Table 4: Results of the MANOVAs, ANOVAs, and effect-sizes contrasting active and sedentary older participants on cognitive performance and mean behavioral performance for each age group (SD).

Cognitive functionCognitive taskDependent variableMANOVA FddlWilk’s λPartial η²ANOVA F(1,45)Cohen’s d Sedentary older adults 
M (SD)
Active older adults 
M (SD)

Auditory simple reaction time taskReaction time (ms)252 (40)262 (64)
Speed of information processing0.43
(P = .73)
2, 44.98.02
Visual choice reaction time task Reaction time (ms) 468 (49) 482 (57)

Stop-signal taskRate of successful inhibition0.00
(P = .96)
0.020.44 (0.23)0.44 (0.20)
Behavioral inhibitionStroop taskInterference cost (ms)2.79
(P= .05)
3, 43.84.160.10
(P = .76)
0.10297 (132)285 (99)
RNG taskAdjacency score7.04
(P < .011)
0.8546.72 (11.09)37.82 (9.91)

Letter running-span taskNO correct responses19.50
(P < .0001)
1.4529.94 (6.08)38.63 (5.88)
Updating of working memory9.61
(P < .0004)
2, 44.70.30
Spatial running-span taskNO correct responses7.04
(P < .013)
0.8019.44 (8.39)27.19 (10.80)

Wisconsin card sorting testNO perseverative errors21.70
(P < .0001)
1.4117.00 (8.05)8.63 (2.36)
ShiftingDimension switching taskGlobal switch cost (ms)10.24
(P < .0001)
3, 43.58.422.65
(P = .11)
0.68704 (267)508 (306)
Stimulus-Response switching taskLocal switch cost (ms)6.24
(P < .017)
0.76232 (129)135 (126)

Note. RNG: Random Number Generation, in Bold: Significant effect.