Journal of Botany The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Protective Effect of Marigold Hydroalcoholic Extract in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats: Evaluation of Cardiac and Pancreatic Biomarkers in the Serum Mon, 11 Jan 2016 07:18:06 +0000 Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder worldwide and it is usually along with complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing and its treatment has created concerns in society. The use of herbal medicine can be helpful in the management of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of marigold hydroalcoholic extract under diabetes condition. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and groups treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of marigold flower during four weeks. At the end of the study, the rats were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine, and sampling was performed through cardiac puncture. The results showed that treatment with marigold improved body weight. In addition, we determined that marigold normalized the level of CK-MB, total CK, amylase, and lipase in a dose-dependent manner. Probably these effects resulted from antioxidant property of marigold; thus we suggest that marigold flower can be useful for reduction of diabetes complication. Esmaeel Ebrahimi, Saeed Shirali, and Rahman Talaei Copyright © 2016 Esmaeel Ebrahimi et al. All rights reserved. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Carotenoids in Four Species of Trentepohlia (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) Sun, 27 Dec 2015 12:50:43 +0000 Trentepohlia Martius, a dominant green subaerial alga, grows abundantly in Shillong and imparts the yellow, red, and orange colours to most of the tree barks, walls, rocks, and electric poles because of high accumulation of carotenoids in their filaments. This study emphasised the seasonal changes in carotenoid content amongst four different species of Trentepohlia, that is, T. diffracta, T. arborum, T. umbrina, and T. abietina, collected from four different substrata, that is, wall, rock, electric pole, and three types of tree bark (smooth, fissured, and rough). Quantitative estimation of different carotenoids, namely, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene, from HPLC chromatogram peak showed a significant seasonal variation in all of the four species and β-carotene was threefold more in winter compared to summer. Amongst the selected species, T. diffracta collected from wall contained the highest amount of β-carotene both in summer and in winter, followed by T. arborum from rock and T. abietina from bark, and least amount was in T. umbrina collected from electric pole. Comparing the carotenoid content in Trentepohlia abietina growing in different types of barks, sample from smooth bark had the highest amount of carotenoids both in summer and in winter, followed by the sample from rough bark, and lowest amount was noted in fissured bark. Diana Kharkongor and Papiya Ramanujam Copyright © 2015 Diana Kharkongor and Papiya Ramanujam. All rights reserved. Lack of Correlation between Ammonium Accumulation and Survival of Transgenic Birch Plants with Pine Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase Gene after “Basta” Herbicide Treatment Thu, 24 Dec 2015 13:31:31 +0000 Transformation of plants with genes encoding a glutamine synthetase (GS), a key nitrogen metabolism enzyme, is usually used to increase productivity. However, overexpression of these genes may increase resistance to phosphinothricin (PPT) that irreversibly inhibits GS causing ammonium accumulation in plant tissues. Transgenic plants of two birch (Betula pubescens) genotypes expressing a pine cytosolic GS gene were used for studying the PPT effect on trees. Two control and 8 transgenic lines were treated with herbicide “Basta” at dose equivalent to 2.5 and 5 Lha−1. Necrosis and abscission of leaves occurred irrespective of a transgenic status or the treatment dose. Ammonium content in leaf tissue in 3 days after the 5 Lha−1 treatment was substantially increased in all plants, 3.2–16.0 times depending on line. After the 2.5 Lha−1 treatment, ammonium content in three transgenic lines was not different from that in control variant sprayed with water. The herbicide treatment caused more prominent desiccation in the bp3f1 genotype nontransgenic plants as compared to transgenic plants, but not in the bp4a genotype. Lack of correlation between ammonium levels and survival of transgenic plants suggests that ammonium toxicity is not a main reason for the birch plant death after the PPT treatment. Vadim Lebedev, Vyacheslav Faskhiev, and Konstantin Shestibratov Copyright © 2015 Vadim Lebedev et al. All rights reserved. The Fate of Integrated Ri T-DNA rol Genes during Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis in Tylophora indica Tue, 08 Dec 2015 13:23:35 +0000 The fate of integrated Ri T-DNA rol genes during regeneration via indirect somatic embryogenesis and stability of its effect on morphology and tylophorine content of Ri-transformed plants have been studied in Tylophora indica. Integration and expression of Ri T-DNA genes in transformed embryogenic callus lines derived from transformed root lines, 300 Ri-transformed somatic embryos, and 23 Ri-transformed plant lines were analysed. Fifty root lines studied showed integration and expression of four rol genes of TL-DNA. Spontaneous regeneration via indirect somatic embryogenesis was obtained from root lines that were TL+/TR−. Stable integration and expression of rol genes were observed in root lines, embryogenic callus lines, and the spontaneously induced somatic embryos. Nineteen out of the 23 Ri-transformed plant lines and their clones showed phenotypic and genetic stability over the period of 3 years. Four Ri-transformed plants were morphologically similar to nontransformed plants but showed variation with the integration and expression of the rolA gene and absence of other rol genes. Variant Ri-transformed plant line A428#1-V showed highest tylophorine content ( mg gDW−1) among plant lines studied. The effects of T-DNA genes on growth, morphology, and tylophorine content of the Ri-transformed plants were stable in the long term culture. Dipasree Roychowdhury, Binay Chaubey, and Sumita Jha Copyright © 2015 Dipasree Roychowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Clonal Propagation of Swietenia macrophylla through Branch Cutting Thu, 05 Nov 2015 14:21:54 +0000 The study discloses the scopes of clonal propagation Swietenia macrophylla through branch cutting treated with IBA. A total of four hundred cuttings were used with four replications to assess the rooting ability. The study exposed significant () difference of rooted cuttings among the treatments. The highest (62.51%) rooting percent was observed in cutting with 0.4% IBA treatment. In addition, root number and its length per cutting were increased with increasing IBA concentration (). The experiment showed significant () difference of sprouting among the treatments. The highest (67.27%) percent of sprouting was observed in cuttings with 0.4% solution, which showed a similar fashion of percent of rooting. The study also showed significant () difference of shoot number per cutting, the length of the longest shoot, and number of leaves per cutting among the treatments. The overall survival of rooted cuttings after transfer to polybag significantly () differed among the cuttings treated with different IBA solution. The highest survival percentage (69.67%) was observed in the cuttings rooted with 0.4% IBA treatment and the lowest (55.6%) survival was found in cuttings treated with control. The use of 0.4% IBA treatment is suggested for rooting of juvenile leafy branch cutting of S. macrophylla. Md. Salim Azad and Md. Abdul Matin Copyright © 2015 Md. Salim Azad and Md. Abdul Matin. All rights reserved. Impact of Drought, Heat, and Their Combination on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Yield of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum) Thu, 05 Nov 2015 12:03:08 +0000 The impact of (long-term) drought acclimation and (short-term) heat stress and their combination on fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction curves (OJIP) and grain yield was tested using pot-grown plants of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) originating from Northern Egypt. Concerning agronomic traits, the main effect of drought was decreased biomass accumulation and grain yield, while heat specifically affected floral development. The treatments caused specific inhibitions of photosystem II (PSII) functionality. While heat stressed plants showed a reduction of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (), an indication of effects on oxygen evolving complex (OEC) functionality, and the connectivity of PSII units, these features were entirely missing in drought acclimated plants. Drought caused a reduction of the Performance Index () and of the relative amplitude of the IP-phase of the OJIP induction curve (). Individuals suffering from a combination of drought and heat showed a better ability to recover photosynthetic electron transport after the relief of stress in comparison to heat stressed plants. However, this improved capacity to recover was not accompanied by an increased grain yield. Thus, we conclude that chlorophyll fluorescence measurements provide valuable physiological data; however, their use in agronomic studies for the prediction of agronomic traits should be done with some precaution. Christoph Jedmowski, Ahmed Ashoub, Osama Momtaz, and Wolfgang Brüggemann Copyright © 2015 Christoph Jedmowski et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of Heracleum persicum and Ziziphus jujuba on Activity of Alpha-Amylase Mon, 12 Oct 2015 09:04:15 +0000 Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of alpha-amylase was led to a delay in breaks down of starch and glycogen and prevented a rapid rise in blood sugar. Alpha-amylase was isolated by gel filtration chromatography Sephadex G-75 from bovine pancreas. Then, total methanolic extracts of plants were prepared and IC50 values of extracts on alpha-amylase were obtained and compared with acarbose IC50. The polyphenolic content of extracts and antioxidant capacity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and DPPH test, respectively. The specific activity of alpha-amylase was 48.2 U/mg. For inhibition of alpha-amylase, IC50 values of H. persicum, Z. jujuba, and acarbose were 307, 827, and 113 μg/ml, respectively. For inhibition of DPPH radical, IC50 values of extracts were 235 and 701 μg/ml. Total phenolic contents of methanol extracts were and  μg tannic acid equivalent/mg extract. Acarbose causes gastrointestinal symptoms and liver toxicity, but H. persicum and Z. jujuba decrease these side effects and prevent gastrointestinal disorders. Due to the high polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these plants and significant inhibitory effect of the plants on alpha-amylase, these plants can be proposed for treatment of diabetic patients. Reza Afrisham, Mohammad Aberomand, Mohammad Ali Ghaffari, Amir Siahpoosh, and Mostafa Jamalan Copyright © 2015 Reza Afrisham et al. All rights reserved. Floristic Composition, Vegetation Structure, and Regeneration Status of Woody Plant Species of Oda Forest of Humbo Carbon Project, Wolaita, Ethiopia Sun, 27 Sep 2015 13:54:19 +0000 Our current study was conducted in Oda forest to explore floristic composition, vegetation structure, and regeneration of woody species in a newly established Humbo Carbon Project. In the project, the above information for sufficient conservation and management of the forest is not well documented. Data were collected in October and December 2014. Thirty-two quadrats (20 m × 20 m) lying 100 m far apart were used for shrub and tree data. In each major plot, subplots (1 m2) were established at the center and corner for seedlings and saplings data. Altitude, slope, and aspect were measured using GPS and clinometers. DBH, basal area, and IVI were used for vegetation structure. Among 62 species confined in 32 families and 54 genera, Dodonaea angustifolia and Combretum molle were the densest and the most dominant and frequent species with higher IVI. Altitude and slope had significant effect () on basal area and dominance. Bell and inverted J shaped patterns of selected woody species were identified. The seedling, sapling, and matured tree had 2.3%, 23.7%, and 74% density ha−1 of individuals, respectively. Generally, the study confirmed that very few species had dominance and abundance, influence of altitude and slope on species distribution, and fair regeneration of the forest. Markos Kuma and Simon Shibru Copyright © 2015 Markos Kuma and Simon Shibru. All rights reserved. Manner of Apical Meristem Destruction Affects Growth, Reproduction, and Survival of Sea Oxeye Daisy Sun, 20 Sep 2015 09:24:08 +0000 Although herbivory may result in plant death, the mode and timing of damage may produce variable wounding responses in the attacked plant. In this study, effects of different types of apical meristem damage on growth and performance of sea oxeye daisy Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC were compared. Damage involved either clipping or galling of the apical meristem by the gall midge Asphondylia borrichiae Rossi and Strong. Apical dominance was relatively weak before flowering and stronger in short ramets that were shaded by taller neighbors later in the season. Clipped ramets delayed sprouting new stems, and galled ramets sprouted new stems quickly compared to intact ramets, but final stem counts were similar across treatments. Clipping significantly delayed flowering, reduced seed head ripening time, and resulted in fewer seed heads and seeds. Galling did not significantly impact reproduction compared to intact ramets. Nitrogen supplementation significantly increased stem count and seed count and lengthened seed ripening time. Borrichia frutescens responds differently to clipping versus galling by A. borrichiae and better tolerates galling in terms of nonreproductive performance and survival. Galling from A. borrichiae likely prevents Borrichia frutescens from flowering, which suggests resource regulation of meristems by the midge. Lisa S. Spirko and Anthony M. Rossi Copyright © 2015 Lisa S. Spirko and Anthony M. Rossi. All rights reserved. Vegetative Propagation Trial of Prosopis africana (Guill. et Perr.) Taub. by Air Layering under Sudano-Sahelian Climate in the South-Central Niger Thu, 17 Sep 2015 09:52:11 +0000 Prosopis africana is a species of great socioeconomic importance but threatened with extinction in Niger because of overuse and regeneration problem. This study, conducted in the Maradi (Niger) area, precisely at El Gueza in the south of Gazaoua department, aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of P. africana by air layering under the Sudano-Sahelian climate of the south-central Niger. A ring of bark was taken on each selected branch and the wound was covered with a black plastic filled with a damp mixture of soil and wood debris. The chosen parameters are the diameter class and the position on the branch. In all, 60 branches were treated and followed for 130 days: 28.33% produced shoots and there was no significant difference between the diameter classes and between the positions. These results show that propagating trees of the species by air layering is possible and this technique can be used to multiply and keep this species, which will reduce the regeneration problem linked to a low seed germination rate. Laouali Abdou, Saley Karim, Rabiou Habou, and Ali Mahamane Copyright © 2015 Laouali Abdou et al. All rights reserved. Morphophysiological Behavior and Cambial Activity in Seedlings of Two Amazonian Tree Species under Shade Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:27:58 +0000 Variations in light intensity can lead to important anatomical and morphophysiological changes in plants. Aiming to increase knowledge about the Amazonian tree species, this study examines the influence of shade on the cambial activity and development of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby seedlings. Seedlings of the two species were grown in a nursery under four shade intensities (treatments): full sun, low, moderate, and high shade (resp., 0%, 23%, 67%, and 73% of shade, or 2000, 1540, 660, and 540 µmol·m−2·s−1) obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, stomatal conductance (), transpiration (E), photosynthesis (A), and cambial activity (CA) (xylem, cambium, and phloem). Also, we calculated the Dickson Quality Index (DQI). The highest values of biomass production, ,  E, A, and DQI, were found under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. In both species high shade intensity reduced CA. We concluded that the CA and the physiological and morphological attributes work together, explaining the radial growth and increasing seedlings quality, which optimized efficient seedling production under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes, Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho, Marco Antônio Menezes Neto, and Eniel David Cruz Copyright © 2015 Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes et al. All rights reserved. Purpose of Introduction as a Predictor of Invasiveness among Introduced Shrubs in Rwanda Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:58:43 +0000 The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species’ purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive. Jean Leonard Seburanga Copyright © 2015 Jean Leonard Seburanga. All rights reserved. Production and Metabolism of Indole Acetic Acid in Root Nodules and Symbiont (Rhizobium undicola) Isolated from Root Nodule of Aquatic Medicinal Legume Neptunia oleracea Lour. Sun, 18 Jan 2015 06:20:59 +0000 Indole acetic acid is a phytohormone which plays a vital role in plant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to shed some light on the production of IAA in roots, nodules, and symbionts of an aquatic legume Neptunia oleracea and its possible role in nodular symbiosis. The symbiont (N37) was isolated from nodules of this plant and identified as Rhizobium undicola based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence homology, and DNA-DNA hybridization results. The root nodules were found to contain more IAA and tryptophan than root; however, no detectable amount of IAA was found in root. The IAA metabolizing enzymes IAA oxidase, IAA peroxidase (E.C., and polyphenol oxidase (E.C. were higher in root than nodule but total phenol and IAA content were reversed. The strain N37 was found to produce copious amount of IAA in YEM broth medium with tryptophan and reached its stationary phase at 20 h. An enrichment of the medium with mannitol, ammonium sulphate, B12, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was found to promote the IAA production. The presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes and IAA production with PGPR traits including ACC deaminase activity of the symbionts was essential for plant microbe interaction and nodule function. Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tarun Kumar De, and Tushar Kanti Maiti Copyright © 2015 Pallab Kumar Ghosh et al. All rights reserved. Ex Vitro Seedling Development from In Vitro Rhizome-Like Bodies in Eulophia promensis Lindl.: A New Technique for Orchid Propagation Wed, 14 Jan 2015 06:58:47 +0000 This communication describes in vitro seed germination, embryo differentiation, and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro rhizome-like bodies of a terrestrial orchid, Eulophia promensis Lindl. Effects of two nutrient media, namely, Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Phytotechnology Orchid Seed Sowing medium (P723) supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1) and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1) and activated charcoal (2.0 gL−1), were studied on seed germination and subsequent development of embryos. Maximum seed germination (100%) was recorded in P723 medium fortified with 1.0 mgL−1 BAP + 2.0 gL−1 activated charcoal. The different developmental stages of protocorm morphogenesis were traced out. In subsequent subcultures, the protocorms proliferated profusely and developed rhizome-like bodies (RLBs) with numerous hair-like structures. These RLBs were transferred to pots containing potting mixture composed of humus + coir dust + saw dust (1 : 1 : 1) where ∼80% of RLBs survived and produced 1–3 seedlings per RLB. This is the first time report for in vitro germination of seeds and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro raised RLBs in Eulophia promensis. This is a time saving and cost effective protocol that could be extended to other economically important, rare, and endangered orchids for propagation and conservation. Mohammad Musharof Hossain Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Musharof Hossain. All rights reserved. Effects of pH, Photoperiod, and Nutrient on Germination and Growth of Calymperes erosum C. Muell. Gemmaling Wed, 31 Dec 2014 14:01:36 +0000 Effects of pH, photoperiod, and substrate nutrient concentration on the rate of germination of the gemmae and primary protonema growth of Calymperes erosum C. Muell. were studied. There was a statistically significant difference in germination of C. erosum gemmae and protonema growth among the different substrate pH levels, photoperiod treatments, and substrate nutrient conditions, respectively (). Gemmae germination and protonemal growth peaked at pH 4 and 5. Protonemal growth was retarded at pH 2, 3, 6, and 7. No germination was observed in continuous darkness. Germination and protonema growth increased significantly () within the first 3 and 6 hours of daylight but not again until after 9 and 12 hours of exposure, respectively. No statistical () increase in germination and protonemal growth was observed when the nutrient concentration was increased from 25% to 200%. Results indicate the moss is adapted to low nutrients and that it may germinate well at substrate pH as low as 2 howbeit the probability of establishment will remain limited until pH levels improve to 4 or 5. Furthermore, the moss is able to achieve net photosynthetic carbon gain during morning hours. Recovery from photoinhibition is likely by evening. Anthony Zinno Ogbimi, Yetunde Biodun Owoeye, Victor Oluwaseyi Ibiyemi, and Akpos Valentino Bofede Copyright © 2014 Anthony Zinno Ogbimi et al. All rights reserved. Investigating the Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Activities of Shoot and Root of Pycreus smithianus (Ridl.) C. B. Clarke (Family Cyperaceae) Wed, 31 Dec 2014 06:30:22 +0000 Pycreus smithianus tubers have been reported to have insecticidal properties. To gain further insight into its medicinal values, phytochemical and antimicrobial studies were carried out on its shoot and root. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of reducing sugars, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, and saponins in varying quantities as well as absence of steroids and alkaloids. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts (shoot and root) were tested against two fungi—Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans—and two bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. Antimicrobial activity evaluation was carried out at 50 and 100 mg/mL concentrations by Agar Well Diffusion method. From the antimicrobial evaluation, the root ethanolic extract at 100% concentration was the most effective against S. aureus and C. albicans while the shoot ethanolic extract was effective against S. typhi. No extract was active against A. niger. Ethanolic extracts were more active than the aqueous extracts and showed higher inhibitory activity against the bacteria than the fungi. This is most likely due to the abundance of reducing sugars in the ethanolic extracts. From these findings, ethanolic extracts of the root of P. smithianus exhibited a good potential source of new drug for treating infections caused by these pathogens and particularly drug resistant C. albicans. P. A. Adeonipekun, T. A. Adeniyi, and S. O. Aminu Copyright © 2014 P. A. Adeonipekun et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Phytoliths as Emerging Taxonomic Tools for Identification of Plants: An Overview Wed, 10 Dec 2014 10:48:37 +0000 Journal of Botany Copyright © 2014 Journal of Botany. All rights reserved. Morphoanatomical and Biochemical Changes in the Roots of Rice Plants Induced by Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms Tue, 25 Nov 2014 09:46:36 +0000 The goal of the present study was to characterize anatomical and biochemical changes in rice plant roots in response to seed treatment with rhizobacteria (Burkholderia pyrrocinia (R-46) + Pseudomonas fluorescens (R-55)) and Trichoderma asperellum (Ta: mixture of strains T-06, T-09, T-12, and T-52). The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments (R-46, R-55, R-46 + R-55, Ta+ R-46 + R-55, Ta, and control) and ten replicates. Treatments Ta and R-46 + R-55 increased the root length and diameter as well as the cortex expansion and induced a 2% expansion of the aerenchymal space. Treatments Ta and R-46 increased the vascular cylinder diameter. The number of protoxylem poles and metaxylem vessel elements was increased by R-46 and R-55. The total phenol content increased with treatments Ta, R-46 + R-55, R-46, and R-55, and all the treatments increased the flavonoid content. The lignin content increased with the Ta and R-55 treatments. All the root architecture modifications resulting from the interaction between seedlings and bioagents (rhizobacteria and Trichoderma spp.) observed in the present study favored the root plasticity of rice seedlings. Marcela Cristiane Ferreira Rêgo, Fernanda Ilkiu-Borges, Marta Cristina Corsi de Filippi, Letícia Almeida Gonçalves, and Gisele Barata da Silva Copyright © 2014 Marcela Cristiane Ferreira Rêgo et al. All rights reserved. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We reported for the first time AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in seven and five species, respectively. Intermediate-type AM morphology was common, and AM morphology is reported for the first time in 16 plant species. Both AM and DSE fungal colonization varied significantly across plant species and sites. Intact and identifiable AM fungal spores occurred in root zones of nine plant species, but AM fungal species richness was low. Though no clear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonization was recognized, a significant negative correlation between AM colonization and spore numbers was established. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in plants growing in hydrophytic and wetland habitats is not as common as in terrestrial habitats. Kumar Seerangan and Muthukumar Thangavelu Copyright © 2014 Kumar Seerangan and Muthukumar Thangavelu. All rights reserved. Viola canescens: Herbal Wealth to Be Conserved Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:00:41 +0000 Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb., commonly known as Himalayan White Violet, belongs to Violaceae family. It is found in the Himalayan regions of Pakistan, India, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is a perennial herb which mostly prefers to grow in the shady and moist places. V. canescens is an important medicinal plant which is mostly used in the traditional medicinal system for cough, cold, flu, fever, and malaria and is also given as anticancerous drug. So far, violin (alkaloid), viola quercitrin, methyl salicylate, and saponins are the different phytochemicals which are extracted from this plant. Molecular studies on V. canescens suggest that, in case of adulteration in the powdered form of Viola species, they can be distinguishable by the lengths of their spacer regions. Because of the overexploitation of V. canescens for medicinal purposes, the conservational status of V. canescens in different regions became endangered. It is the need of the hour to utilize different conservational strategies and save this precious medicinal wealth from extinction. Maria Masood, Muhammad Arshad, Saira Asif, and Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari Copyright © 2014 Maria Masood et al. All rights reserved. New Cultivars Derived from Crosses between Commercial Cultivar and a Wild Population of Papaya Rescued at Its Center of Origin Wed, 24 Sep 2014 05:35:51 +0000 In order to generate new varieties, this study focused on the rescue and use of landraces and wild Carica papaya L. populations located at southern Yucatan, Mexico, to cross them with a commercial papaya cultivar (Maradol). In the cross L7 × M22, The native parent line L7 was used as the receiver parent while the commercial Maradol (M22) was used as the donor parent, seeking to generate genotypes with improved productivity and reduced plant height. Cluster analysis and principal components analysis grouped the genotypes firstly into those individuals with few fruits and those with many fruits and secondly into individuals with high and low plant height. Selected genotypes H13B, H17B, H19B, H68B, and H71B meet the desirable characteristics, such as reduced plant height (PH) and intermediate number of fruits per plant (NFP). These materials can be used now to produce new crosses to continue with the ongoing breeding program at CICY, seeking new varieties with higher productivity and adequate plant height, and also these genotypes will be preserved and integrated in the germplasm bank in situ and in vitro for further genetic work and possible exchange with other germplasm collections worldwide. Mariela Vázquez Calderón, Manuel Jesús Zavala León, Fernando Amilcar Contreras Martín, Francisco Espadas y Gil, Abelardo Navarrete Yabur, Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez Teyer, and Jorge M. Santamaría Copyright © 2014 Mariela Vázquez Calderón et al. All rights reserved. Morphological Responses Explain Tolerance of the Bamboo Yushania microphylla to Grazing Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:23:18 +0000 Mechanisms of tolerance of the bamboo Y. microphylla to ungulate herbivory were investigated by measuring above- and belowground morphogenetic traits and biomass allocation patterns of the bamboo Y. microphylla under grazed and ungrazed conditions in a Himalayan mixed conifer forest. Data were collected from 5 populations consisting of 10 ramets each in adjacent grazed and ungrazed plots. Compared with ungrazed ramets, the aboveground morphological modifications of grazed ramets were higher culm density, shorter and thinner culms, shorter internode, and shorter top leaf. The belowground morphological modifications for the grazed ramets were thinner rhizomes, lower rhizome biomass and dry matter, more nodes, and shorter internodes. Despite the lower biomass and dry matter, the root-to-shoot ratio was higher for grazed ramets. Results suggest that Y. microphylla subjected to herbivory shows aboveground overcompensation in terms of densification at the cost of belowground biomass, but at the same time maintains a higher proportion of belowground reserves, as compared to ungrazed conditions. These responses provide adequate evidence to conclude that Y. microphylla tolerates ungulate herbivory through above- and belowground morphological modifications. Kesang Wangchuk, Andras Darabant, and Prem Bahadur Rai Copyright © 2014 Kesang Wangchuk et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Water Regime on the Structure of Roots and Stems of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:50:36 +0000 Yield improvement of durum wheat is considerably limited by the expression of environmental abiotic factors. Water deficits are one of these limiting factors. Plants develop various strategies to tolerate the effects of water deficit. Some of such mechanisms might occur in the root and stem systems. The present study aimed to investigate some anatomical traits contributing to the drought tolerance in the durum wheat. The anatomical variations of the meristem of roots and stems, as a response to water deficit, were evaluated. The results indicated that the enhancement of the intensity of water deficit was accompanied by profound structural changes in the piliferous zone of roots. Water deficit caused a significant decrease in the diameter of the newly formed adventitious roots, which can be explained by a reduction in the thickness of the cortical parenchyma, through the reduction of cell size. This action was usually a contrary effect in the principal adventitious roots. The study also showed that increasing the intensity of water deficit reduced the diameter of vessels in the primary xylem, thereby increasing the hydraulic resistance of roots and lowering the flow of sap. Amina Labdelli, Ahmed Adda, Youcef Halis, and Samira Soualem Copyright © 2014 Amina Labdelli et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method to Overcome Coat-Imposed Seed Dormancy in Lupinus albus L. and Trifolium pratense L. Sun, 03 Aug 2014 09:09:17 +0000 We have developed a novel method to overcome coat-imposed seed dormancy in legume plants. Seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Trifolium pratense L. were stored in a freezer at −80°C for a period of time and then immediately treated with or without hot water at 90°C for 5 seconds. Germination tests were carried out in darkness at °C with four replications in a completely randomized design. Final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate, and synchrony of seeds were evaluated. The results showed that new approach of freeze-thaw scarification provided high percentage of germinations in white lupin (84.16%) and red clover (74.50%) seeds while control seeds had FGPs of 3.3% and 26.0%, respectively. The immediate thawing of frozen seeds in hot water for 5 seconds was found not only an effective and reliable but also the quickest seed treatment method to prevail against coat-imposed seed dormancy in legume species and may become operationally applicable to other plant species. Iskender Tiryaki and Mustafa Topu Copyright © 2014 Iskender Tiryaki and Mustafa Topu. All rights reserved. In Vitro Conservation of Some Threatened and Economically Important Ferns Belonging to the Indian Subcontinent Thu, 10 Jul 2014 08:33:41 +0000 This study was undertaken to identify methods of mass multiplication for five ornamental, economically important ferns (Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott., N. cordifolia cv. ‘‘duffii’’ (L.) Presl., N. exaltata cv. bostoniensis (L.) Schott., Pteris vittata L., and Cyclosorus dentatus Link.,) and three threatened ferns, namely, Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex. Hook, Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link., and Microsorum punctatum (L.) Schott., through in vitro techniques. Collections were made from different biodiversity zones of India including Northeast Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, and Western Ghat and successfully introduced and grown in a fern-house. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. An optimized medium is described for each fern species. Plantlets were also produced from spore culture of Cyathea spinulosa and successfully hardened under fern house conditions. Shastri P. Shukla and P. B. Khare Copyright © 2014 Shastri P. Shukla and P. B. Khare. All rights reserved. Vegetational Diversity Analysis across Different Habitats in Garhwal Himalaya Mon, 07 Jul 2014 08:00:25 +0000 Four forest sites varying in vegetation types were studied along an altitudinal range between 2200 and 2500 m. Maximum tree, shrub, and herb species were recorded on stream bank site (22, 25, and 54, resp.). Pteridophytes and bryophytes species richness was maximum on moist site (4 and 5, resp.). The number of climbers was greater in moist and dry habitats (7 species each). Parasitic species were restricted only on dry and stream bank habitats. Restricted tree and shrub species were greater on stream bank site and dry site, respectively. The herb and climber species were greater on moist site. The distribution and species richness pattern in this elevational range largely depend on the altitude and climatic variables. Along the entire range of Garhwal Himalaya, the overlapping among species regimes is broad; therefore, transitional communities having mixture of many species and zones are present. The present study indicates that the opening canopies increase the richness of tree, shrub, herb, and climbers. Vardan Singh Rawat and Jagdish Chandra Copyright © 2014 Vardan Singh Rawat and Jagdish Chandra. All rights reserved. Phytoliths as Emerging Taxonomic Tools for Identification of Plants: An Overview Thu, 29 May 2014 14:28:11 +0000 In the recent advancements in identification of plant species, phytoliths have found an immense role in the identification of plants at different levels of taxonomic hierarchy. Many plant groups are known to accumulate silica in solid form in and between the cells and tissues and hence create the structures commonly known as phytoliths. These phytoliths create replicas of the structures where they are deposited. The shapes of phytolith replicas, their size dimensions (morphometric parameters), surface features (ornamentation), distribution, and orientation pattern in epidermal layers of vegetative and reproductive structures as well as their frequency are highly important for characterization of species. Monocotyledonous families particularly the family Poaceae (Gramineae) are known to produce diverse phytolith types that can serve as diagnostic markers for characterization of different taxa at different levels of taxonomic hierarchy. The present paper highlights the importance of phytoliths in taxonomic analysis of plants particularly in the family Poaceae. Sheikh Abdul Shakoor and Mudassir Ahmad Bhat Copyright © 2014 Sheikh Abdul Shakoor and Mudassir Ahmad Bhat. All rights reserved. Zinc Induced Enzymatic Defense Mechanisms in Rhizoctonia Root Rot Infected Clusterbean Seedlings Mon, 26 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This investigation was planned to determine the effect of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) on biochemical constituents of clusterbean, which play an important role in disease resistance mechanisms. Clusterbean seedlings were grown with 0, 10, or 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatments in earthen pots filled with 700 g inoculated soil. Soil was inoculated by pretreatment with 250 mg (wet weight) of Rhizoctonia inoculums per pot. A similar set was maintained in uninoculated soil. Root rot incidence decreased to 41 and 27 per cent with 10 and 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatments, respectively, as compared to 68 percent at control. Antioxidative enzyme activity (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and tyrosine ammonia lyase) increased in inoculated seedlings and was increased further by 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatment. Antioxidative enzymes play an important role against fungal invasion, as peroxidase is involved in the formation of barrier via lignifications at the site of pathogen penetration. PAL and TAL play a key role in phenylpropanoid metabolism and could perform defense-related functions. Zn acts as a cofactor for these enzymes, so it can be concluded that Zn may be used as a soil-nutritive agent to increase resistance in plants against fungal diseases. Neha Wadhwa, Udai Narayan Joshi, and Naresh Mehta Copyright © 2014 Neha Wadhwa et al. All rights reserved. Structure and Stability of Cocoa Flowers and Their Response to Pollination Sun, 02 Mar 2014 10:18:52 +0000 This study investigated the position of staminodes around the style of cocoa flowers and the stability of cocoa flowers relative to pollination and seasonality. Cocoa flowers were categorized into converging, ≤1.20 mm; parallel, 1.21–2.40 mm, and splay ≥2.41 mm, depending on the distance between the staminode and style. Some flowers were hand pollinated while others were not and were excluded from insect visitors. Proportions of flowers of converging (56.0%), parallel (37.5%), and splay (6.5%) remained similar along the vertical plane of cocoa trees. Although pollination rates of flowers with splay staminodes were the lowest, the overall pollination success of cocoa trees was not significantly affected because of the small proportion of splay flowers.The stability of the cocoa flowers depended on both the season and pollination. During the dry season, unpollinated flowers of cocoa trees showed a flower-stability ratio of 72% on the second day, while the flower-stability ratio was 94% in the wet season. Pollinated (senescent) flowers had a stability ratio of 95% after 5 days during the wet season, but all pollinated flowers dropped after 5 days in the dry season, indicating that seasonal factors, such as water stress, can have dramatic effects on cocoa yields. Kofi Frimpong-Anin, Michael K. Adjaloo, Peter K. Kwapong, and William Oduro Copyright © 2014 Kofi Frimpong-Anin et al. All rights reserved. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae Mon, 17 Feb 2014 11:33:52 +0000 Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4) and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3) per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum. Daniel Andrawus Zhigila, Abdullahi Alanamu AbdulRahaman, Opeyemi Saheed Kolawole, and Felix A. Oladele Copyright © 2014 Daniel Andrawus Zhigila et al. All rights reserved.