Table 1: Summary of studies in personality and longevity.

Personality dimensionSummary of findingsStrength of overall evidence

ConscientiousnessNumerous studies report reduced risk of all-cause mortality across diverse samplesStrong
OpennessFewer studies, but results suggest reduced risk of all-cause and possibly CVD mortalityModest
ExtraversionResults somewhat mixed, with findings of reduced, increased, and no mortality riskInconsistent
OptimismMany studies suggesting reduced risk for all-cause, cardiovascular, and in some cases cancer mortalityStrong
NeuroticismSome studies report increased, while other report decreased or no risk for all-cause and CVD mortalityInconsistent
ControlFewer studies, but findings tend to suggest reduced risk of all-cause mortalityModest
AgreeablenessFewer studies, with no few substantial effectsWeak
Hostility Many studies, finding increased risk for all-cause and CVD mortality, driven by interpersonal antagonism and angry emotionStrong
Type DModest number of studies in CVD populations, most finding increased CVD mortality riskStrong
SuppressionFewer studies, controversial interpretations of data, some studies suggest increased risk particularly for cancer mortality, others inconclusiveInconsistent