Table 2: Potential mediators of personality-longevity associations.

BehavioralBiological

Alcohol useCortisol, markers of HPA Axis function
Cigarette smoking and tobacco useEpinephrine/Norepinephrine, markers of SAM Axis Function
Physical activity and exerciseInflammatory Markers
BMIAdaptive Immune Markers (Natural Killer Cells, White Blood Cell Count)
Illicit drug use; abuse of prescription medicationsMarkers of oxidative stress
Specific eating habitsLipids and sclerotic activity
AccidentsNeurodegeneration associated with HPA axis dysregulation
Sexual risk behaviorMarkers of metabolic dysregulation such as insulin resistance
Health risk perception and evaluationGenetic Markers of Disease and Longevity
Health service useTelomere shortening and other markers of impaired genetic replication
Health care adherence; communication with health care providers; trust in health care delivery systemMechanisms of pain and somatic sensitivity
Sleep behavior; dental hygiene
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use
Health beliefs and somatic sensitivity
Recruitment of social support; informal help-seeking