Control 1: nontransgenic mice Control 2: Tg2576 mice Experimental group 1: nontransgenic mice with 3 weeks access to running wheel Experimental group 2: Tg2576 mice with 3 weeks access to running wheel
Control 1: nontransgenic mice () Control 2: Tg2576 mice () Experimental group 1: nontransgenic mice with 3 weeks access to running wheel () Experimental group 2: Tg2576 mice with 3 weeks access to running wheel ()
Morris water maze latency Aβ mRNA expression CXCL1 and CXCL12 protein
Transgenic mice with voluntary exercise performed significantly better on Morris water maze than control transgenic mice showed no increase in inflammatory markers and increased mRNA production of CXCL1.
Cross sectional: APOE ε4 carrier status × onset of dementia × physical activity
Minnesota leisure time activity questionnaire APOE ε4 carrier status
Adults aged >65
Adults who engaged in regular physical activity had significantly reduced risk of developing AD after a 5-year follow-up than those who were sedentary. ε4 carriers showed no significant changes in risk associated with increased participation in physical activity.
Control 1: nontransgenic mice () Control group 2: nontransgenic mice with access to running wheel () Experimental group 1: leptin receptor mutant (db/db) transgenic mice () Experimental group 2: leptin receptor mutant (db/db) transgenic mice with access to running wheel ()
Open field activity Hippocampal BDNF protein levels
Male db/db transgenic mice Male C57Bl6/SJL nontransgenic mice
Access to a running wheel increased hippocampal BDNF levels in both wild type and transgenic mice.
Longitudinal: COMT genotype (Met/Met ; Val/Met ; Val/Val ) × cognitive performance over 5-year period with 2 time points (0 and 5 years)
COMT genotype Verbal fluency Working memory task Tower of Hanoi task WAIS block design task
Healthy adult males aged 58.1 (12.86)
At baseline, COMT Met/Met group performed better than the Val/Val and Val/Met variants on executive function tasks and block design. Greater executive function decline after a 5-year follow-up in Val/Val individuals.
Control: regular diet, no access to running wheel Experimental group 1: regular diet, access to running wheel Experimental group 2: DHA-enriched diet, no access to running wheel Experimental group 3: DHA-enriched diet, access to running wheel
Morris water maze latency Hippocampal levels of STX-3, STX-1, NR2B, and GAP-43
Male Sprague-Dawley rats
Both DHA and access to running wheel increased levels of NR2B, STX-3, and Morris water maze learning.
Longitudinal: omega-3 fatty acid levels × cognitive function over 5 year period with 2 time points (0 and 5 years)
Dietary questionnaire MMSE
Healthy older Dutch males aged 70–89
Increased omega-3 fatty acid consumption was associated with smaller decline in cognitive function at 5-year followup.
Citation, experimental procedures, subject information, sample size, and main significant findings, are outlined for studies that have been highlighted as exemplary in text.
Weschler Memory Scale III (WMSIII), Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), California Verbal Learning Test II (CVLTII), and Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB).