Journal of Astrophysics
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© 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved.

Growth of Accreting Supermassive Black Hole Seeds and Neutrino Radiation
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 12:27:06 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2015/205367/
In the framework of microscopic theory of black hole (MTBH), which explores the most important processes of rearrangement of vacuum state and spontaneous breaking of gravitation gauge symmetry at huge energies, we have undertaken a large series of numerical simulations with the goal to trace an evolution of the mass assembly history of 377 plausible accreting supermassive black hole seeds in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the present time and examine the observable signatures today. Given the redshifts, masses, and luminosities of these black holes at present time collected from the literature, we compute the initial redshifts and masses of the corresponding seed black holes. For the present masses to of 377 black holes, the computed intermediate seed masses are ranging from to . We also compute the fluxes of ultrahigh energy (UHE) neutrinos produced via simple or modified URCA processes in superdense protomatter nuclei. The AGNs are favored as promising pure UHE neutrino sources, because the computed neutrino fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at high energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle ().
Gagik TerKazarian
Copyright © 2015 Gagik TerKazarian. All rights reserved.

Galactic Cosmic Ray Variability at Two Neutron Monitors: Relation to Kp Index
Tue, 24 Feb 2015 06:45:28 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2015/961358/
The average characteristics of yeartoyear variability of Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux measured in one midlatitude neutron monitor stations (Newark) and high latitude station (Apatity) have been studied under different planetary disturbance (Kp) conditions. The yeartoyear variability which oscillates in response to solar cycle was analyzed using Fourier technique and the amplitude of variation was obtained using data for 1980–2005. There is a noticeable trend in the difference between the amplitudes of the yeartoyear variation of the two stations. The difference is highest during low Kp conditions and lowest during high Kp condition. There is generally lesser association of GCR with solar wind (SW) flow pressure and density as the Kp index increases. Similar feature is observed with the interplanetary magnetic field IMF (total). These observations have important implications for our present understanding of the effect of solar activity to variability in GCR flux.
Kingsley Chukwudi Okpala
Copyright © 2015 Kingsley Chukwudi Okpala. All rights reserved.

An Extensive Photometric Investigation of the W UMa System DK Cyg
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 12:35:33 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2015/590673/
DK Cyg is a contact binary system that undergoes complete eclipses. All the published photoelectric data have been collected and utilized to reexamine and update the period behavior of the system. A significant period increase with rate of 12.590 × 10−11 days/cycle was calculated. New period and ephemeris have been calculated for the system. A long term photometric solution study was performed and a light curve elements were calculated. We investigated the evolutionary status of the system using theoretical evolutionary models.
M. M. Elkhateeb, M. I. Nouh, E. Elkholy, and B. Korany
Copyright © 2015 M. M. Elkhateeb et al. All rights reserved.

Planar and Nonplanar Solitary Waves in a FourComponent Relativistic Degenerate Dense Plasma
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/653065/
The nonlinear propagation of electrostatic perturbation modes in an unmagnetized, collisionless, relativistic, degenerate plasma (containing both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic
degenerate electrons, nonrelativistic degenerate ions, and arbitrarily charged static heavy ions) has been investigated theoretically. The Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation has been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. Their solitary wave solution is obtained and numerically analyzed in case of both planar and nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry. It has been observed that the ionacoustic (IA) and modified ionacoustic (mIA) solitary waves have been significantly changed due to the effects of degenerate plasma pressure and number densities of the arbitrarily charged heavy ions. It has been also found that properties of planar KdV solitons are quite different from those of nonplanar KdV solitons. There are numerous variations in case of mIA solitary waves due to the polarity of heavy ions. The basic features and the underlying physics of IA and mIA solitary waves, which are relevant to some astrophysical compact objects, are briefly discussed.
M. R. Hossen, L. Nahar, and A. A. Mamun
Copyright © 2014 M. R. Hossen et al. All rights reserved.

Energetic Electron Enhancements below the Radiation Belt and XRay Contamination at LowOrbiting Satellites
Thu, 09 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/701498/
The work concerns a problem of electroninduced contaminant at relatively low latitudes to highenergy astrophysical measurements on board the loworbiting satellites. We show the results of a statistical analysis of the energetic electron enhancements in energy range 30–300 keV observed by a fleet of NOAA/POES loworbiting satellites over the time period from 1999 to 2012. We demonstrate geographical distributions of great and moderate longlasting enhancements caused by different type of the solar wind drivers.
Alla V. Suvorova, Alexei V. Dmitriev, and ChienMing Huang
Copyright © 2014 Alla V. Suvorova et al. All rights reserved.

Extension of Cherenkov Light LDF Approximation for Yakutsk EAS Array
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:35:26 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/492814/
The simulation of the Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) in extensive air showers (EAS) was performed using CORSIKA code for configuration of Yakutsk EAS array at high energy range for different primary particles (p, Fe, and O2) and different zenith angles. Depending on BreitWigner function a parameterization of Cherenkov light LDF was reconstructed on the basis of this simulation as a function of primary energy. A comparison of the calculated Cherenkov light LDF with that measured on the Yakutsk EAS array gives the possibility of identification of the particle initiating the shower and determination of its energy in the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum. The extrapolation of approximated Cherenkov light LDF for high energies was obtained for primary proton and iron nuclei.
A. A. AlRubaiee, Y. AlDouri, and U. Hashim
Copyright © 2014 A. A. AlRubaiee et al. All rights reserved.

Numerical Experiments for Nuclear Flashes toward Superbursts in an Accreting Neutron Star
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 12:18:18 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/817986/
We show that the superburst would be originated from thermonuclear burning ignited by accumulated fuels in the deep layers compared to normal Xray bursts. Two cases are investigated for models related to superbursts by following thermal evolution of a realistic neutron star: helium flash and carbon flash accompanied with many normal bursts. For a helium flash, the burst shows the long duration when the accretion rate is low compared with the observation. The flash could become a superburst if the burning develops to the deflagration and/or detonation. For a carbon flash accompanied with many normal bursts, after successive 2786 normal bursts during 1.81 × 109 s, the temperature reaches the deflagration temperature. This is due to the produced carbon which amount reaches to ≈0.1 in the mass fraction. The flash will develop to dynamical phenomena of the deflagration and/or detonation, which may lead to a superburst.
Masaaki Hashimoto, Reiko Kuromizu, Masaomi Ono, Tsuneo Noda, and Masayuki Y. Fujimoto
Copyright © 2014 Masaaki Hashimoto et al. All rights reserved.

Modulation Instability of IonAcoustic Waves in Plasma with Nonthermal Electrons
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 12:03:52 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/785670/
Modulational instability of ionacoustic waves has been theoretically investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma with nonthermal electrons, Boltzmann positrons, and warm positive ions. To describe the nonlinear evolution of the wave amplitude a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation has been derived by using multiple scale perturbation technique. The nonthermal parameter, positron concentration, and ion temperature are shown to play significant role in the modulational instability of ionacoustic waves and the formation of envelope solitons.
Basudev Ghosh and Sreyasi Banerjee
Copyright © 2014 Basudev Ghosh and Sreyasi Banerjee. All rights reserved.

Delta : Polynomial Approximation of Time Period 1620–2013
Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:32:53 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/480964/
The difference between the Uniform Dynamical Time and Universal Time is referred to as (delta ). Delta is used in numerous astronomical calculations, that is, eclipses,and length of day. It is additionally required to reduce quantified positions of minor planets to a uniform timescale for the purpose of orbital determination. Since Universal Time is established on the basis of the variable rotation of planet Earth, the quantity mirrors the unevenness of that rotation, and so it changes slowly, but rather irregularly, as time passes. We have worked on empirical formulae for estimating and have discovered a set of polynomials of the 4th order with nine intervals which is accurate within the range of ±0.6 seconds for the duration of years 1620–2013.
M. Khalid, Mariam Sultana, and Faheem Zaidi
Copyright © 2014 M. Khalid et al. All rights reserved.

Studies on Longer Wavelength Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Flares and CMEs during the Rise and Decay Phase of 23rd Solar Cycle
Tue, 03 Jun 2014 11:51:36 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/168718/
A statistical study on the properties of CMEs and flares associated with DHtype II bursts in the 23rd solar cycle during the period 1997–2008 is carried out. A sample of 229 events from our recent work is used for the present study (Vasanth and Umapathy, 2013). The collected events are divided into two groups as (i) solar cycle rise phase events and (ii) solar cycle decay phase events. The properties of CMEs in the two groups were compared and the results are presented. It is noted that there is no difference in the properties of type II burst like start frequency and end frequency between the solar cycle rise phase events and decay phase events. The mean CME speed of solar cycle decay phase events (1373 km s−1) is slightly higher than the solar cycle rise phase events (1058 km s−1). The mean CME acceleration of solar cycle decay phase events (−15.18 m s−2) is found to be higher than that of the solar cycle rise phase events (−1.32 m s−2). There exists good correlation between (i) CME speed and width and (ii) CME speed and acceleration for solar cycle decay phase events (, ) compared to solar cycle rise phase events (, ). These results indicate that the type II bursts parameters do not depend upon the time of appearance in the solar cycle.
V. Vasanth and S. Umapathy
Copyright © 2014 V. Vasanth and S. Umapathy. All rights reserved.

Analytical Results Connecting Stellar Structure Parameters and Extended Reaction Rates
Mon, 12 May 2014 08:11:59 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/656784/
Possible modification in the velocity distribution in the nonresonant reaction rates leads to an extended reaction rate probability integral. The closed form representation for these thermonuclear functions is used to obtain the stellar luminosity and neutrino emission rates. The composite parameter that determines the standard nuclear reaction rate through the MaxwellBoltzmann energy distribution is extended to by the extended reaction rates through a more general distribution than the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution. The new distribution is obtained by the pathway model introduced by Mathai (2005). Simple analytic models considered by various authors are utilized for evaluating stellar luminosity and neutrino emission rates and are obtained in generalized special functions such as Meijer's Gfunction and Fox's Hfunction. The standard and extended nonresonant thermonuclear functions are compared by plotting them. Behaviour of the new energy distribution, which is more general than the MaxwellBoltzmann, is also studied.
Hans J. Haubold and Dilip Kumar
Copyright © 2014 Hans J. Haubold and Dilip Kumar. All rights reserved.

Chaos and Intermittency in the DNLS Equation Describing the Parallel Alfvén Wave Propagation
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:36:53 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/812052/
When the Hall effect is included in the magnetohydrodynamics equations (HallMHD model) the wave propagation modes become coupled, but for propagation parallel to the ambient magnetic field the Alfvén mode decouples from the magnetosonic ones, resulting in circularly polarized waves that are described by the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In this paper, the DNLS equation is numerically solved using spectral methods for the spatial derivatives and a fourth order RungeKutta scheme for time integration. Firstly, the nondiffusive DNLS equation is considered to test the validity of the method by verifying the analytical condition of modulational stability. Later, diffusive and excitatory effects are incorporated to compare the numerical results with those obtained by a threewave truncation model. The results show that different types of attractors can exist depending on the diffusion level: for relatively large damping, there are fixed points for which the truncation model is a good approximation; for low damping, chaotic solutions appear and the threewave truncation model fails due to the emergence of new nonnegligible modes.
Gustavo Krause, Sergio Elaskar, and Andrea Costa
Copyright © 2014 Gustavo Krause et al. All rights reserved.

Invariant Imbedding and the Radiation Transfer in a PlaneParallel Inhomogeneous Atmosphere
Thu, 30 Jan 2014 09:40:16 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/193059/
The invariant imbedding technique is applied to the problems of radiation transfer in a planeparallel inhomogeneous atmosphere. All the parameters which describe the elementary event of scattering and the distribution of the energy sources are allowed to vary with depth. Mathematically, the considered standard problems of the theory are reduced to initialvalue problems which are better adapted to capabilities of the modern high speed computers. The reflectance of an atmosphere is shown to play a prominent role in describing the diffusion process since all the other characteristics of the radiation field are expressed through it. Three transfer problems frequently encountered in astrophysical applications are discussed: the radiation diffusion in the sourcefree medium, in a medium with arbitrarily distributed energy sources, as well as the problem of finding the statistical mean quantities, characteristics of the multiple scattering in the atmosphere.
Arthur G. Nikoghossian
Copyright © 2014 Arthur G. Nikoghossian. All rights reserved.

Process Nucleosynthesis in MHD Jet Explosions of CoreCollapse Supernovae
Tue, 22 Oct 2013 15:05:44 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/506146/
We investigate the process nucleosynthesis during the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) explosion of a supernova in a helium star of 3.3 , where effects of neutrinos are taken into account using the leakage scheme in the twodimensional (2D) hydrodynamic code. Jetlike explosion due to the combined effects of differential rotation and magnetic field is able to erode the lower electron fraction matter from the inner layers. We find that the ejected material of low electron fraction responsible for the process comes out from just outside the neutrino sphere deep inside the Fecore. It is found that heavy element nucleosynthesis depends on the initial conditions of rotational and magnetic fields. In particular, the third peak of the distribution is significantly overproduced relative to the solar system abundances, which would indicate a possible process site owing to MHD jets in supernovae.
Motoaki Saruwatari, Masaaki Hashimoto, Ryohei Fukuda, and Shinichiro Fujimoto
Copyright © 2013 Motoaki Saruwatari et al. All rights reserved.

On Robe's Circular Restricted Problem of Three Variable Mass Bodies
Tue, 22 Oct 2013 09:57:09 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/898794/
This paper investigates the motion of a test particle around the equilibrium points under the setup of the Robe’s circular restricted threebody problem in which the masses of the three bodies vary arbitrarily with time at the same rate. The first primary is assumed to be a fluid in the shape of a sphere whose density also varies with time. The nonautonomous equations are derived and transformed to the autonomized form. Two collinear equilibrium points exist, with one positioned at the center of the fluid while the other exists for the mass ratio and density parameter provided the density parameter assumes value greater than one. Further, circular equilibrium points exist and pairs of outofplane equilibrium points forming triangles with the centers of the primaries are found. The outofplane points depend on the arbitrary constant , of the motion of the primaries, density ratio, and mass parameter. The linear stability of the equilibrium points is studied and it is seen that the circular and outofplane equilibrium points are unstable while the collinear equilibrium points are stable under some conditions. A numerical example regarding outofplane points is given in the case of the Earth, Moon, and submarine system. This study may be useful in the investigations of dynamic problem of the “ocean planets” Kepler62e and Kepler62f orbiting the star Kepler62.
Jagadish Singh and Oni Leke
Copyright © 2013 Jagadish Singh and Oni Leke. All rights reserved.

Field Independent Cosmic Evolution
Mon, 21 Oct 2013 15:03:01 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/590171/
It has been shown earlier that Noether symmetry does not admit a form of corresponding to an action in which is coupled to scalartensor theory of gravity or even for pure theory of gravity taking anisotropic model into account. Here, we prove that theory of gravity does not admit Noether symmetry even if it is coupled to tachyonic field and considering a gauge in addition. To handle such a theory, a general conserved current has been constructed under a condition which decouples higherorder curvature part from the field part. This condition, in principle, solves for the scalefactor independently. Thus, cosmological evolution remains independent of the form of the chosen field, whether it is a scalar or a tachyon.
Nayem Sk and Abhik Kumar Sanyal
Copyright © 2013 Nayem Sk and Abhik Kumar Sanyal. All rights reserved.

New Classes of Charged Spheroidal Models
Mon, 30 Sep 2013 11:44:54 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/539847/
New classes of exact solutions to the EinsteinMaxwell system is found in closed form by assuming that the hypersurface is spheroidal. This is achieved by choosing a particular form for the electric field intensity. A class of solution is found for all positive spheroidal parameter for a specific form of electric field intensity. In general, the condition of pressure isotropy reduces to a difference equation with variable, rational coefficients that can be solved. Consequently, an explicit solution in series form is found. By placing restrictions on the parameters, it is shown that the series terminates and there exist two classes of solutions in terms of elementary functions. These solutions contain the models found previously in the limit of vanishing charge. Solutions found are directly relating the spheroidal parameter and electric field intensity. Masses obtained are consistent with the previously reported experimental and theoretical studies describing strange stars. A physical analysis indicates that these models may be used to describe a charged sphere.
S. Thirukkanesh
Copyright © 2013 S. Thirukkanesh. All rights reserved.

Constraint on Heavy Element Production in Inhomogeneous BigBang Nucleosynthesis from the Light Element Observations
Sun, 01 Sep 2013 13:19:44 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/587294/
We investigate the observational constraints on the inhomogeneous bigbang nucleosynthesis that Matsuura et al. (2005) suggested that states the possibility of the heavy element production beyond 7Li in the early universe. From the observational constraints on light elements of 4He and D, possible regions are found on the plane of the volume fraction of the highdensity region against the ratio between high and lowdensity regions. In these allowed regions, we have confirmed that the heavy elements beyond Ni can be produced appreciably, where p and/or rprocess elements are produced well simultaneously.
Riou Nakamura, Masaaki Hashimoto, Shinichiro Fujimoto, and Katsuhiko Sato
Copyright © 2013 Riou Nakamura et al. All rights reserved.

The Total Solar Irradiance, UV Emission and Magnetic Flux during the Last Solar Cycle Minimum
Mon, 22 Jul 2013 12:57:16 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/368380/
We have analyzed the total solar irradiance (TSI) and the spectral solar irradiance as ultraviolet emission (UV) in the wavelength range 115–180 nm, observed with the instruments TIM and SOLSTICE within the framework of SORCE (the solar radiation and climate experiment) during the long solar minimum between the 23rd and 24th cycles. The wavelet analysis reveals an increase in the magnetic flux in the latitudinal zone of the sunspot activity, accompanied with an increase in the TSI and UV on the surface rotation timescales of solar activity complexes. Inphase coherent structures between the midlatitude magnetic flux and TSI/UV appear when the longlived complexes of the solar activity are present. These complexes, which are related to longlived sources of magnetic fields under the photosphere, are maintained by magnetic fluxes reappearing in the same longitudinal regions. During the deep solar minimum (the period of the absence of sunspots), a coherent structure has been found, in which the phase between the integrated midlatitude magnetic flux is ahead of the total solar irradiance on the timescales of the surface rotation.
E. E. Benevolenskaya and I. G. Kostuchenko
Copyright © 2013 E. E. Benevolenskaya and I. G. Kostuchenko. All rights reserved.

IonAcoustic Instabilities in a MultiIon Plasma
Tue, 16 Jul 2013 11:24:31 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/838534/
We have, in this paper, studied the stability of the ionacoustic wave in a plasma composed of hydrogen, positively and negatively charged oxygen ions, and electrons, which approximates very well the plasma environment around a comet. Modelling each cometary component (, , and ) by a ring distribution, we find that ionacoustic waves can be generated at frequencies comparable to the hydrogen ion plasma frequency. The dispersion relation has been solved both analytically and numerically. We find that the ratio of the ring speed () to the thermal spread (ts) modifies the dispersion characteristics of the ionacoustic wave. The contrasting behaviour of the phase velocity of the ionacoustic wave in the presence of ions for ts (and vice versa) can be used to detect the presence of negatively charged oxygen ions and also their thermalization.
Noble P. Abraham, Sijo Sebastian, G. Sreekala, R. Jayapal, C. P. Anilkumar, and Venugopal Chandu
Copyright © 2013 Noble P. Abraham et al. All rights reserved.

Dark Energy from the Gas of Wormholes
Thu, 20 Jun 2013 13:17:53 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2013/543717/
We assume the spacetime foam picture in which the vacuum is filled with a gas of virtual wormholes. It is shown that virtual wormholes form a finite (of the Planckian order) value of the energy
density of zeropoint fluctuations. However such a huge value is compensated by the contribution
of virtual wormholes to the mean curvature and the observed value of the cosmological constant is
close to zero. A nonvanishing value appears due to the polarization of vacuum in external classical
fields. In the early Universe some virtual wormholes may form actual ones. We show that in the
case of actual wormholes vacuum polarization effects are negligible while their contribution to the
mean curvature is apt to form the observed dark energy phenomenon. Using the contribution of
wormholes to dark matter and dark energy we find estimates for characteristic parameters of the
gas of wormholes.
A. A. Kirillov and E. P. Savelova
Copyright © 2013 A. A. Kirillov and E. P. Savelova. All rights reserved.