant age group difference is observed for anthropometric variables considered in the present study. Overall prevalence of thinness among the studied population was 32.3% (critical). Occurrence of thinness was found to be highest among children (57.1%). Occupation with wage labourer is significantly higher among parents of normal children (26.6%) than parents of undernourished children (19.6%). Findings of the present study suggest significance of anthropological approach in understanding nutritional status among different ethnic groups, specifically tribal community. Huidrom Suraj Singh, Manisha Ghritlahre, and Subal Das Copyright © 2014 Huidrom Suraj Singh et al. All rights reserved. The Discolouration of Human Teeth from Archaeological Contexts: Elemental Analysis of a Black Tooth from a Roman Cranium Recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:24:38 +0000 A human cranium was recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK, at Stamp End Lock during a police operation in 2002. Although extensive trauma was noted, the skull was not of forensic interest since radiocarbon dating revealed that the individual had lived during the Roman occupation of Lincoln, almost 2,000 years ago. The skull had unusual black “metallic” staining on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. As this kind of staining is relatively uncommon, it was investigated to determine the possible cause. An individual tooth was subjected to two elemental analyses: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). A small sample of modern teeth was also analysed for comparison to determine “normal” ranges of certain elements. Analysis of the ancient tooth shows very high levels of manganese (275 µg/g) and iron (1540 µg/g) compared to modern teeth values (1.90 µg/g Mn and 40.81 µg/g Fe). These results were consistent with the black staining arising from iron and manganese infiltrating bone and dental tissue from the depositional environment, and not a consequence of diet, pathological process or cultural practices. Emma L. Brown, Ronald A. Dixon, and Jason W. Birkett Copyright © 2014 Emma L. Brown et al. All rights reserved. An Ethnographic Study of Diabetes: Implications for the Application of Patient Centred Care in Cameroon Tue, 26 Aug 2014 13:05:59 +0000 Participant observation was conducted to explore the understanding of diabetes and examine the implications of these understandings for providing effective patient centered care in Cameroon. Ethnographic techniques—content and thematic analysis—were used to analyze the data collected from diverse techniques. Most participants distinguished “natural,” “supernatural,” and “man-made” causes of diabetes. Such aetiologies guided the behaviour and approaches adopted for treatment and helped explain why biomedical and traditional healing frameworks could so readily be used in tandem. Clinical encounters are often only one small part of the diabetes care process, alongside recourse to traditional medicine. With rituals, agents causing diabetes are apparently more convincingly explained as powerful reinforcement and a cure promised in traditional medicine. Though it seems “irrational” and dangerous to clinics when patients alternate between therapeutic regimes or pursue both simultaneously, it seems perfectly rational and beneficial to patients and beyond. So long as biomedical practitioners fail to recognize that their patients will probably also have recourse to traditional medicine, they and their services may compound the problems they face for patients to discuss openly how they have been managing their condition. Paschal Kum Awah Copyright © 2014 Paschal Kum Awah. All rights reserved. Fertility Behaviour and Effect of Son Preference among the Muslims of Manipur, India Tue, 26 Aug 2014 08:26:15 +0000 Fertility is one of the most important components of demographic studies affecting almost all aspects of human life. Present paper is an attempt to study various factors, including preference of son, affecting the fertility of Manipuri Muslims. A household survey was conducted in Imphal East and Thoubal districts where the concentration of Muslim is found to be the highest, interviewing 512 ever married women. Age at marriage, age at first conception, education, occupation, types of family, and per capita annual income are influencing the fertility rate among this population. Uses of birth control measures, consanguineous marriage, and age at menarche have no effect on fertility rate. The preference for more sons is observed in this study leading to increase in overall fertility rate. Mohammad Asghar, Benrithung Murry, and Kallur Nava Saraswathy Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Asghar et al. All rights reserved. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:54:28 +0000 Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii) assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii) compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim) girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television). Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (), father’s occupation (), level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (). Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls. Susmita Mukhopadhyay, Nandini Ganguly, and Shailendra Kumar Mishra Copyright © 2014 Susmita Mukhopadhyay et al. All rights reserved. A Brief Overview of the Last 10 Years of Major Late Pleistocene Discoveries in the Old World: Homo floresiensis, Neanderthal, and Denisovan Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:45:20 +0000 In the last ten years, new fossil, archaeological, and genetic data have significantly altered our understanding of the peopling of the Old World in the Late Pleistocene. Scholars have long been challenged to define humanity’s place in evolution and to trace our phylogeny. Differences in the skeletal morphology of hominin fossils have often led to the naming of distinct new species, but recent genetic findings have challenged the traditional perspective by demonstrating that modern human DNA contains genes inherited from Neanderthals and Denisovans, thus questioning their status as separate species. The recent discovery of Homo floresiensis from Flores Island has also raised interesting queries about how much genetic and morphological diversity was present during the Late Pleistocene. This paper discusses the nature and implications of the evidence with respect to Homo floresiensis, Neanderthals, and Denisovans and briefly reviews major Late Pleistocene discoveries from the last ten years of research in the Old World and their significance to the study of human evolution. Fernanda Neubauer Copyright © 2014 Fernanda Neubauer. All rights reserved. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Diabetic Patients in Manipur, Northeast India Mon, 26 May 2014 07:50:45 +0000 Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the major cause of premature mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study was conducted to assess cardiovascular risk among diabetic patients of Northeast India. The present cross-sectional study included 81 diabetic patients (39 males and 42 females) aged 36–74 years from the district Imphal of Manipur, Northeast India. Sex-specific Framingham general cardiovascular risk prediction equations were used to calculate the 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. The probable risk factors were determined by cross-tabulation of cardiometabolic parameters with the 10-year cardiovascular risk level. Males were found to be at higher risk of developing CVD in the future as compared to females with a discernible accumulation of adverse cardiovascular risk factors among them. 38.3% patients were at high risk, 37.0% at moderate risk and 24.7% at low risk for developing CVD in the next 10 years. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and smoking contributed significantly to high degree of cardiovascular risk. Presence of cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic patients at diagnosis accentuates the need of intensive management of cardiovascular complications, taking into consideration the traditional dietary pattern of the population. Mary Grace Tungdim, T. Ginzaniang, G. Poufullung Kabui, Deepali Verma, and Satwanti Kapoor Copyright © 2014 Mary Grace Tungdim et al. All rights reserved. Paleogenetic Studies in Guajajara Skeletal Remains, Maranhão State, Brazil Wed, 14 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In the early 17th century, French and Portuguese colonizers and Jesuit priests settled in the state of Maranhão and made contact with the Guajajara, an ethnic group that lived along the margins of the Pindaré River. The Guajajara maintained contact with Brazilian national society over the centuries, including with Brazilian admixed populations, and with African slaves that flocked towards the region from the 18th century onwards. The present study investigates the origins of this admixture using mitochondrial genetic variability. The bones of 12 individuals investigated, which are currently part of the collection of the National Museum, were tested for genetic diversity. aDNA was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method and by DNA IQ (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). Amplification of the HVS I region was performed by PCR, followed by direct sequencing using the Big Dye kit (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA). This region was found to represent haplogroups of Amerindians (A, C, and D) and Africans (L, L1b, L1c, and L3). The presence of African haplogroups in Guajajara bones from as early as the 18th century is consistent with historical and anthropological data, suggesting the admixture with Africans and/or Afrodescendants. Therefore, this study demonstrates that women with African haplogroups were introduced into the Guajajara population. Daniela Leite, Alysson Leitão, Ana Paula Schaan, Anderson N. R. Marinho, Sheila Souza, Claudia Rodrigues-Carvalho, Francisca Cardoso, and Ândrea Ribeiro-dos-Santos Copyright © 2014 Daniela Leite et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Birth Attendants and Policy Ambivalence in Zimbabwe Wed, 07 May 2014 08:58:07 +0000 This paper analyses the importance of the services rendered by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to pregnant women in Zimbabwe. It argues that, though an integral part of the health system, the ambivalence in terms of policy on the part of the government leaves them in a predicament. Sociocultural values as well as tradition imbue TBAs power and authority to manage pregnancies and assist in child deliveries. On the other hand, government policies expounded through the Ministry of Health (MoH) programs and policies appear to be relegating them to the fringes of healthcare provision. However, in a country with a failing health system characterized by mass exodus of qualified personnel, availability of drugs, and understaffing of healthcare centres, among others, TBAs remain the lifeline for many women in the country. Instead of sidelining them in healthcare interventions, I argue that their integration, however, problematic and often noted to be with disastrous consequences for traditional medicine, presents the sole viable solution towards achieving MDGs 4 and 5. The government and MoH should capitalize on the availability of and standing working relations of TBAs with the grassroots for better/positive maternal health outcomes. In a country reeling with high maternal deaths, TBAs’ status and position in society make them the best intervention tools. Naume Zorodzai Choguya Copyright © 2014 Naume Zorodzai Choguya. All rights reserved. Sexual Dimorphism in Blood Pressure and Hypertension among Adult Parengi Porjas of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India Thu, 10 Apr 2014 07:03:03 +0000 The present study investigated blood pressure levels as well as the prevalence of hypertension among adult Parengi Porja tribals of village Munchingput Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was used to collect data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse rate. A total of 137 adults (100 males and 37 females) were measured and classified into three age groups, that is, Gr-I: 23 to 32 years, Gr-II: 33 to 42 years, and Gr-III: ≥ 43 years. Negative significant sex difference in SBP among age group I (; ) was observed. Positive significant sex difference in DBP among age group I (; ) was also observed. Significant age group difference was noticed for SBP (; ) among males. Based on SBP, the prevalence of prehypertension and stage I hypertension in males was 25.0% and 5.0%, respectively. Similarly, in females the prevalence of prehypertension and stage I hypertension based on SBP was 32.4% and 5.4%, respectively. On the basis of DBP, the prevalence of stage I hypertension in males was 5.0%. Similarly, in females, the prevalence of stage I hypertension based on DBP was 5.4%. Our results suggest that females of this ethnic group were more prone to have prehypertension and stage I hypertension than males. I. Arjun Rao, Adimoolam Chandrasekhar, Venugopal N. Pulamaghatta, Subal Das, and Kaushik Bose Copyright © 2014 I. Arjun Rao et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Adult Knee Height, Age at First Birth, Migration, and Current Age on Adult Physical Function of Bangladeshi Mothers and Daughters in the United Kingdom and Bangladesh Mon, 07 Apr 2014 16:38:36 +0000 In the United Kingdom, Bangladeshi women have the lowest self-reported levels of physical activity and some of the highest levels of metabolic disease of all ethnic groups. To better understand these risks for poor health we employed life course and intergenerational hypotheses to predict lower body physical function in a sample of 121 Bangladeshi mothers (40–70 years old) and one of their adult daughters (17–36 years old) living in Bangladesh or in the UK. For the mothers, older age and shorter knee height predicted reduced lower body physical function. Knee height is a biomarker of nutrition and health status between birth and puberty. Age at first birth did not have a significant effect. For daughters, older age and migration to the UK predicted reduced lower body physical function. We controlled for total stature and fatness in all analyses. UK-born daughters were taller than BD-born daughters living in the UK, mostly due to differences in knee height. These new findings support previous research indicating that early life health and adequate nutritional status, along with appropriate adult physical activity and diet, may decrease risks for poor physical function, morbidity, and premature mortality. Barry Bogin, Diane Harper, Joy Merrell, Jasmin Chowdhury, Michael Heinrich, Vanja Garaj, Bablin Molik, and Janice L. Thompson Copyright © 2014 Barry Bogin et al. All rights reserved. Violence and Warfare in Precontact Melanesia Thu, 13 Mar 2014 08:36:08 +0000 Levels of interpersonal violence and warfare for 30 Melanesian societies at the time of contact with Europeans are estimated based on ethnographic and historical records. While violence was common in indigenous Melanesia, it was not ubiquitous and some societies experienced extended periods of internal and external peace. Interpersonal violence and warfare were correlated-when one occurred there was a high probability of finding the other. Violence was not dependent on total population. It was, however, higher for population density greater than 50 persons per square kilometer. Violence in Melanesia may have been stimulated by the large number of relatively small polities, many of which competed with one another for prestige and, in some cases, land. Stephen M. Younger Copyright © 2014 Stephen M. Younger. All rights reserved. Women’s Perception of Reproductive Illness in Manipur, India Mon, 10 Mar 2014 13:08:55 +0000 Perception of reproductive illness by the women themselves is important in understanding the women's reproductive health in a particular society. It also indicates the possibility of taking perception as a tool for measuring reproductive illness. Though women do not have a “germ theory” to explain their reproductive illness they have a sense of illness pathology. Reproductive illness perceived by women is related to physical symptoms and situations in a network of meanings and different meanings are socially generated to articulate their experiences. Pebam Krishnakumari, P. C. Joshi, M. C. Arun Kumar, and M. Meghachandra Singh Copyright © 2014 Pebam Krishnakumari et al. All rights reserved. The Cubit: A History and Measurement Commentary Thu, 30 Jan 2014 08:03:18 +0000 Historical dimensions for the cubit are provided by scripture and pyramid documentation. Additional dimensions from the Middle East are found in other early documents. Two major dimensions emerge from a history of the cubit. The first is the anthropological or short cubit, and the second is the architectual or long cubit. The wide geographical area and long chronological period suggest that cubit dimensions varied over time and geographic area. Greek and Roman conquests led to standardization. More recent dimensions are provided from a study by Francis Galton based upon his investigations into anthropometry. The subjects for Galton’s study and those of several other investigators lacked adequate sample descriptions for producing a satisfactory cubit/forearm dimension. This finding is not surprising given the demise of the cubit in today’s world. Contemporary dimensions from military and civilian anthropometry for the forearm and hand allow comparison to the ancient unit. Although there appears no pressing need for a forearm-hand/cubit dimension, the half-yard or half-meter unit seems a useful one that could see more application. Mark H. Stone Copyright © 2014 Mark H. Stone. All rights reserved. Health: Cognition and Threshold among the Oraon Tea Garden Labourers of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal Mon, 30 Dec 2013 15:05:09 +0000 There is scarcity of health information in many subpopulations in India, which needs to be explored for formulating effective public health policy. Studies on the tea garden population revealed that poor socioeconomic conditions, ignorance due to illiteracy, culture and food habit, overcrowding, and unhygienic living conditions make the population vulnerable to various communicable and noncommunicable diseases and malnutrition. Data were collected from the labourers of Birpara and Dalgaon tea gardens of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal. The objective was to identify the primary health care available vis-à-vis the health problems. The results were based on mortality data, subjective well-being, frequency of ailment symptoms, perceived health status, and selected health practices as well as some observations, which indicate their cognition and threshold regarding health problems, presented as case studies. Mortality rates were high in the population; comparative mortality data shows no considerable change in mortality rate over time and space. A very high frequency of anaemia was prevalent among females along with sore throat and abdominal pain. Perceived health status of most of the people was good, although that was not always true, because the perception of the people often depends on their threshold and cognition about health and disease. Subrata K. Roy, Sujata Kar Chakraborty, and Arupendra Mozumdar Copyright © 2013 Subrata K. Roy et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Selected Health Traits between Occupational Groups among Oraons of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal Thu, 26 Dec 2013 09:19:07 +0000 Occupational health deals with diseases or injuries caused due to work. Different types of work cause different types of ill-effect on health and may cause changes in health traits; empirical studies on the issues are scanty. The present study aims to investigate the differences in selected health traits between two occupational groups of the same ethnic origin. Cross-sectional data collected on 357 adult Oraon labourers engaged in two different occupations, namely, agriculture and brickfield in Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, of which are 62 male and 43 female agricultural labourers and 136 male and 116 female brickfield labourers. Data consists of anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and haemoglobin traits. Health status assessed in terms of BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and haemoglobin level following standard cut-off values. Mean values of both the occupational groups show similar trends in case of selected anthropometric and health traits. Individuals are ecto-mesomorphic irrespective of sex and occupation. Majority of individuals of either sex of both the occupational groups are underweight but hypertensive. In anthropological data, the trend of mean values is important than mere statistical significance. Data indicates that both the occupational groups have similar health condition, maybe due to their heavy manual activity. Subrata K. Roy and Tanaya Kundu Chowdhury Copyright © 2013 Subrata K. Roy and Tanaya Kundu Chowdhury. All rights reserved. An Exploratory Study of Male Adolescent Sexuality in Zimbabwe: The Case of Adolescents in Kuwadzana Extension, Harare Thu, 07 Nov 2013 13:03:47 +0000 Although young people in Zimbabwe are becoming sexually active at a very early age, there is no unified body of knowledge on how they regard sex and construct sexuality and relationships. In many circumstances adolescence sexual agency is denied and silenced. This study explored adolescents’ discourses on sexuality, factors affecting adolescent sexuality, and sexual health. Fusing a social constructionist standpoint and an active view of agency, we argue that the way male adolescents perceive and experience sexuality and construct sexual identities is mediated by the sociocultural context in which they live in and their own agency. Although adolescents are mistakenly regarded as sexual innocents by society, we argue that male adolescents are active social agents in constructing their own sexual realities and identities. At the same time, dominant structural and interactional factors have a bearing on how male adolescents experience and generate sexuality. Sandra Bhatasara, Tafadzwa Chevo, and Talent Changadeya Copyright © 2013 Sandra Bhatasara et al. All rights reserved. New Data on Food Consumption in Pre-Hispanic Populations from Northwest Argentina (ca. 1000–1550 A.D.): The Contribution of Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Human Bones Thu, 31 Oct 2013 15:13:49 +0000 We present data on carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of human bones from Tolombón (Calchaqui Valley, Salta) and Esquina de Huajra (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy) sites located in Northwest Argentina (NWA). Both are complex archaeological residential settlements ascribed to the Regional Development Period (ca. 900–1430 A.D.), the Inca Period (ca. 1430–1536 A.D.), and the Early Colonial Period (ca. 1536–1600 A.D.). Twelve samples of human bones were collected and analyzed, including remains from individuals of both sexes and different ages at death. We also present the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of modern plants from nearby areas in order to start building an isotopic ecology of the area and compile available information on food consumption from different lines of evidence. The isotopic results obtained reveal the consumption of C4 plants, which for the area are maize and amaranth, combined with animal proteins. The integration of these results with the broader database was useful to discuss the political and economical implications of the findings, especially in the context of this area under the Inca domination. María Soledad Gheggi and Verónica Isabel Williams Copyright © 2013 María Soledad Gheggi and Verónica Isabel Williams. All rights reserved. Craniofacial Anthropometric Profile of Adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma Females Thu, 26 Sep 2013 09:02:29 +0000 The present descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study was designed to establish the baseline measurements of the craniofacial anthropometrical parameters and indices of 100 adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma females aged between 25 and 45 years, residing at different locations of Chittagong and Rangamati cities. A total of ten craniofacial variables were measured using physical and photographic procedures. Craniofacial indices were calculated from those craniofacial variables. The craniofacial indices showed that Chakma females are mostly hyperbrachycephalic, hypereuryprosopic, and mesorrhine, with intermediate eyes and long narrow ears. Asma Mostafa, Laila Anjuman Banu, Fashiur Rahman, and Sudip Paul Copyright © 2013 Asma Mostafa et al. All rights reserved. Nutritional Taboos among the Fullas in Upper River Region, The Gambia Mon, 12 Aug 2013 13:46:50 +0000 Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality of children in the world. In The Gambia, malnutrition is one of the major public health problems. Among the factors determining its high prevalence, cultural norms play a crucial role. Food taboos influence the amount, frequency, and quality of nutrients that mothers and children consume. In this qualitative study carried out in the Upper River Region, The Gambia, seventeen mothers whose ethnic affiliation is Fulla were interviewed. The objective was to describe their food taboos and how they influence their nutritional health. The findings of this study demonstrate that some of the taboos practiced by the Fulla may be regarded as contributing factors to protein-energy malnutrition in children and pregnant and lactating women. The findings will inform the design of future health education strategies targeting malnutrition in this specific cultural context. Guillermo Martínez Pérez and Anna Pascual García Copyright © 2013 Guillermo Martínez Pérez and Anna Pascual García. All rights reserved.