- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 132073, 8 pages
Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context
1Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1430 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1575, USA
2School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1350 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Received 20 February 2011; Accepted 10 May 2011
Academic Editor: Bo A. Hagberg
Copyright © 2011 Li Yao and Stephanie A. Robert. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. A. Hummer, M. R. Benjamins, and R. G. Rogers, “Racial and ethnic disparities in health and mortality amony the U.S. elderly population,” in Critical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life, N. B. Anderson, R. A. Bulatao, B. Cohen, and National Research Council (U.S.), Eds., pp. 53–94, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C, USA, 2004.
- D. R. Williams and P. B. Jackson, “Social sources of racial disparities in health,” Health Affairs, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 325–334, 2005.
- L. Berkman, B. Singer, and K. Manton, “Black/white differences in health status and mortality among the elderly,” Demography, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 661–678, 1989.
- R. A. Hummer, “Black-white differences in health and mortality: a review and conceptual model,” Sociological Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 105–125, 1996.
- J. J. Sudano and D. W. Baker, “Explaining US racial/ethnic disparities in health declines and mortality in late middle age: the roles of socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health insurance,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 909–922, 2006.
- X. L. Du, S. Fang, S. W. Vernon et al., “Racial disparities and socioeconomic status in association with survival in a large population-based cohort of elderly patients with colon cancer,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 660–669, 2007.
- L. Franzini, A. Williams, J. Franklin, S. Singletary, and R. Theriault, “Effects of race and socioeconomic status on survival of 1,332 black, hispanic, and white women with breast cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 1997.
- P. Sorlie, E. Rogot, R. Anderson, N. J. Johnson, and E. Backlund, “Black-white mortality differences by family income,” The Lancet, vol. 340, no. 8815, pp. 346–350, 1992.
- K. A. Cagney, C. R. Browning, and M. Wen, “Racial disparities in self-rated health at older ages: what difference does the neighborhood make?” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. S181–S190, 2005.
- S. A. Robert and E. Ruel, “Racial segregation and health disparities between black and white older adults,” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. S203–S211, 2006.
- Y. Li and S. A. Robert, “The contributions of race, individual socioeconomic status, and neighborhood socioeconomic context on the self-rated health trajectories and mortality of older adults,” Research on Aging, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 251–273, 2008.
- F. B. LeClere, R. G. Rogers, and K. Peters, “Neighborhood Social Context and Racial Differences in Women's Heart Disease Mortality,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 91–107, 1998.
- M. A. Winkleby and C. Cubbin, “Influence of individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status on mortality among black, Mexican-American, and white women and men in the United States,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 444–452, 2003.
- A. T. Geronimus, “To mitigate, resist, or undo: addressing structural influences on the health of urban populations,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 867–872, 2000.
- R. J. Sampson, S. W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls, “Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5328, pp. 918–924, 1997.
- R. J. Sampson, J. D. Morenoff, and T. Gannon-Rowley, “Assessing neighborhood effects: social processes and new directions in research,” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 28, pp. 443–478, 2002.
- B. Chaix, L. Maria, L. John, and M. Juan, “Disentangling contextual effects on cause-specific mortality in a longitudinal 23-year follow-up study: impact of population density or socioeconomic environment?” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 633–643, 2006.
- B. Chaix, M. Rosvall, and J. Merlo, “Assessment of the magnitude of geographical variations and socioeconomic contextual effects on ischaemic heart disease mortality: a multilevel survival analysis of a large Swedish cohort,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 349–355, 2007.
- B. Chaix, M. Rosvall, and J. Merlo, “Recent increase of neighborhood socioeconomic effects on ischemic heart disease mortality: a multilevel survival analysis of two large Swedish cohorts,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2007.
- M. Wen and N. A. Christakis, “Neighborhood effects on posthospitalization mortality: a population-based cohort study of the elderly in Chicago,” Health Services Research, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1108–1127, 2005.
- R. T. Anderson, P. Sorlie, E. Backlund, N. Johnson, and G. A. Kaplan, “Mortality effects of community socioeconomic status,” Epidemiology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 1997.
- R. G. Wight, J. R. Cummings, A. S. Karlamangla, and C. S. Aneshensel, “Urban neighborhood context and mortality in late life,” Journal of Aging and Health, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 197–218, 2010.
- F. B. LeClere, R. G. Rogers, and K. D. Peters, “Ethnicity and Mortality in the United States: individual and Community Correlates,” Social Forces, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 169–198, 1997.
- S. A. Bond Huie, R. A. Hummer, and R. G. Rogers, “Individual and contextual risks of death among race and ethnic groups in the United States,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 359–381, 2002.
- M. C. Corti, J. M. Guralnik, L. Ferrucci et al., “Evidence for a Black-White crossover in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in an older population: the North Carolina EPESE,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 308–314, 1999.
- N. E. Johnson, “The racial crossover in comorbidity, disability, and mortality,” Demography, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 267–283, 2000.
- S. M. Lynch, J. S. Brown, and K. G. Harmsen, “Black-white differences in mortality compression and deceleration and the mortality crossover reconsidered,” Research on Aging, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 456–483, 2003.
- E. J. Nan, “The racial crossover in comorbidity, disability, and mortality,” Demography, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 267–283, 2000.
- K. G. Manton, S. S. Poss, and S. Wing, “The black/white mortality crossover: investigation from the perspective of the components of aging,” The Gerontologist, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 291–300, 1979.
- S. Wing, K. G. Manton, E. Stallard, C. G. Hames, and H. A. Tryoler, “The black/white mortality crossover: investigation in a community-based study,” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 1985.
- A. M. O'Rand and J. Hamil-Luker, “Processes of cumulative adversity: childhood disadvantage and increased risk of heart attack across the life course,” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 60, pp. 117–124, 2005.
- K. F. Ferraro and M. M. Farmer, “Double jeopardy to health hypothesis for african Americans: analysis and critique,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 27–43, 1996.
- J. S. House, P. M. Lantz, and P. Herd, “Continuity and change in the social stratification of aging and health over the life course: evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal study from 1986 to 2001/2002 (Americans' Changing Lives Study),” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 60, pp. 15–26, 2005.
- M. C. Corti, J. M. Guralnik, L. Ferrucci et al., “Evidence for a black-white crossover in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in an older population: the North Carolina EPESE,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 308–314, 1999.
- I. T. Elo and S. H. Preston, “Racial and ethinic differences in mortality at older ages,” in Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Health of Oder Americans, L. G. Martin and B. J. Soldo, Eds., pp. 10–40, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C, USA, 2004.
- L. Xiang, K. K. W. Yau, S. K. Tse, and A. H. Lee, “Influence diagnostics for random effect survival models: application to a recurrent infection study for kidney patients on portable dialysis,” Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 5977–5993, 2007.
- D. A. Freedman, “On the so-called “Huber Sandwich Estimator” and “robust standard errors”,” American Statistician, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 299–302, 2006.
- P. J. Kelly, “A review of software packages for analyzing correlated survival data,” American Statistician, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 337–342, 2004.
- H. Bosma, H. Dike van de Mheen, G. J. J. M. Borsboom, and J. P. Mackenbach, “Neighborhood socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 153, no. 4, pp. 363–371, 2001.
- L. L. Roos, J. Magoon, S. Gupta, D. Chateau, and P. J. Veugelers, “Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in two Canadian provinces: multilevel modelling and neighborhood context,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 1435–1447, 2004.
- O. Dejardin, L. Remontet, A. M. Bouvier et al., “Socioeconomic and geographic determinants of survival of patients with digestive cancer in France,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 944–949, 2006.
- C. Marinacci, T. Spadea, A. Biggeri, M. Demaria, A. Caiazzo, and G. Costa, “The role of individual and contextual socioeconomic circumstances on mortality: analysis of time variations in a city of north west Italy,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 199–207, 2004.
- P. M. Krueger, S. A. Bond Huie, R. G. Rogers, and R. A. Hummer, “Neighbourhoods and homicide mortality: an analysis of race/ethnic differences,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 223–230, 2004.
- M. E. Dupre, A. T. Franzese, and E. A. Parrado, “Religious attendance and mortality: implications for the black-white mortality crossover,” Demography, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 141–164, 2006.
- S. H. Preston, I. T. Elo, I. Rosenwaike, and M. Hill, “African-American mortality at older ages: results of a matching study,” Demography, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 193–209, 1996.
- J. P. Klein and M. L. Moeschberger, Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2003.
- P. D. Allison, Survival Analysis Using the SAS System: A Practical Guide, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, 1995.
- V. S. Pankratz, M. de Andrade, and T. M. Therneau, “Random-effects cox proportional hazards model: general variance components methods for time-to-event data,” Genetic Epidemiology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 97–109, 2005.
- V. S. Pankratz, M. De Andrade, and T. M. Therneau, “Random-effects cox proportional hazards model: general variance components methods for time-to-event data,” Genetic Epidemiology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 97–109, 2005.
- F. X. Florin Vaida, “Proportional hazards model with random effects,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 3309–3324, 2000.
- R. H. Xu, “Proportional hazards mixed models: a review with applications to twin models,” Methodoloski Zvezki, vol. 1, pp. 205–212, 2004.
- S. Rabe-Hesketh, S. Yang, and A. Pickles, “Multilevel models for censored and latent responses,” Statistical Methods in Medical Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 409–427, 2001.
- T. M. Therneau and P. M. Grambsch, Penalized Cox Modles and Frailty, 1998.
- T. M. Therneau and P. M. Grambsch, Modeling Survival Data : Extending the Cox Model, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
- P. McDonough and P. Berglund, “Histories of poverty and self-rated health trajectories,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 198–214, 2003.
- G. H. Elder, M. K. Johnson, and R. Crosnoe, “The emergence and development of the life course theory,” in Handbook of the Life Course, J. T. Mortimer and M. J. Shanahan, Eds., Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 2003.
- T. R. Holford, “Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 12, pp. 425–457, 1991.