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Figure 1: Mitochondria influence pathways to aging by operating at the intersection of biological and psychosocial factors. Biological and psychosocial factors dynamically/bidirectionally interact to influence mitochondrial content and function in the body’s tissues. The same factors can exert opposite effects on mitochondrial function, depending on the duration of exposure. For instance, acute stressors tend to upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function, whereas chronic stressors tend to downregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function (top center graph). Mitochondrial-level factors influence mitochondrial function and may determine mitochondrial responsivity to upstream biological and psychosocial influences. In response to multiple individual and environmental factors, mitochondria produce outputs influencing cellular function, gene expression, and cellular senescence. As a result, pathways to aging are ultimately determined by the integrated and synergistic influence of multiple biological and psychosocial factors.