Table 1: Sample characteristics by age group.

Age 70–79Age 90–104 value
N (%)N (%)

Female2,374 (56.3)200 (69.6)<.000
Male1,813 (43.7)81 (30.4)
Race/ethnicity
 White3,332 (85.3)230 (86.5)n.s.
 Black510 (7.9)29 (6.8)
 Hispanic272 (4.9)19 (5.9)
 Other73 (1.9)3 (0.8)
Completed education
 Less than high school929 (21.9)92 (32.6)<.000
 High school1,662 (39.4)96 (33.6)
 College or more1,593 (38.7)93 (33.8)
Marital Status
 Married/partnered2,698 (61.1)49 (16.5)<.000
 Divorced/separated387 (10.2)7 (2.6)
 Widowed994 (25.7)222 (79.9)
 Never married108 (2.9)3 (0.9)
Lives alone1,053 (27.0)170 (59.1)<.000
Comorbiditiesn.s.
 0680 (16.7)36 (11.5)
 11,400 (33.2)94 (32.4)
 21,211 (28.6)95 (33.1)
 3623 (14.7)41 (17.4)
 4+273 (6.9)15 (5.7)
ADL limitations<.000
 03,478 (81.9)149 (49.7)
 1364 (8.9)58 (21.1)
 2160 (4.0)32 (11.3)
 388 (2.3)20 (7.9)
 4+97 (2.9)22 (10.0)

Total N

Note: Figures shown are weighted sample sizes with percentages in parentheses. values denoting statistical significance of age differences were obtained using Wald chi square tests.
ADLs: activities of daily limitations.