- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Botany
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 712405, 10 pages
Phenology of Some Phanerogams (Trees and Shrubs) of Northwestern Punjab, India
Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India
Received 23 January 2013; Revised 26 April 2013; Accepted 19 May 2013
Academic Editor: William K. Smith
Copyright © 2013 Gurveen Kaur et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- E. R. Heithaus, “The role of plant-pollinator interactions in determining community structure,” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 61, pp. 675–691, 1974.
- G. W. Frankie, “Tropical forest phenology and pollinator plant coevolution,” in Coevolution of Animals and Plants, L. E. Gilbert and P. H. Raven, Eds., pp. 192–209, University of Texas Press, Austin, Tex, USA, 1975.
- H. R. Pulliam and M. R. Brand, “The production and utilization of seeds in plains grassland of southeastern Arizona,” Ecology, vol. 56, pp. 1158–1166, 1975.
- P. A. Opler, G. W. Frankie, and H. G. Baker, “Rainfall as a factor in the release, timing and synchronization of anthesis by tropical trees and shrubs,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 3, pp. 231–236, 1976.
- J. N. Thompson and M. F. Willson, “Evolution of temperature fruit/bird interactions: phenological strategies,” Evolution, vol. 33, pp. 973–982, 1979.
- E. W. Stiles, “Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird disseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest,” The American Naturalist, vol. 116, pp. 670–688, 1980.
- G. F. Estabrook, J. A. Winsor, A. G. Stephenson, and H. F. Howe, “When are two phenological patterns different?” Botanical Gazette, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 374–378, 1982.
- H. S. Suresh and R. Sukumar, “Vegetative phenology of tropical montane forests in the Nilgiris, South India,” Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 333–343, 2011.
- M. Monasterio and G. Sarmiento, “Phenological strategies of plant species in the tropical savanna and the semideciduous forest of the Venezuelan Ilanos,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 3, pp. 352–356, 1976.
- D. Lieberman, “Seasonality and phenology in a dry tropical forest in Ghana,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 791–806, 1982.
- R. Milla, P. Castro-Díez, and G. Montserrat-Martí, “Phenology of Mediterranean woody plants from NE Spain: synchrony, seasonality, and relationships among phenophases,” Flora, vol. 205, no. 3, pp. 190–199, 2010.
- C.-D. Pilar and M.-M. Gabriel, “Phenological pattern of fifteen Mediterranean phanaerophytes from Quercus ilex communities of NE-Spain,” Plant Ecology, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 103–112, 1998.
- G. Montserrat-Martí and C. Pérez-Rontomé, “Fruit growth dynamics and their effects on the phenological pattern of native Pistacia populations in NE Spain,” Flora, vol. 197, no. 3, pp. 161–174, 2002.
- D. De Steven, D. M. Windsor, and F. E. Putz, “Vegetative and reproductive phonologies of a palm assemblage in Panama,” Biotropica, vol. 19, pp. 342–356, 1987.
- S. H. Bullock and J. A. Solis-Magallanes, “Phenology of canopy trees of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico,” Biotropica, vol. 22, pp. 22–35, 1990.
- L. Medway, “Phenology of a tropical rain forest in Malaya,” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 117–146, 1972.
- P. Lesica and P. M. Kittelson, “Precipitation and temperature are associated with advanced flowering phenology in a semi-arid grassland,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 74, pp. 1013–1017, 2010.
- M. Shen, Y. Tang, J. Chen, X. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Influences of temperature and precipitation before the growing season on spring phenology in grasslands of the central and eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 151, no. 12, pp. 1711–1722, 2011.
- R. P. Shukla and P. S. Ramakrishnan, “Phenology of trees in a sub-tropical humid forest in north-eastern India,” Vegetatio, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 103–109, 1982.
- R. P. Shukla and P. S. Ramakrishnan, “Leaf dynamics of tropical trees related to successional status,” New Phytologist, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 697–706, 1984.
- P. K. Ralhan, R. K. Khanna, S. P. Singh, and J. S. Singh, “Phenological characteristics of the tree layer of Kumaun Himalayan forests,” Vegetatio, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 91–101, 1985.
- Y. P. S. Pangtey, R. S. Rawal, N. S. Bankoti, and S. S. Samant, “Phenology of high-altitude plants of Kumaun in Central Himalaya, India,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 122–127, 1990.
- S. N. Prasad and M. Hegde, “Phenology and seasonality in the tropical deciduous forest of Bandipur, South India,” Proceedings: Plant Sciences, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 1986.
- N. Sivaraj and K. V. Krishnamurthy, “Flowering phenology in the vegetation of Shervaroys, South India,” Vegetatio, vol. 79, no. 1-2, pp. 85–88, 1988.
- D. M. Bhat and K. S. Murali, “Phenology of understorey species of tropical moist forest of Western Ghats region of Uttara Kannada district in South India,” Current Science, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 799–805, 2001.
- K. P. Singh and C. P. Kushwaha, “Diversity of flowering and fruiting phenology of trees in a tropical deciduous forest in India,” Annals of Botany, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 265–276, 2006.
- R. K. Vashisthe, N. Rawat, A. K. Chaturvedi, B. P. Nautiyal, P. Prasad, and M. C. Nautiyal, “An exploration on the phenology of different growth forms of an alpine expanse of north-west Himalaya, India,” New York Science Journal, vol. 2, pp. 29–42, 2009.
- V. P. Upadhyay and P. K. Mishra, “Phenology of mangroves tree species on Orissa coast, India,” Tropical Ecology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 289–295, 2010.
- A. R. Kasarkar and D. K. Kulkarni, “Phenological studies of family zingiberaceae with special reference to Alpinia and Zingiber from Kolhapur region(MS) India,” Bioscience Discovery, vol. 2, pp. 322–327, 2011.
- O. Bajpai, A. Kumar, A. K. Mishra, N. Sahu, S. K. Behera, and L. B. Chaudhary, “Phenological study of two dominant tree species in tropical moist deciduous forest from the Northern India,” International Journal of Botany, vol. 8, pp. 66–72, 2012.
- A. Lokho and Y. Kumar, “Reproductive phenology and morphology analysis of Indian Dendrobium Sw. (Orchidaceae) from the northeast region,” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 2, pp. 1–14, 2012.
- S. H. G. Champion and S. K. Seth, A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India, The manager of Publications, Delhi, India, 1968.
- R. E. Sosebee and H. H. Wiebe, “Effect of phenological development on radiophosphorus translocation from leaves in crested wheatgrass,” Oecologia, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 103–112, 1973.
- F. G. Taylor Jr., Phenodynamics of Production in a Mesic Deciduous Forest. US/IBP Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome, Oak Ridges National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn, USA, 1972.
- M. Y. Nuttonson, Wheat-Climate Relationships and the Use of Phenology in Ascertaining the Thermal and Photo-Thermal Requirements of Wheat; Based on Data of North America and Some Thermally Analogous Areas of North America, in the Soviet Union and in Finland, American Institute for Crop Ecology, Washington, DC, USA, 1955.
- J. P. Blaisdell, “Seasonal development and yield of native plants on the upper Snake River plains and their relation to certain climatic factors,” US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin, vol. 1190, pp. 1–68, 1958.
- J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 39, pp. 14288–14293, 2006.
- Y. Julien and J. A. Sobrino, “Global land surface phenology trends from GIMMS database,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 3495–3513, 2009.
- A. Menzel, T. H. Sparks, N. Estrella et al., “European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern,” Global Change Biology, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1969–1976, 2006.
- C. Parmesan and G. Yohe, “A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6918, pp. 37–42, 2003.
- S. Piao, J. Fang, L. Zhou, P. Ciais, and B. Zhu, “Variations in satellite-derived phenology in China's temperate vegetation,” Global Change Biology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 672–685, 2006.
- J. Ollerton and A. J. Lack, “Flowering phenology: an example of relaxation of natural selection?” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 274–276, 1992.
- F. Saavedra, D. W. Inouye, M. V. Price, and J. Harte, “Changes in flowering and abundance of Delphinium nuttallianum (Ranunculaceae) in response to a subalpine climate warming experiment,” Global Change Biology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 885–894, 2003.
- N. C. Stenseth and A. Mysterud, “Climate, changing phenology, and other life history traits: nonlinearity and match-mismatch to the environment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 21, pp. 13379–13381, 2002.
- I. Ibáñez, R. B. Primack, A. J. Miller-Rushing et al., “Forecasting phenology under global warming,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 365, no. 1555, pp. 3247–3260, 2010.
- C. Parmesan, “Influences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming,” Global Change Biology, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1860–1872, 2007.