Table 3: Regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) representing rate of decline in visual search from 43 to 60+ years per level increase in each health behavior at 36 and 43 years and per cumulative and change in health behavior scores.

𝑁 (%)Visual search decline 43 to 60+ (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2

Smoking at age:
 36 y
  Non-smoking780 (76.6)0.000.00
  1–20 c/day200 (19.6)−1.90 (−11.77, 7.96)−1.79 (−11.68, 8.09)
  20+ cig/day38 (3.7)−18.70 (−39.27, 1.86)−19.44 (−40.05, 1.17)
   𝑃 value0.1560.148
 43 y
  Non-smoking816 (80.1)0.000.00
  1–20 c/day159 (15.6)−4.19 (−14.92, 6.53)−2.73 (−13.55, 8.08)
  20+ cig/day43 (4.2)−19.54 (−38.97, −0.12)−18.52 (−38.00, 0.94)
   𝑃 value0.0600.103
Midlife score:
 Non-smoker744 (73.0)0.000.00
 Moderate smoker252 (24.7)−4.85 (−13.93, 4.21)−4.82 (−13.93, 4.28)
 Heavy smokers22 (2.1)−24.80 (−51.61, 2.00)−25.46 (−52.34, 1.42)
𝑃 value0.0780.077
Change in smoking:
 Non-smoker744 (73.0)0.000.00
 Increase55 (5.4)−13.08 (−30.17, 4.00)−12.78 (−30.02, 4.45)
 Decrease79 (7.7)−2.70 (−17.06, 11.64)−2.65 (−17.09, 11.78)
 Constant med/heavy140 (13.7)−6.71 (−18.09, 4.67)−5.82 (−17.44, 5.79)
𝑃 value0.3740.455
Physical activity at age:
 36 y
  Inactive324 (31.8)0.000.00
  Moderately active275 (27.0)2.69 (−7.29, 12.68)3.20 (−6.80, 13.20)
  Most active419 (41.1)8.00 (−1.12, 17.13)8.47 (−0.70, 17.65)
   𝑃 value0.0810.067
 43 y
  Inactive475 (46.6)0.000.00
  Moderately active251 (24.6)−3.93 (−13.57, 5.69)−4.37 (−14.03, 5.28)
  Most active292 (28.6)11.84 (2.55, 21.12)11.18 (1.78, 20.58)
  P value0.0220.034
Midlife score:
 Inactive221 (21.7)0.000.00
 Moderate608 (59.7)8.32 (−1.33, 17.97)8.76 (−0.95, 18.47)
 Most active189 (18.5)16.71 (4.32, 29.10)17.00 (4.50, 29.51)
𝑃 value0.0080.008
Change in activity:
 Inactive221 (21.7)0.000.00
 Increase 164 (16.1)14.45 (1.83, 27.07)13.78 (1.05, 26.50)
 Decrease 354 (34.7)7.58 (−2.87, 18.03)7.80 (−2.72, 18.34)
 Constant mod/active279 (27.4)10.51 (−0.74, 21.77)10.46 (−0.92, 21.84)
𝑃 value0.1270.157
Diet at age:
 36 y
  Low-quality diet564 (55.4)0.000.00
  High-quality diet454 (44.6)−0.52 (−8.39, 7.34)−1.74 (−9.67, 6.19)
   𝑃 value0.8960.667
 43 y
  Low-quality diet521 (51.1)0.000.00
  High-quality diet497 (48.8)0.59 (−7.23, 8.42)−1.03 (−8.91, 6.84)
   𝑃 value0.8810.797
Midlife score:
 Low-quality diet234 (22.9)0.000.00
 High-quality diet784 (77.0)1.59 (−7.89, 11.09)−0.64 (−10.28, 9.00)
𝑃 value0.7410.896
Change in diet:
 Low-quality234 (22.9)0.000.00
 Increase in quality330 (32.4)1.53 (−9.04, 12.12)−0.69 (−11.45, 10.06)
 Decrease in quality94 (9.2)−1.23 (−16.11, 13.64)−3.22 (−18.18, 11.74)
 Constant high-quality360 (35.3)1.63 (−9.09, 12.36)−1.39 (−12.31, 9.57)
𝑃 value0.9720.978

Model 1: model adjusted for sex, childhood social class, childhood cognition at age 8, SEP (own occupation and education), and depression.
Model 2: model 1 plus other lifestyle behaviors.