Table 3: Results of the MANCOVAs, ANCOVAs, and effect-sizes contrasting young and older participants on cognitive performance, with level of education as covariate, and mean behavioral performance for each age group (SD).

Cognitive functionsCognitive tasksDependent variablesMANCOVA ddlWilk’s Partial ANCOVA F(1,44)Cohen’s d Young adults 
M  (SD)
Older adults  M (SD)

Auditory simple reaction time taskReaction time (ms)23.06
(P < .0001)
1.51194 (26)257 (52)
Speed of information processing47.98
(P < .0001)
2, 43.31.69
Visual choice reaction time taskReaction time (ms)94.89
(P < .0001)
3.34335 (28)475 (53)

Stop-signal taskRate of successful inhibition1.13
(P = .29)
0.160.41 (0.15)0.44 (0.21)
Behavioral inhibitionStroop taskInterference cost (ms)4.29
(P < .001)
3, 42.77.2312.46
(P < .001)
1.10189 (63)291 (115)
RNG taskAdjacency score5.96
(P < .02)
0.9333.50 (7.04)42.27 (11.29)

Letter running-span taskNO correct responses2.69 
(P = .11)
0.8039.19 (4.62) 34.28 (7.35)
Updating of working memory19.77
(P < .0001)
2, 43.52.48
Spatial running-span taskNO correct responses36.81
(P < .0001)
2.2341.25 (4.84)23.31 (10.30)

Wisconsin card sorting testNO perseverative errors3.69
(P = .06)
0.798.50 (2.68)12.81 (7.22)
ShiftingDimension switching taskGlobal switch cost (ms)8.37
(P < .0002)
3, 42.63.3715.65
(P < .0003)
1.74192 (154)606 (299)
Stimulus-Response switching taskLocal switch cost (ms)9.86
(P < .0031)
1.0971 (57)184 (135)

Note. RNG: Random Number Generation, in bold: Significant effect.