Table 3: Examples of universal design techniques that will allow older adults to complete basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) with greater ease.

Activities of daily livingExamples of universal design

BADL
 BathingMake provisions during construction to reinforce walls in the shower area to facilitate future installation of grab bars [50]
Bathtub/shower controls positioned to allow for operation outside the fixture [20]
Lever handle faucets [20]
No threshold walk-in shower [20]
 Physical ambulationNo threshold, zero step entrances [50]
Wider doorways and corridors [50]
Open floor plan [20]
Straight staircases with consistent risers and treads and a stopping place (landing) midway between levels [51]
 ToiletingMake provisions during construction to reinforce bathroom walls to facilitate future installation of grab bars by the toilet [50]
Installation of a downstairs bathroom [50]
Adjustable toilet and sink for easy access, with a short reaching distance to paper dispenser and grab bars [20]

IADL
 Food preparationKitchen counter tops at varying levels to accommodate standing and seated users, and people of varying heights [52]
Kitchen cabinets that accommodate limited reach ranges and allow various ways for approach and manipulation [53]
Color contrasts, large-print readouts, audible and tactile feedback of controls [53]
Close access to ovens with counter space directly next to the oven [53]
 ShoppingLowering or making height adjustable electronic devices used in typical purchasing transaction (i.e., credit card reader/swipe; [54])
Larger print on signs indicating aisle numbers and locations of goods, and on packaging of items [55]
Larger aisle ways [55]
Automatic powered doors at entrances and exits [56]
 TransportationComplement higher-order roads (i.e., interstates) with lower-speed, two lane through-routes [57]
Connect local street networks within communities to create short drives and walking distances [57]