- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 896109, 10 pages
Do Stress Trajectories Predict Mortality in Older Men? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study
1Human Development & Family Sciences, School of Social & Behavioral Health Sciences, College of Public Health & Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College School of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
3Normative Aging Study, VA Boston Healthcare System (151MAV), 150 South Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02130, USA
4Departments of Epidemiology and Psychiatry, Boston University Schools of Public Health and Medicine, 715 Albany Street T 3E, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Received 16 March 2011; Accepted 8 June 2011
Academic Editor: Leonard W. Poon
Copyright © 2011 Carolyn M. Aldwin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- C. Aldwin and D. Stokols, “The effects of environmental change on individuals and groups: some neglected issues in stress research,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 57–75, 1988.
- G. Elder and M. Shanahan, “The life course and human development,” in Handbook of Child Psychology, R. Lerner and W. Damon, Eds., vol. 1 of Theoretical Models of Human Development, pp. 665–715, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 6th edition, 2006.
- D. Dannefer, “What's in a name? An account of the neglect of variability in the study of aging,” in Emergent Theories of Aging, J. E. Birren and V. L. Bengtson, Eds., pp. 356–384, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
- B. S. McEwen, “Glucocorticoids, depression, and mood disorders: structural remodeling in the brain,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 20–23, 2005.
- E. J. Calabrese, “Paradigm lost, paradigm found: the re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 379–411, 2005.
- E. J. Calabrese, “What is hormesis?” in Mild Stress and Healthy Aging: Applying Hormesis in Aging Research and Interventions, E. Le Bourg and S. I. S. Rattan, Eds., pp. 5–20, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
- G. J. Lithgow, T. M. White, A. Melov, and T. E. Johnson, “Thermotolerance and extended life-span conferred by single-gene mutations and induced by thermal stress,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 92, no. 16, pp. 7540–7544, 1995.
- C. Aldwin, “The elders life stress inventory (ELSI): egocentric and nonegocentric stress,” in Stress and Coping in Late Life Families, M. A. P. Stephens, J. H. Crowther, S. E. Hobfoll, and D. L. Tennenbaum, Eds., Applied Psychology: Social Issues and Questions, pp. 49–69, Hemisphere, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
- C. Aldwin, “Does age affect the stress and coping process? The implications of age differences in perceived locus of control,” The Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 46, pp. 174–180, 1991.
- L. K. George and S. M. Lynch, “Race differences in depressive symptoms: a dynamic perspective on stress exposure and vulnerability,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 353–369, 2003.
- S. M. Lynch and L. K. George, “Interlocking trajectories of loss-related events and depressive symptoms among elders,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. S117–S125, 2002.
- D. A. Chiriboga, “Crisis, challenge, and stability in the middle years,” in Multiple Paths of Midlife Development, M. E. Lachman and J. B. James, Eds., pp. 293–343, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1997.
- L. A. Yancura, C. M. Aldwin, and A. Spiro III, “Does stress decrease with age? A longitudinal examination of stress in the normative aging study,” The Gerontologist, vol. 39, article 212, 1999.
- W. M. Ensel and N. Lin, “Distal stressors and the life stress process,” Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 66–82, 1996.
- W. M. Ensel and N. Lin, “Age, the stress process, and physical distress: the role of distal stressors,” Journal of Aging and Health, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 139–168, 2000.
- F. O. Lorenz, R. L. Simons, R. D. Conger, G. H. Elder Jr., C. Johnson, and W. Chao, “Married and recently divorced mothers' stressful events and distress: tracing change across time,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 219–232, 1997.
- S. Cohen, D. Janicki-Deverts, and G. Miller, “Psychological stress and disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 14, pp. 1685–1687, 2007.
- D. S. Krantz and M. K. McCeney, “Effects of psychological and social factors on organic disease: a critical assessment of research on coronary heart disease,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 53, pp. 341–369, 2002.
- S. Ramachandruni, E. Handberg, and D. S. Sheps, “Acute and chronic psychological stress in coronary disease,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 494–499, 2004.
- B. H. Singer and C. D. Ryff, Eds., New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
- P. M. Lantz, J. S. House, R. P. Mero, and D. R. Williams, “Stress, life events, and socioeconomic disparities in health: results from the Americans' changing lives study,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 274–288, 2005.
- A. Rosengren, K. Orth-Gomer, H. Wedel, and L. Wilhelmsen, “Stressful life events, social support, and mortality in men born in 1933,” British Medical Journal, vol. 307, no. 6912, pp. 1102–1105, 1993.
- A. C. Phillips, G. Der, and D. Carroll, “Stressful life-events exposure is associated with 17-year mortality, but it is health-related events that prove predictive,” British Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 647–657, 2008.
- E. Maunsell, J. Brisson, M. Mondor, R. Verreault, and L. Deschênes, “Stressful life events and survival after breast cancer,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 306–315, 2001.
- J. F. Hollis, J. E. Connett, V. J. Stevens, and M. R. Greenlick, “Stressful life events, type A behavior, and the prediction of cardiovascular and total mortality over six years,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 263–280, 1990.
- M. S. Kopp and J. Rethelyi, “Where psychology meets physiology: chronic stress and premature mortality—the Central-Eastern European health paradox,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 351–367, 2004.
- L. I. Pearlin, C. S. Aneshensel, J. T. Mullan, and C. J. Whitlatch, “Caregiving and its social support,” in Handbook of Aging and the Social Science, R. H. Binstock and L. K. George, Eds., pp. 283–302, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 4th edition, 1996.
- R. Schulz and S. R. Beach, “Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality: the caregiver health effects study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 23, pp. 2215–2219, 1999.
- L. Fredman, J. A. Cauley, M. Hochberg, K. E. Ensrud, and G. Doros, “Mortality associated with caregiving, general stress, and caregiving-related stress in elderly women: Results of caregiver-study of osteoporotic fractures,” in Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, vol. 58, pp. 937–943, 2010.
- B. S. McEwen and T. Seeman, “Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 896, pp. 30–47, 1999.
- R. Juster, B. S. McEwen, and S. J. Lupien, “Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 2–16, 2010.
- O. Gersten, W. D. Dow, and L. Rosero-Bixby, “Stressors over the life course and neuroendocrine system dysregulation in Costa Rica,” Journal of Aging and Health, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 748–771, 2010.
- L. A. Yancura, C. M. Aldwin, M. R. Levenson, and A. Spiro III, “Coping, affect, and the metabolic syndrome in older men: how does coping get under the skin?” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. P295–P303, 2006.
- E. Le Bourg and S. I. S. Rattan, “Hormesis and aging: what's the deal?” in Mild Stress and Healthy Aging: Applying Hormesis in Aging Research and Interventions, E. Le Bourg and S. I. S. Rattan, Eds., pp. 1–4, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
- A. M. Vaiserman, “Irradiation and hormesis,” in Mild stress and Healthy Aging: Applying Hormesis in Aging Research and Interventions, E. Le Bourg and S. I. S. Rattan, Eds., pp. 21–42, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
- C. Chiueh, T. Andoh, and P. B. Chock, “Induction of thioredoxin and mitochondrial survival proteins mediates preconditioning-induced cardioprotection and neuroprotection,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1042, pp. 403–418, 2005.
- D. Holzman, “Hormesis: fact or fiction?” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 13–16, 1995.
- R. A. Dienstbier, “Arousal and physiological toughness: implications for mental and physical health,” Psychological Review, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 84–100, 1989.
- L. Calhoun and R. Tedeschi, “The foundations of posttraumatic growth,” in The Handbook of Posttraumatic Growth: Research and Practice, L. Calhoun and R. Tedeschi, Eds., Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006.
- P. Schnurr, S. Rosenberg, and M. Friedman, “Change in MMPI scores from college to adulthood as a function of military service,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 288–296, 1993.
- S. E. Hobfoll, “Social and psychological resources and adaptation,” Review of General Psychology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 307–324, 2002.
- G. Vaillant, Aging Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life, Little-Brown, Boston, Mass, USA, 2002.
- B. L. Jones, D. S. Nagin, and K. Roeder, “A SAS procedure based on mixture models for estimating developmental trajectories,” Sociological Methods and Research, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 374–393, 2001.
- A. Spiro III and R. Bosse', “The Normative Aging Study,” in Encyclopedia of Aging, G. Maddox, Ed., pp. 744–746, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2001.
- C. Aldwin, M. R. Levenson, A. Spiro III, and R. Bossé, “Does emotionality predict stress? Findings from the normative aging study,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 618–624, 1989.
- J. E. Ware and C. D. Sherbourne, “The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection,” Medical Care, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 473–483, 1992.
- D. S. Nagin, “Analyzing developmental trajectories: a semiparametric, group-based approach,” Psychological Methods, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 139–157, 1999.
- D. Lambert, “Zero-inflated poisson regression, with an application to defects in manufacturing,” Technometrics, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1992.
- Q. Vuong, “Likelihood ratio tests for model selection and non-nested hypotheses,” Econometrica, vol. 57, pp. 307–333, 1989.
- G. Schwartz, “Estimating the dimension of a model,” The Annals of Statistics, vol. 6, pp. 461–464, 1978.
- R. E. Kass and L. Wasserman, “A reference Bayesian test for nested hypotheses and its relationship to the Schwarz criterion,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 90, pp. 928–934, 1995.
- A. V. D'Unger, K. C. Land, P. L. McCall, and D. S. Nagin, “How many latent classes of delinquent/criminal careers? Results from mixed Poisson regression analyses of the London, Philadelphia, and Racine Cohorts studies,” The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 103, pp. 1593–1630, 1998.
- D. R. Cox, “Regression models and life tables (with discussion),” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, vol. 74, pp. 187–220, 1972.
- D. K. Mroczek, A. Spiro III, and N. A. Turiano, “Do health behaviors explain the effect of neuroticism on mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study,” Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 653–659, 2009.
- M. Rutter, “Pathways from childhood to adult life,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 23–51, 1989.
- C. Aldwin, A. Spiro III, M. R. Levenson, and R. Bossé, “Longitudinal findings from the normative aging study: I. Does mental health change with age?” Psychology and Aging, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 295–306, 1989.
- J. Newman, “Aging and depression,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 4, pp. 150–165, 1989.
- R. C. Kessler, C. Foster, P. S. Webster, and J. S. House, “The relationship between age and depressive symptoms in two national surveys,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 119–126, 1992.
- E. L. Idler and Y. Benyamini, “Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 21–37, 1997.
- J. S. Tucker, H. S. Friedman, D. L. Wingard, and J. E. Schwartz, “Marital history at midlife as a predictor of longevity: alternative explanations to the protective effect of marriage,” Health Psychology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 94–101, 1996.
- C. J. Holahan, K. K. Schutte, P. L. Brennan, C. K. Holahan, B. S. Moos, and R. H. Moos, “Late-life alcohol consumption and 20-year mortality,” Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1961–1971, 2010.