Table 2: Regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) representing rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60+ years per level increase in each health behavior at 36 and 43 years and per cumulative and change in health behavior scores.

𝑁 (%)Verbal memory decline 43 to 60+ (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2

Smoking at age:
 36 y
  Non-smoking780 (76.6)0.000.00
  1–20 c/day200 (19.6)−0.16 (−0.85, 0.53)−0.12 (−0.81, 0.57)
  20+ cig/day38 (3.7)−0.22 (−1.67, 1.22)−0.17 (−1.62, 1.28)
   𝑃 value0.6100.701
 43 y
  Non-smoking816 (80.1)0.000.00
  1–20 c/day159 (15.6)−0.08 (−0.83, 0.67)−0.07 (−0.83, 0.69)
  20+ cig/day43 (4.2)−1.38 (−2.75, −0.01)−1.24 (−2.61, 0.11)
   𝑃 value0.1240.165
Midlife score:
 Non-smoker744 (73.0)0.000.00
 Moderate smoker252 (24.7)−0.20 (−0.83, 0.43)−0.12 (−0.76, 0.51)
 Heavy smokers22 (2.1)−0.22 (−2.10, 1.66)−0.01 (−1.90, 1.87)
𝑃 value0.5350.750
Change in smoking:
 Non-smoker744 (73.0)0.000.00
 Increase55 (5.4)−1.11 (−2.32, 0.09)−1.00 (−2.21, 0.21)
 Decrease79 (7.7)0.10 (−0.91, 1.12)0.09 (−0.92, 1.11)
 Constant med/heavy140 (13.7)−0.03 (−0.83, 0.77)0.04 (−0.78, 0.86)
𝑃 value0.3630.473
Physical activity at age:
 36 y
  Inactive324 (31.8)0.000.00
  Moderately active275 (27.0)−0.06 (−0.76, 0.64)−0.07 (−0.78, 0.63)
  Most active419 (41.1)0.21 (−0.42, 0.86)0.17 (−0.47, 0.82)
   𝑃 value0.4840.571
 43 y
  Inactive475 (46.6)0.000.00
  Moderately active 251 (24.6)0.06 (−0.61, 0.75)0.02 (−0.65, 0.71)
  Most active292 (28.6)−0.06 (−0.72, 0.59)−0.12 (−0.79, 0.54)
   𝑃 value0.8780.731
Midlife score:
 Inactive221 (21.7)0.000.00
 Moderate608 (59.7)−0.13 (−0.82, 0.54)−0.23 (−0.91, 0.45)
 Most active189 (18.5)−0.16 (−1.05, 0.71)−0.31 (−1.20, 0.56)
𝑃 value0.6970.472
Change in activity:
 Inactive221 (21.7)0.000.00
 Increase 164 (16.1)−0.35 (−1.25, 0.54)−0.47 (−1.37, 0.43)
 Decrease 354 (34.7)−0.10 (−0.84, 0.63)−0.18 (−0.92, 0.55)
 Constant mod/active279 (27.4)−0.06 (−0.87, 0.73)−0.17 (−0.98, 0.63)
𝑃 value0.8710.768
Diet at age:
 36 y
  Low-quality diet564 (55.4)0.000.00
  High-quality diet454 (44.6)0.38 (−0.17, 0.93)0.35 (−0.20, 0.91)
   𝑃 value0.1760.212
 43 y
  Low-quality diet521 (51.1)0.000.00
  High-quality diet497 (48.8)0.20 (−0.34, 0.75)0.17 (−0.38, 0.73)
   𝑃 value0.4680.549
Midlife score:
 Low-quality diet234 (22.9)0.000.00
 High-quality diet784 (77.0)0.71 (0.04, 1.38)0.70 (0.02, 1.38)
𝑃 value0.0370.043
Change in diet:
 Low-quality234 (22.9)0.000.00
 Increase in quality330 (32.4)0.65 (−0.08, 1.40)0.65 (−0.10, 1.41)
 Decrease in quality94 (9.2)0.95 (−0.09, 2.00)0.91 (−0.14, 1.97)
 Constant high-quality360 (35.3)0.78 (0.02, 1.53)0.76 (0.00, 1.54)
𝑃 value0.1460.180

Model 1: model adjusted for sex, childhood social class, childhood cognition at age 8, SEP (own occupation and education), and depression.
Model 2: model 1 plus other lifestyle behaviors.