Table 1: Seven principles of universal design (adapted from Story [16]).

Universal design principleDescription Example

(1) Equitable useUseful and marketable to people with diverse abilitiesDoors that automatically open

(2) Flexibility of useAccommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilitiesAutomated teller machines’ buttons far enough apart to be pressed accurately

(3) Simple and intuitive useEasy to understand, regardless of user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration levelProviding furniture assembly instructions in a series of clear illustrations instead of text

(4) Perceptible informationCommunicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilitiesComputer software that relays information visually through text and pictures, and audibly through speakers

(5) Tolerance for errorMinimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actionsHallways that return to common areas rather than stop in dead ends

(6) Low physical effortCan be used efficiently and comfortably with a minimum of fatigueBottle caps that are easy to grip and require only a small range of motion to open

(7) Size/space for approach/useAppropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of the user’s body size, posture, or mobilityWall mounted components (i.e., toilet paper) that are visible, easy to reach, and easy for all hand sizes to use