- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 461592, 12 pages
Cognitively Stimulating Activities: Effects on Cognition across Four Studies with up to 21 Years of Longitudinal Data
1Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 200 Springs Road, Bedford, MA 01730, USA
2Departments of Psychology and Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
3Center for Biomedical Imaging, Medical University of South Carolina, 68 President Street, MSC 120, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
4Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3050 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P5
5Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Washington, P.O. Box 359780, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue Seattle, WA 98104, USA
6Department of Psychology, California State University-Los Angeles 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
7Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 100, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
8Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Box 500, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden
9Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, Leonard Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191, USA
10University of Washington, 180 Nickerson, Suite 206, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
11Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, P217 Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9
12Lawrence J. Ellison Ambulatory Care Center, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Ste 0100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
Received 2 April 2012; Revised 27 June 2012; Accepted 24 July 2012
Academic Editor: Allison A. M. Bielak
Copyright © 2012 Meghan B. Mitchell et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Kinsella, W. He, and U. S. Census Bureau, “International Population Reports, P95/09-1, 2009 An Aging Word: 2008, U.S. Government Printing Office,” Washington, DC, USA, 2009.
- F. I. M. Craik and T. A. Salthouse, The Handbook of Aging and Cognition, Psychology Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
- B. J. Small, R. A. Dixon, and J. J. McArdle, “Tracking differences in cognition-health changes from 55 to 95 years of age: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study,” Journal of Gerontology B, vol. 66, supplement 1, pp. i153–i161, 2011.
- T. F. Hughes, “Promotion of cognitive health through cognitive activity in the aging population,” Aging Health, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 111–121, 2010.
- C. Hertzog, A. F. Kramer, R. S. Wilson, and U. Lindenberger, “Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced?” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Supplement, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–65, 2008.
- N. Gates and M. Valenzuela, “Cognitive exercise and its role in cognitive function in older adults,” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2010.
- A. F. Kurz, S. Leucht, and N. T. Lautenschlager, “The clinical significance of cognition-focused interventions for cognitively impaired older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1364–1375, 2011.
- C. Lustig, P. Shah, R. Seidler, and P. A. Reuter-Lorenz, “Aging, training, and the brain: a review and future directions,” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 504–522, 2009.
- S. L. Willis, S. L. Tennstedt, M. Marsiske et al., “Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 296, no. 23, pp. 2805–2814, 2006.
- M. Valenzuela and P. Sachdev, “Can cognitive exercise prevent the onset of dementia? systematic review of randomized clinical trials with longitudinal follow-up,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 179–187, 2009.
- P. Ghisletta, J.-F. Bickel, and M. Lövdén, “Does activity engagement protect against cognitive decline in old age? Methodological and analytical considerations,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. P253–P261, 2006.
- B. J. Small, R. A. Dixon, J. J. McArdle, and K. J. Grimm, “Do changes in lifestyle engagement moderate cognitive decline in normal aging? Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study,” Neuropsychology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 144–155, 2012.
- R. S. Wilson, C. F. Mendes de Leon, L. L. Barnes et al., “Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 6, pp. 742–748, 2002.
- D. R. George and P. J. Whitehouse, “Marketplace of memory: what the brain fitness technology industry says about us and how we can do better,” The Gerontologist, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 590–596, 2011.
- F. Zehnder, M. Martin, M. Altgassen, and L. Clare, “Memory training effects in old age as markers of plasticity: a meta-analysis,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 507–520, 2009.
- B. Levine, D. T. Stuss, G. Winocur et al., “Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: effects on strategic behavior in relation to goal management,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 143–152, 2007.
- A. B. Morrison and J. M. Chein, “Does working memory training work? the promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory,” Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 46–60, 2011.
- A. A. M. Bielak, “How can we not “lose it” if we still don't understand how to “use it”? unanswered questions about the influence of activity participation on cognitive performance in older age—a mini-review,” Gerontology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 507–519, 2010.
- S. M. Hofer and A. M. Piccinin, “Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies,” Psychological Methods, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 150–164, 2009.
- J. L. Horn and S. M. Hofer, “Major abilities and development in the adult period,” in Intellectual Development, R. J. Sternberg and C. A. Berg, Eds., pp. 44–99, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1992.
- I. Dureman and H. Sällde, Psykometriska och Experimentalpsykologiska Metoder för Klinisk Tillämpning, Almqvist & Wiksell, Uppsala, Sweden, 1959.
- B. Johansson, S. H. Zarit, and S. Berg, “Changes in cognitive functioning of the oldest old,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. P75–P80, 1992.
- D. Wechsler, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1987.
- D. Wechsler, Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised, Psychological Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
- C.-O. Jonsson and L. Molander, Manual Till CVB-Skalen [Manual of the CVB Scales], Psykologi Forlaget, Stockholm, Sweden, 1964.
- K. W. Schaie, Schaie-Thurstone Adult Mental Abilities Test, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, Calif, USA, 1985.
- K. A. Schaie, Intellectual Development in Adulthood, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996.
- L. Thurstone and T. Thurstone, Examiner Manual For the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test (Form 10–14), Science Research Associates, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1949.
- R. B. Ekstrom, J. W. French, H. H. Harman, and D. Dermen, Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1976.
- D. F. Hultsch, C. Hertzog, and R. A. Dixon, “Ability correlates of memory performance in adulthood and aging,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 356–368, 1990.
- L. K. Muthén and B. O. Muthén, MPlus (Version 6) [Computer Software], University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2010.
- B. B. Reeve, R. D. Hays, J. B. Bjorner et al., “Psychometric evaluation and calibration of health-related quality of life item banks: plans for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS),” Medical Care, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. S22–S31, 2007.
- Y. Stern, “Cognitive reserve,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 2015–2028, 2009.
- A. A. M. Bielak, T. F. Hughes, B. J. Small, and R. A. Dixon, “It's never too late to engage in lifestyle activities: significant concurrent but not change relationships between lifestyle activities and cognitive speed,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. P331–P339, 2007.
- L. B. Zahodne, M. M. Glymour, C. Sparks et al., “Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 17, pp. 1039–1046, 2011.
- L. Fratiglioni, S. Paillard-Borg, and B. Winblad, “An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 343–353, 2004.