About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 371039, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/371039
Research Article

Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians

1Equipe Démographie et Santé, INSERM, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Parc Euromédecine, U710, 34 298 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
2Fondation Nationale de Gérontologie, 49 rue Mirabeau, 75015 Paris, France
3Department of Human Welfare, Okinawa International University, 2-6-1 Ginowan City, Okinawa 901-2701, Japan
4INSERM, U988 Site CNRS, rue Guy Môquet, 94801 Villejuif Cedex, France

Received 27 February 2011; Revised 1 May 2011; Accepted 10 August 2011

Academic Editor: Leonard W. Poon

Copyright © 2011 Frédéric Balard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Allard and J.-M. Robine, Les Centenaires Français, Serdi, Paris, France, 2000.
  2. B. Jeune, A. Skytthe, A. Cournil et al., “Handgrip strength among nonagenarians and centenarians in three European regions,” Journals of Gerontology, Series A, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 707–712, 2006.
  3. S. Katz, T. Downs, H. Cash, and R. Grotz, “Index of activities of daily living,” The Gerontologist, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 301, 1970.
  4. T. Mura, J.-F. Dartigues, and C. Berr, “How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010–2050,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 252–259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. J.-C. Kaufmann, L’enquête et ses Méthodes, L’entretien Compréhensif, Armand Colin, Paris, France, 2007.
  6. F. Balard, Les Plus Âgés des Âgés, Une Culture Vivante aux Portes de la Mort, Editions Universitaires Européennes, Sarrebruck, Germany, 2010.
  7. B. G. Glaser and A. Strauss, Discovery of Grounded Theory. Strategies for Qualitative Research, Transaction, Aldine, Tex, USA, 1967.
  8. K. Charmaz, “Qualitative interviewing and grounded theory analysis,” in Handbook of Interview Research, Context and Method, J. F. Gubrium and J. A. Holstein, Eds., pp. 675–695, Sage, London, UK, 2001.
  9. J. M. Johnson, “In-depth interviewing,” in Handbook of Interview Research, Context and Method, J. Gubrium and J. A. Holstein, Eds., pp. 103–121, Sage, London, UK, 2001.
  10. J. Poirier, Récits de Vie, Théorie et Pratique, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, France, 1983.
  11. P. Bourdieu, Le Sens Pratique, Editions de minuit, Paris, France, 1980.
  12. H. J. Rubin and I. S. Rubin, Qualitative Interviewing. The Art of Hearing Data, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1995.
  13. C. Warren, “Qualitative interviewing,” in Handbook of Interview Research, Context and Method, J. Gubrium and J. Holstein, Eds., pp. 83–103, Sage, London, UK, 2001.
  14. E. Goffman, “On fieldwork,” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, vol. 18, pp. 123–132, 1989.
  15. F. Laplantine, Anthropologie de la Maladie, Payot, Paris, France, 1993.
  16. J. A. Holstein and J. F. Gubrium, “Interpretive practice,” in The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, Y. S. Lincoln, Ed., pp. 483–506, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2005.
  17. J. Keith, C. L. Fry, A. P. Glascock, C. Ikels, J. Dickerson-Putman, and H. C. Hadening, The Aging Experience: Diversity and Commonality across Cultures, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1994.
  18. C. L. Fry, J. Dickerson-Putman, P. Draper, C. Ikels, J. Keith, and A. P. Glascock, “Culture and the meaning of a good old age,” in The Cultural Context of Aging: Worldwide Perspectives, J. Sokolovsky, Ed., pp. 99–123, Bergin and Garvey, London, UK, 1997.
  19. J. Sokolovsky, “Culture, aging and context,” in The Cultural Context of Aging: Worldwide Perspectives, J. Sokolovsky, Ed., pp. 1–15, Bergin and Garvey, London, UK, 1997.
  20. M. Singleton, “Devenir vieux—ailleurs et autrement,” in Proceedings of the Vivre et Soigner La Vieillesse Dans Le Monde Conference, Genova, Italy, 2003.
  21. N. S. Consedine, C. Magai, and F. Conway, “Predicting ethnic variation in adaptation to later life: styles of socioemotional functioning and constrained heterotypy,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 97–131, 2004.
  22. D. C. Willcox, B. J. Willcox, J. Sokolovsky, and S. Sakihara, “The cultural context of "successful aging" among older women weavers in a Northern Okinawan village: The role of productive activity,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 137–165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. L. P. Fried, L. Ferrucci, J. Darer, J. D. Williamson, and G. Anderson, “Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: implications for improved targeting and care,” Journals of Gerontology, Series A, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 255–263, 2004.
  24. G. Mauger, “La théorie des générations de K. Mannheim et la théorie de l'habitus,” Annales de Vaucresson, vol. 30-31, pp. 59–78, 1989.
  25. K. Mannheim, Le Problème Des Générations, Nathan, Paris, France, 1928.
  26. F. Mentré, Les Générations Sociales, Thèse, Bossard, Paris, France, 1920.
  27. W. Diltey, Le Monde de L'esprit, Histoire des Sciences Humaines, vol. 1, Aubier-Montaigne, Paris, France, 1942.
  28. L. Fèbvre, La Terre et L'Évolution Humaine, Albin Michel, Paris, France, 1922.
  29. E. Panofsky, Architecture Gothique et Pensée Scolastique, Editions de Minuit, Paris, France, 1951.
  30. M. Segalen, Mari et Femme dans la Société Paysanne, Flammarion, Paris, France, 1980.
  31. D. Guttman, Reclaimed Power, Men and Women in Later Life, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, Ill, USA, 1994.
  32. T. S. Lebra, “The dilemma and strategies of aging among contemporary Japanese women,” Ethnology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 337–353, 1979.
  33. S. B. Ortner, “Is female to male as nature is to culture?” in Women, Culture, and Society, M. Z. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere, Eds., pp. 73–83, Stanford University Press, 1974.
  34. F. Bikoma, Socialisation de la Femme Accomplie chez les Ndzebi du Gabon, Ph.D. Thesis, Université Montpellier III, Montpellier, France, 2004.
  35. J. Dickerson-Putman and K. J. Brown, Women among Women: Anthropological Perspectives on Female Age Hierarchies, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill, USA, 1998.
  36. V. Kerns and K. L. Brown, In Her Prime: New Views of Middle-Aged Women, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill, USA, 1991.
  37. J.-F. Bickel, “Etre actif dans le grand âge: un plus pour le bien être?” Retraite et Société, vol. 52, pp. 84–108, 2007.
  38. J. Evert, E. Lawler, H. Bogan, and T. Perls, “Morbidity profiles of centenarians: survivors, delayers, and escapers,” Journals of Gerontology, Series A, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 232–237, 2003.
  39. J. Andrian, “Le suicide des personnes âgées,” Gérontologie et Sociétés, vol. 90, pp. 49–69, 1999.
  40. L. K. George and E. C. Klipp, “Subjective components of aging well: researchers need to consider,” Generations, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–60, 1991.
  41. A. Desesquelles and N. Brouard, “Le réseau familial des personnes âgées de 60 ans ou plus vivant à domicile ou en institution,” Revue Population, vol. 58, pp. 201–209, 2003.
  42. B. M. Barer, “Men and women aging differently,” International Journal of Aging and Human Development, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 29–40, 1994.
  43. C. Franceschi, L. Motta, S. Valensin et al., “Do men and women follow different trajectories to reach extreme longevity? Italian Multicenter Study on Centenarians (IMUSCE),” Aging, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 77–84, 2000.
  44. K. L. Moore and T. V. N. Persaud, “The beginning of human development,” in The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, K. L. Moore and T. V. N. Persaud, Eds., pp. 14–39, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1998.
  45. G. H. Miller, “Is the longevity gender gap decreasing?” New York State Journal of Medicine, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 59–60, 1986.
  46. D. W. E. Smith, “Is greater female longevity a general finding among animals?” Biological Reviews, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1989.
  47. A. B. Newman and J. S. Brach, “Gender gap in longevity and disability in older persons,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 343–350, 2001.
  48. K. R. Boucot, “Wanted: more men to live longer,” Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 611–612, 1965.
  49. J. E. Wallace, “Gender differences in beliefs of why women live longer than men,” Psychological Reports, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 587–591, 1996.
  50. W. H. Courtenay, “Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1385–1401, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. A. Oksuzyan, K. Juel, J. W. Vaupel, and K. Christensen, “Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging,” Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 91–102, 2008.
  52. J. Viña, J. Sastre, F. Pallardó, and C. Borrás, “Mitochondrial theory of aging: importance to explain why females live longer than males,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 549–556, 2003.
  53. A. Benetos, K. Okuda, M. Lajemi et al., “Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: the gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 381–385, 2001.
  54. S. Brouilette, R. K. Singh, J. R. Thompson, A. H. Goodall, and N. J. Samani, “White cell telomere length and risk of premature myocardial infarction,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 842–846, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  55. J. M. Y. Wong and K. Collins, “Telomere maintenance and disease,” Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9388, pp. 983–988, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  56. C. Franceschi and N. Fabris, “Human longevity: the gender difference,” Aging, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 333–336, 1993.
  57. R. Stindl, “Tying it all together: Telomeres, sexual size dimorphism and the gender gap in life expectancy,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 151–154, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. S. Seely, “The gender gap: why do women live longer than men?” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 113–119, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. L. Cool, “Role continuity or crisis in later life? A Corsican case,” The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 169–181, 1981.
  60. P. J. Burke, “Identity processes and social stress,” American Sociological Review, vol. 56, pp. 836–849, 1991.
  61. F. Meslé, “Gender gap in life expectancy: the reasons for a reduction of female advantage,” Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 333–352, 2004.
  62. F. C. Pampel, “Cigarette use and the narrrowing sex differential in mortality,” Population and Development Review, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 77–104, 2002.