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Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 280727, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/280727
Research Article

Comparing the Support-Efficacy Model among Centenarians Living in Private Homes, Assisted Living Facilities, and Nursing Homes

1Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61625, USA
2Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3School of Family Studies and Human Services, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
4Human Development and Family Science Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
5Institute of Gerontology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA

Received 10 February 2011; Accepted 26 April 2011

Academic Editor: Bo A. Hagberg

Copyright © 2011 G. Kevin Randall et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated the influence of social relations on health outcomes in very late life by examining the support-efficacy convoy model among older adults who resided in three different residential environments (centenarians in private homes, 𝑛 = 1 2 6 ; centenarians in assisted living facilities, 𝑛 = 5 5 ; centenarians in nursing homes, 𝑛 = 1 0 5 ). For each group, path analytic models were employed to test our hypotheses; analyses controlled for sex, mental status, education, perceived economic sufficiency, and activities of daily living. The hypothesized relationships among the models' variables were unique to each of the three groups; three different models fit the data depending upon residential environment. The direct and indirect effects of social relations assessments were positive for the mental and physical health of very old adults, suggesting that participants welcomed the support. However, residential status moderated the associations between the assessments of social relations, self-efficacy, and both outcomes, physical and mental health.