Table 3: SLS participant characteristics.

Year of testing
MeasureBaseline ( 𝑛 = 1 6 5 7 )Year 7 ( 𝑛 = 9 4 0 )Year 14 ( 𝑛 = 4 4 6 )Year 21 ( 𝑛 = 1 8 1 )
M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)

Retention from previous testing (%)574741
Age67.1 (8.2)73.0 (7.23)78.0 (6.4)81.9 (4.9)
Education14.6 (2.9)14.7 (2.8)14.8 (2.7)14.8 (2.8)
Sex, female [ 𝑛 (%)]861 (52)507 (54)256 (57)108 (60)
Reasoning15.6 (5.8)15.2 (5.6)14.3 (5.5)14.0 (5.25)
Fluency 38.5 (12.8)37.5 (13.1)36.7 (12.7)38.8 (14.5)
Memory 12.5 (4.0)12.0 (4.1)11.5 (4.1)11.6 (4.0)
Semantic knowledge25.0 (6.7)25.3 (6.6)25.8 (6.2)25.9 (5.9)
Social activity3.5 (1.6)3.5 (1.6)3.5 (1.6)3.3 (1.6)
Social activity change−0.1 (1.5)−0.2 (1.6)−0.4 (1.7)

M: mean, SD: standard deviation. The range for each measure with a defined upper limit is as follows: education = 0–20, reasoning = 0–30, memory = 0 - 2 0 , semantic knowledge = 0–36, and social activity = 0–7.