Table 1: Comparison of cognitive, posture, balance and sensorimotor status of ED and CG.

VariablesED(Range)CG(Range) -score valueEffect size

Age (years) (66–77) (6194) −0.345 0.730
Female (%) 54.55 78.94 0.121
Education-level (schoolyears) (8–12) (613) −0.696 0.486
Everyday competence (ECQ) (9.13–12.28) (5.0412.59) −2.996 0.0031.34
Cognition
 RSPM1 (15–23.5) (728) −2.776 0.0061.04
 Geriatric-concentration-test (AKT) (51.30–55) (4755) −4.997 ≤0.0010.21
Reaction times
 Multiple choice reaction times (ms), L (541.75–795.84) (581.011081.17) −2.294 0.0221.03
 Multiple choice reaction times (ms), R (551.69–745.10) (580.511012.44) −2.195 0.0281.02
Posture&balance
 Romberg test (s), eyes open (60–60) (7.2260) −3.951 ≤0.0013.36
 Romberg test (s), eyes closed (7.22–60) (242) −1.250 0.2110.38
 Standing-turn (steps) (2–8) (38) −1.765 0.0780.78
 Standing-turn (s) (1–4) (1.775.09) −2.815 0.0051.28
 Up&go (s) (4–6) (5.548.54) −3.819 ≤0.0013.02
Motor Performance
Hand-arm steadiness
  Steadiness (error), L (3–61) (054) −0.394 0.6940.07
  Steadiness (error), R (3–45) (071) −1.475 0.1400.17
Control Precision
  Aiming (error), L (0–3) (05) −1.584 0.1130.26
  Aiming (error), R (0–2) (06) −2.808 0.0051.18
  Aiming (s), L (6.81–15.75) (7.1918.37) −0.760 0.4470.30
  Aiming (s), R (6.50–12.26) (7.9617.11) −1.889 0.0590.71
  Pin plugging (s), L (42.92–90.92) (37.6462.45) −0.086 0.9320.49
  Pin plugging (s), R (35.59–51.56) (3764.64) −2.343 0.0190.87
Rate of wrist movement
  Tapping (hits), L (134–202) (102207) −1.902 0.0570.73
  Tapping (hits), R (134–215) (107230) −0.748 0.4540.16
Tactile performance
  Touch-threshold (mN), LID (0.12–0.56) (0.080.54) −0.775 0.4380.08
  Touch-threshold (mN), RID (0.12–0.95) (0.080.94) −1.035 0.3010.09
  2-Point-discrimination-threshold (mm), LID (1.90–3.67) (2.204.64) −2.515 0.0120.96
  2-Point-discrimination-threshold (mm), RID (1.86–4.55) (2.894.58) −2.434 0.0150.92

ED: expert dancer, CG: control group; L: left hand, R: right hand; LID: left index finger, RID: right index finger.
Values are means, SEM.
1Raven Standard Progressive Matrices, subset of 30 items.