Table 2: LBLS participant characteristics.

Year of testing
MeasureBaseline ( 𝑛 = 5 6 5 )Year 3 ( 𝑛 = 3 0 0 )Year 6 ( 𝑛 = 1 4 3 )Year 9 ( 𝑛 = 1 0 2 )
M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)

Retention from previous testing (%)534871
Age73.8 (9.1)75.5 (8.7)75.29 (8.01)76.4 (7.2)
Education13.7 (3.0)13.9 (2.8)14.2 (2.70)14.1 (2.7)
Sex, female [ 𝑛 (%)]278 (49)148 (49)74 (52)50 (49)
Reasoning22.1 (11.7)23.7 (11.5)25.2 (11.63)25.0 (11.1)
Fluency 32.3 (11.7)33.5 (11.1)33.3 (13.29)34.3 (11.7)
Memory11.4 (4.0)11.5 (4.2)11.6 (4.52)11.1 (4.7)
Semantic knowledge38.4 (10.2)39.3 (9.8)40.8 (8.95)39.4 (9.9)
Social activity3.3 (1.5)3.5 (1.6)3.5 (1.4)3.5 (1.5)
Social activity change0.0 (1.4)0.1 (1.5)−0.0 (1.4)

M: mean, SD: standard deviation. The range for each measure with a defined upper limit is as follows: education = 0–20, reasoning = 0–30, memory = 0–20, semantic knowledge = 0–36, and social activity = 0–7.