Table 1: Summary of randomized controlled trials of physical exercise regimes in AD patients.

StudyLength and frequencyType of exerciseSampleMMSE
(baseline mean)
Outcome measuresMajor findings

Kemoun et al. [27]15 wks; 1 h sessions 3x/wkAerobic, balance, and endurance   
12.6Walking speed, stride length, double limb support time, and ERFCHigher ERFC and walking parameter scores in exercise group; positive correlation between walking parameters and ERFC scores

Miu et al. [28]3 mos; ~1 h sessions 2x/wkAerobic, flexibility
20 (median)SF-12, 6 min walk, functional reach, BBS, MMSE, ADAS-Cog, and CSDDImprovement in walking and functional reach in exercise group

Roach et al. [29]16 wks; 15–30 min sessions 5x/wkStrength, flexibility, endurance, and balance   
  
10.7ACIF, 6 min walk, and MMSEImproved transfer in exercise group

Rolland et al. [30]1 yr; 1 h session 2x/wkAerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance   
8.8Katz Index of ADLs, walking speed, get-up-and-go, one-leg balance, MNA, NPI, and MADRSLess decline in overall ADLs in exercise group

Steinberg et al. [31]12 wks; ~3x/wkAerobic, strength, balance, and flexibility
20.1YPAS, 8-ft walk, JTT, sit-to-stand, MMSE, BNT, HVLT, ADQRL, NPI, CSDD, and SCBImproved performance in JTT and sit-to-stand, increased depression, and decreased ADQRL in exercise group

Venturelli et al. [32]24 wks; 30 min sessions 4x/wkMobility, aerobic   
136 min walk, Barthel Index of ADLs, and MMSEImprovements in walking and ADLs, slower decline in MMSE in exercise group

Vreugdenhil et al. [33]4 mos; >30 mins dailyStrength, balance, and aerobic
22.9ADAS-Cog, MMSE, functional reach, Timed Up and Go, sit-to-stand, Barthel Index of ADLs, GDS, CIBIC-plus, and Zarit Burden InterviewImproved scores on ADAS-Cog, MMSE, CIBIC-plus, functional reach, Timed Up and Go, sit-to-stand, and ADLs in exercise group

Y g ez et
al. [34]
6 wks; 1.5 h sessions 1x/wkFlexibility, eye-hand coordination   
22.1CANTAB-ExpedioImprovements in attention, visual memory recognition, and working memory in exercise group

: number of participants in exercise program, control group, social conversation group, and walking group, respectively. ACIF: Acute Care Index of Function, ADAS-Cog: Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, ADL: activities of daily living, ADQRL: Alzheimer’s Disease Quality Related Life Scale, BBS: Berg Balance Scale, BNT: Boston Naming Test, CANTAB-Expedio: The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, CIBIC-plus: Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change Plus Caregiver Input, CSDD: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, ERFC: Rapid Evaluation of Cognitive Function, GDS: Geriatric Depression dcale, HDS: Hamilton Depression Scale, HVLT: Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, JTT: Jebsen Total Time, MADRS: Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, MNA: Mini-Nutritional Assessment, NPI: Neuropsychiatric Inventory, SCB: Screen for Caregiver Burden, SF-12: SF-12 Quality of Life Questionnaire, SF-36: Short-Form Health Survey, SIP: Sickness Impact Profile, and YPAS: Yale Physical Activity Survey.