Journal of Botany The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Purpose of Introduction as a Predictor of Invasiveness among Introduced Shrubs in Rwanda Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:58:43 +0000 The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species’ purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive. Jean Leonard Seburanga Copyright © 2015 Jean Leonard Seburanga. All rights reserved. Production and Metabolism of Indole Acetic Acid in Root Nodules and Symbiont (Rhizobium undicola) Isolated from Root Nodule of Aquatic Medicinal Legume Neptunia oleracea Lour. Sun, 18 Jan 2015 06:20:59 +0000 Indole acetic acid is a phytohormone which plays a vital role in plant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to shed some light on the production of IAA in roots, nodules, and symbionts of an aquatic legume Neptunia oleracea and its possible role in nodular symbiosis. The symbiont (N37) was isolated from nodules of this plant and identified as Rhizobium undicola based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence homology, and DNA-DNA hybridization results. The root nodules were found to contain more IAA and tryptophan than root; however, no detectable amount of IAA was found in root. The IAA metabolizing enzymes IAA oxidase, IAA peroxidase (E.C., and polyphenol oxidase (E.C. were higher in root than nodule but total phenol and IAA content were reversed. The strain N37 was found to produce copious amount of IAA in YEM broth medium with tryptophan and reached its stationary phase at 20 h. An enrichment of the medium with mannitol, ammonium sulphate, B12, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was found to promote the IAA production. The presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes and IAA production with PGPR traits including ACC deaminase activity of the symbionts was essential for plant microbe interaction and nodule function. Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tarun Kumar De, and Tushar Kanti Maiti Copyright © 2015 Pallab Kumar Ghosh et al. All rights reserved. Ex Vitro Seedling Development from In Vitro Rhizome-Like Bodies in Eulophia promensis Lindl.: A New Technique for Orchid Propagation Wed, 14 Jan 2015 06:58:47 +0000 This communication describes in vitro seed germination, embryo differentiation, and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro rhizome-like bodies of a terrestrial orchid, Eulophia promensis Lindl. Effects of two nutrient media, namely, Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Phytotechnology Orchid Seed Sowing medium (P723) supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1) and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1) and activated charcoal (2.0 gL−1), were studied on seed germination and subsequent development of embryos. Maximum seed germination (100%) was recorded in P723 medium fortified with 1.0 mgL−1 BAP + 2.0 gL−1 activated charcoal. The different developmental stages of protocorm morphogenesis were traced out. In subsequent subcultures, the protocorms proliferated profusely and developed rhizome-like bodies (RLBs) with numerous hair-like structures. These RLBs were transferred to pots containing potting mixture composed of humus + coir dust + saw dust (1 : 1 : 1) where ∼80% of RLBs survived and produced 1–3 seedlings per RLB. This is the first time report for in vitro germination of seeds and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro raised RLBs in Eulophia promensis. This is a time saving and cost effective protocol that could be extended to other economically important, rare, and endangered orchids for propagation and conservation. Mohammad Musharof Hossain Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Musharof Hossain. All rights reserved. Effects of pH, Photoperiod, and Nutrient on Germination and Growth of Calymperes erosum C. Muell. Gemmaling Wed, 31 Dec 2014 14:01:36 +0000 Effects of pH, photoperiod, and substrate nutrient concentration on the rate of germination of the gemmae and primary protonema growth of Calymperes erosum C. Muell. were studied. There was a statistically significant difference in germination of C. erosum gemmae and protonema growth among the different substrate pH levels, photoperiod treatments, and substrate nutrient conditions, respectively (). Gemmae germination and protonemal growth peaked at pH 4 and 5. Protonemal growth was retarded at pH 2, 3, 6, and 7. No germination was observed in continuous darkness. Germination and protonema growth increased significantly () within the first 3 and 6 hours of daylight but not again until after 9 and 12 hours of exposure, respectively. No statistical () increase in germination and protonemal growth was observed when the nutrient concentration was increased from 25% to 200%. Results indicate the moss is adapted to low nutrients and that it may germinate well at substrate pH as low as 2 howbeit the probability of establishment will remain limited until pH levels improve to 4 or 5. Furthermore, the moss is able to achieve net photosynthetic carbon gain during morning hours. Recovery from photoinhibition is likely by evening. Anthony Zinno Ogbimi, Yetunde Biodun Owoeye, Victor Oluwaseyi Ibiyemi, and Akpos Valentino Bofede Copyright © 2014 Anthony Zinno Ogbimi et al. All rights reserved. Investigating the Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Activities of Shoot and Root of Pycreus smithianus (Ridl.) C. B. Clarke (Family Cyperaceae) Wed, 31 Dec 2014 06:30:22 +0000 Pycreus smithianus tubers have been reported to have insecticidal properties. To gain further insight into its medicinal values, phytochemical and antimicrobial studies were carried out on its shoot and root. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of reducing sugars, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, and saponins in varying quantities as well as absence of steroids and alkaloids. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts (shoot and root) were tested against two fungi—Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans—and two bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. Antimicrobial activity evaluation was carried out at 50 and 100 mg/mL concentrations by Agar Well Diffusion method. From the antimicrobial evaluation, the root ethanolic extract at 100% concentration was the most effective against S. aureus and C. albicans while the shoot ethanolic extract was effective against S. typhi. No extract was active against A. niger. Ethanolic extracts were more active than the aqueous extracts and showed higher inhibitory activity against the bacteria than the fungi. This is most likely due to the abundance of reducing sugars in the ethanolic extracts. From these findings, ethanolic extracts of the root of P. smithianus exhibited a good potential source of new drug for treating infections caused by these pathogens and particularly drug resistant C. albicans. P. A. Adeonipekun, T. A. Adeniyi, and S. O. Aminu Copyright © 2014 P. A. Adeonipekun et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Phytoliths as Emerging Taxonomic Tools for Identification of Plants: An Overview Wed, 10 Dec 2014 10:48:37 +0000 Journal of Botany Copyright © 2014 Journal of Botany. All rights reserved. Morphoanatomical and Biochemical Changes in the Roots of Rice Plants Induced by Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms Tue, 25 Nov 2014 09:46:36 +0000 The goal of the present study was to characterize anatomical and biochemical changes in rice plant roots in response to seed treatment with rhizobacteria (Burkholderia pyrrocinia (R-46) + Pseudomonas fluorescens (R-55)) and Trichoderma asperellum (Ta: mixture of strains T-06, T-09, T-12, and T-52). The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments (R-46, R-55, R-46 + R-55, Ta+ R-46 + R-55, Ta, and control) and ten replicates. Treatments Ta and R-46 + R-55 increased the root length and diameter as well as the cortex expansion and induced a 2% expansion of the aerenchymal space. Treatments Ta and R-46 increased the vascular cylinder diameter. The number of protoxylem poles and metaxylem vessel elements was increased by R-46 and R-55. The total phenol content increased with treatments Ta, R-46 + R-55, R-46, and R-55, and all the treatments increased the flavonoid content. The lignin content increased with the Ta and R-55 treatments. All the root architecture modifications resulting from the interaction between seedlings and bioagents (rhizobacteria and Trichoderma spp.) observed in the present study favored the root plasticity of rice seedlings. Marcela Cristiane Ferreira Rêgo, Fernanda Ilkiu-Borges, Marta Cristina Corsi de Filippi, Letícia Almeida Gonçalves, and Gisele Barata da Silva Copyright © 2014 Marcela Cristiane Ferreira Rêgo et al. All rights reserved. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We reported for the first time AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in seven and five species, respectively. Intermediate-type AM morphology was common, and AM morphology is reported for the first time in 16 plant species. Both AM and DSE fungal colonization varied significantly across plant species and sites. Intact and identifiable AM fungal spores occurred in root zones of nine plant species, but AM fungal species richness was low. Though no clear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonization was recognized, a significant negative correlation between AM colonization and spore numbers was established. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in plants growing in hydrophytic and wetland habitats is not as common as in terrestrial habitats. Kumar Seerangan and Muthukumar Thangavelu Copyright © 2014 Kumar Seerangan and Muthukumar Thangavelu. All rights reserved. Viola canescens: Herbal Wealth to Be Conserved Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:00:41 +0000 Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb., commonly known as Himalayan White Violet, belongs to Violaceae family. It is found in the Himalayan regions of Pakistan, India, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is a perennial herb which mostly prefers to grow in the shady and moist places. V. canescens is an important medicinal plant which is mostly used in the traditional medicinal system for cough, cold, flu, fever, and malaria and is also given as anticancerous drug. So far, violin (alkaloid), viola quercitrin, methyl salicylate, and saponins are the different phytochemicals which are extracted from this plant. Molecular studies on V. canescens suggest that, in case of adulteration in the powdered form of Viola species, they can be distinguishable by the lengths of their spacer regions. Because of the overexploitation of V. canescens for medicinal purposes, the conservational status of V. canescens in different regions became endangered. It is the need of the hour to utilize different conservational strategies and save this precious medicinal wealth from extinction. Maria Masood, Muhammad Arshad, Saira Asif, and Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari Copyright © 2014 Maria Masood et al. All rights reserved. New Cultivars Derived from Crosses between Commercial Cultivar and a Wild Population of Papaya Rescued at Its Center of Origin Wed, 24 Sep 2014 05:35:51 +0000 In order to generate new varieties, this study focused on the rescue and use of landraces and wild Carica papaya L. populations located at southern Yucatan, Mexico, to cross them with a commercial papaya cultivar (Maradol). In the cross L7 × M22, The native parent line L7 was used as the receiver parent while the commercial Maradol (M22) was used as the donor parent, seeking to generate genotypes with improved productivity and reduced plant height. Cluster analysis and principal components analysis grouped the genotypes firstly into those individuals with few fruits and those with many fruits and secondly into individuals with high and low plant height. Selected genotypes H13B, H17B, H19B, H68B, and H71B meet the desirable characteristics, such as reduced plant height (PH) and intermediate number of fruits per plant (NFP). These materials can be used now to produce new crosses to continue with the ongoing breeding program at CICY, seeking new varieties with higher productivity and adequate plant height, and also these genotypes will be preserved and integrated in the germplasm bank in situ and in vitro for further genetic work and possible exchange with other germplasm collections worldwide. Mariela Vázquez Calderón, Manuel Jesús Zavala León, Fernando Amilcar Contreras Martín, Francisco Espadas y Gil, Abelardo Navarrete Yabur, Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez Teyer, and Jorge M. Santamaría Copyright © 2014 Mariela Vázquez Calderón et al. All rights reserved. Morphological Responses Explain Tolerance of the Bamboo Yushania microphylla to Grazing Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:23:18 +0000 Mechanisms of tolerance of the bamboo Y. microphylla to ungulate herbivory were investigated by measuring above- and belowground morphogenetic traits and biomass allocation patterns of the bamboo Y. microphylla under grazed and ungrazed conditions in a Himalayan mixed conifer forest. Data were collected from 5 populations consisting of 10 ramets each in adjacent grazed and ungrazed plots. Compared with ungrazed ramets, the aboveground morphological modifications of grazed ramets were higher culm density, shorter and thinner culms, shorter internode, and shorter top leaf. The belowground morphological modifications for the grazed ramets were thinner rhizomes, lower rhizome biomass and dry matter, more nodes, and shorter internodes. Despite the lower biomass and dry matter, the root-to-shoot ratio was higher for grazed ramets. Results suggest that Y. microphylla subjected to herbivory shows aboveground overcompensation in terms of densification at the cost of belowground biomass, but at the same time maintains a higher proportion of belowground reserves, as compared to ungrazed conditions. These responses provide adequate evidence to conclude that Y. microphylla tolerates ungulate herbivory through above- and belowground morphological modifications. Kesang Wangchuk, Andras Darabant, and Prem Bahadur Rai Copyright © 2014 Kesang Wangchuk et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Water Regime on the Structure of Roots and Stems of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:50:36 +0000 Yield improvement of durum wheat is considerably limited by the expression of environmental abiotic factors. Water deficits are one of these limiting factors. Plants develop various strategies to tolerate the effects of water deficit. Some of such mechanisms might occur in the root and stem systems. The present study aimed to investigate some anatomical traits contributing to the drought tolerance in the durum wheat. The anatomical variations of the meristem of roots and stems, as a response to water deficit, were evaluated. The results indicated that the enhancement of the intensity of water deficit was accompanied by profound structural changes in the piliferous zone of roots. Water deficit caused a significant decrease in the diameter of the newly formed adventitious roots, which can be explained by a reduction in the thickness of the cortical parenchyma, through the reduction of cell size. This action was usually a contrary effect in the principal adventitious roots. The study also showed that increasing the intensity of water deficit reduced the diameter of vessels in the primary xylem, thereby increasing the hydraulic resistance of roots and lowering the flow of sap. Amina Labdelli, Ahmed Adda, Youcef Halis, and Samira Soualem Copyright © 2014 Amina Labdelli et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method to Overcome Coat-Imposed Seed Dormancy in Lupinus albus L. and Trifolium pratense L. Sun, 03 Aug 2014 09:09:17 +0000 We have developed a novel method to overcome coat-imposed seed dormancy in legume plants. Seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Trifolium pratense L. were stored in a freezer at −80°C for a period of time and then immediately treated with or without hot water at 90°C for 5 seconds. Germination tests were carried out in darkness at °C with four replications in a completely randomized design. Final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate, and synchrony of seeds were evaluated. The results showed that new approach of freeze-thaw scarification provided high percentage of germinations in white lupin (84.16%) and red clover (74.50%) seeds while control seeds had FGPs of 3.3% and 26.0%, respectively. The immediate thawing of frozen seeds in hot water for 5 seconds was found not only an effective and reliable but also the quickest seed treatment method to prevail against coat-imposed seed dormancy in legume species and may become operationally applicable to other plant species. Iskender Tiryaki and Mustafa Topu Copyright © 2014 Iskender Tiryaki and Mustafa Topu. All rights reserved. In Vitro Conservation of Some Threatened and Economically Important Ferns Belonging to the Indian Subcontinent Thu, 10 Jul 2014 08:33:41 +0000 This study was undertaken to identify methods of mass multiplication for five ornamental, economically important ferns (Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott., N. cordifolia cv. ‘‘duffii’’ (L.) Presl., N. exaltata cv. bostoniensis (L.) Schott., Pteris vittata L., and Cyclosorus dentatus Link.,) and three threatened ferns, namely, Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex. Hook, Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link., and Microsorum punctatum (L.) Schott., through in vitro techniques. Collections were made from different biodiversity zones of India including Northeast Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, and Western Ghat and successfully introduced and grown in a fern-house. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. An optimized medium is described for each fern species. Plantlets were also produced from spore culture of Cyathea spinulosa and successfully hardened under fern house conditions. Shastri P. Shukla and P. B. Khare Copyright © 2014 Shastri P. Shukla and P. B. Khare. All rights reserved. Vegetational Diversity Analysis across Different Habitats in Garhwal Himalaya Mon, 07 Jul 2014 08:00:25 +0000 Four forest sites varying in vegetation types were studied along an altitudinal range between 2200 and 2500 m. Maximum tree, shrub, and herb species were recorded on stream bank site (22, 25, and 54, resp.). Pteridophytes and bryophytes species richness was maximum on moist site (4 and 5, resp.). The number of climbers was greater in moist and dry habitats (7 species each). Parasitic species were restricted only on dry and stream bank habitats. Restricted tree and shrub species were greater on stream bank site and dry site, respectively. The herb and climber species were greater on moist site. The distribution and species richness pattern in this elevational range largely depend on the altitude and climatic variables. Along the entire range of Garhwal Himalaya, the overlapping among species regimes is broad; therefore, transitional communities having mixture of many species and zones are present. The present study indicates that the opening canopies increase the richness of tree, shrub, herb, and climbers. Vardan Singh Rawat and Jagdish Chandra Copyright © 2014 Vardan Singh Rawat and Jagdish Chandra. All rights reserved. Phytoliths as Emerging Taxonomic Tools for Identification of Plants: An Overview Thu, 29 May 2014 14:28:11 +0000 In the recent advancements in identification of plant species, phytoliths have found an immense role in the identification of plants at different levels of taxonomic hierarchy. Many plant groups are known to accumulate silica in solid form in and between the cells and tissues and hence create the structures commonly known as phytoliths. These phytoliths create replicas of the structures where they are deposited. The shapes of phytolith replicas, their size dimensions (morphometric parameters), surface features (ornamentation), distribution, and orientation pattern in epidermal layers of vegetative and reproductive structures as well as their frequency are highly important for characterization of species. Monocotyledonous families particularly the family Poaceae (Gramineae) are known to produce diverse phytolith types that can serve as diagnostic markers for characterization of different taxa at different levels of taxonomic hierarchy. The present paper highlights the importance of phytoliths in taxonomic analysis of plants particularly in the family Poaceae. Sheikh Abdul Shakoor and Mudassir Ahmad Bhat Copyright © 2014 Sheikh Abdul Shakoor and Mudassir Ahmad Bhat. All rights reserved. Zinc Induced Enzymatic Defense Mechanisms in Rhizoctonia Root Rot Infected Clusterbean Seedlings Mon, 26 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This investigation was planned to determine the effect of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) on biochemical constituents of clusterbean, which play an important role in disease resistance mechanisms. Clusterbean seedlings were grown with 0, 10, or 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatments in earthen pots filled with 700 g inoculated soil. Soil was inoculated by pretreatment with 250 mg (wet weight) of Rhizoctonia inoculums per pot. A similar set was maintained in uninoculated soil. Root rot incidence decreased to 41 and 27 per cent with 10 and 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatments, respectively, as compared to 68 percent at control. Antioxidative enzyme activity (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and tyrosine ammonia lyase) increased in inoculated seedlings and was increased further by 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatment. Antioxidative enzymes play an important role against fungal invasion, as peroxidase is involved in the formation of barrier via lignifications at the site of pathogen penetration. PAL and TAL play a key role in phenylpropanoid metabolism and could perform defense-related functions. Zn acts as a cofactor for these enzymes, so it can be concluded that Zn may be used as a soil-nutritive agent to increase resistance in plants against fungal diseases. Neha Wadhwa, Udai Narayan Joshi, and Naresh Mehta Copyright © 2014 Neha Wadhwa et al. All rights reserved. Structure and Stability of Cocoa Flowers and Their Response to Pollination Sun, 02 Mar 2014 10:18:52 +0000 This study investigated the position of staminodes around the style of cocoa flowers and the stability of cocoa flowers relative to pollination and seasonality. Cocoa flowers were categorized into converging, ≤1.20 mm; parallel, 1.21–2.40 mm, and splay ≥2.41 mm, depending on the distance between the staminode and style. Some flowers were hand pollinated while others were not and were excluded from insect visitors. Proportions of flowers of converging (56.0%), parallel (37.5%), and splay (6.5%) remained similar along the vertical plane of cocoa trees. Although pollination rates of flowers with splay staminodes were the lowest, the overall pollination success of cocoa trees was not significantly affected because of the small proportion of splay flowers.The stability of the cocoa flowers depended on both the season and pollination. During the dry season, unpollinated flowers of cocoa trees showed a flower-stability ratio of 72% on the second day, while the flower-stability ratio was 94% in the wet season. Pollinated (senescent) flowers had a stability ratio of 95% after 5 days during the wet season, but all pollinated flowers dropped after 5 days in the dry season, indicating that seasonal factors, such as water stress, can have dramatic effects on cocoa yields. Kofi Frimpong-Anin, Michael K. Adjaloo, Peter K. Kwapong, and William Oduro Copyright © 2014 Kofi Frimpong-Anin et al. All rights reserved. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae Mon, 17 Feb 2014 11:33:52 +0000 Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4) and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3) per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum. Daniel Andrawus Zhigila, Abdullahi Alanamu AbdulRahaman, Opeyemi Saheed Kolawole, and Felix A. Oladele Copyright © 2014 Daniel Andrawus Zhigila et al. All rights reserved. Anatomy and Histochemistry of Roots and Shoots in Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:28:14 +0000 Wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) is a famous, perennial, emergent vegetable in China. The current work explores the anatomy and histochemistry of roots, stems, and leaves and the permeability of apoplastic barriers of wild rice. The adventitious roots in wild rice have suberized and lignified endodermis and adjacent, thick-walled cortical layers and suberized and lignified hypodermis, composed of a uniseriate sclerenchyma layer (SC) underlying uniseriate exodermis; they also have lysigenous aerenchyma. Stems have a thickened epidermal cuticle, a narrow peripheral mechanical ring (PMR), an outer ring of vascular bundles, and an inner ring of vascular bundles embedded in a multiseriate sclerenchyma ring (SCR). There is evidence of suberin in stem SCR and PMR sclerenchyma cells. Sheathing leaves are characterized by thick cuticles and fibrous bundle sheath extensions. Air spaces in stems and leaves consist of mostly lysigenous aerenchyma and pith cavities in stems. Apoplastic barriers are found in roots and stems. Chaodong Yang, Xia Zhang, Junkai Li, Manzhu Bao, Dejiang Ni, and James L. Seago Jr. Copyright © 2014 Chaodong Yang et al. All rights reserved. Composted Rice Husk Improves the Growth and Biochemical Parameters of Sunflower Plants Wed, 22 Jan 2014 12:51:51 +0000 The present study investigated the effects of composted rice husk (5 and 26; 10 g/2 kg of soil/pot) on growth and biochemical parameters of sunflower plants at the 30th and 60th day of germination. Result showed significant improvement in growth and biochemical parameters of plants as compared to control plants treated with uncomposted organic fertilizer. However, the effects vary with the microbial treatments involved in the composting of rice husk like composted with T. hamatum (JUF1), bradyrhizobium sp-II (JUR2) alone, and JUF1 in combination with Rhizobium sp-I (JUR1) were found effective in improving the shoot and root lengths, total chlorophyll, carbohydrate, crude protein, and mineral (nitrogen and phosphorus) content of sunflower plants. It indicates that composted rice husk with improved total carbohydrate and protein contents may increase the soil fertility by improving its organic content. Rabia Badar and Shamim A. Qureshi Copyright © 2014 Rabia Badar and Shamim A. Qureshi. All rights reserved. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts Obtained from Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia (Willd.) Batt. Ovaries Calli Mon, 20 Jan 2014 12:43:02 +0000 Objective. Plant cell culture is an innovative technology to produce a variety of substances. Numerous plants synthesize among their secondary metabolites phenolic compounds which possess antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Hawthorn (Crataegus) is one of these plants which has long been used in folk medicine and is widely utilized in pharmaceutical preparations mainly in neuro- and cardiosedative actions. Methods and Results. The production of polyphenol by fifty-two-week-old Crataegus azarolus var. aronia calli was studied in relation to growth variation and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity within a subcultured period. The DPPH and ABTS+ assays were used to characterize the antioxidant actions of the callus cultures. Antimicrobial activity was tested by using disc diffusion and dilution assays for the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of each active extract. High TEACDPPH, TEACABTS, and antimicrobial activity was observed when maximal growth was reached. An optimum of total phenol, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid, (−)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid, and hyperoside was produced during this period. Conclusion. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were strongly correlated with total phenols and total flavonoids. Crataegus azarolus var. aronia cells culture represents an important alternative source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Radhia Bahri-Sahloul, Radhia Ben Fredj, Naima Boughalleb, Jihène Shriaa, Saâd Saguem, Jean-Louis Hilbert, Francis Trotin, Saida Ammar, Sadok Bouzid, and Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri Copyright © 2014 Radhia Bahri-Sahloul et al. All rights reserved. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths Sun, 12 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot) into unfertilized soil (control) and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM) at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT). Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently. Stephen Oyedeji, David Adedayo Animasaun, Abdullahi Ajibola Bello, and Oludare Oladipo Agboola Copyright © 2014 Stephen Oyedeji et al. All rights reserved. Morphobiochemical Variability and Selection Strategies for the Germplasm of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo: An Endangered Medicinal Orchid Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:08:25 +0000 Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo (Orchidaceae) is an important endangered medicinal herb, distributed in subalpine to alpine regions of the Himalayas. Its tubers are important constituents of many medicines and health tonics. Overexploitation for medicinal uses has decreased availability in natural habitats and this species has been enlisted as endangered, making conservation and cultivation studies necessary. Variability studies may serve as an important tool for effective conservation and for a crop improvement program. Therefore, natural populations of D. hatagirea were analyzed for variability on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and isoenzyme patterns. The studied populations were grouped into two clusters. Existing variability among different populations opens up new areas for conservation and perspectives for a genetic improvement program for D. hatagirea. R. S. Chauhan, M. C. Nautiyal, R. K. Vashistha, and P. Prasad Copyright © 2014 R. S. Chauhan et al. All rights reserved. Chromium (VI) Induced Biochemical Changes and Gum Content in Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) at Different Developmental Stages Sun, 22 Dec 2013 10:42:30 +0000 Chromium (Cr) contamination by various industries and other activities is known to inhibit plants growth and development. The present study was conducted using pot experiments in a net house to determine the effect of Cr (VI) on biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, reducing sugars, and important minerals at different stages of growth in leaves, stem, and roots of clusterbean, a multipurpose fodder crop including a source of guar gum. Guar gum content was estimated in seeds at maturity. All biochemical contents showed a great variation with respect to increase in Cr concentration at different stages of growth. The levels of K, Fe, and Zn decreased, while Cr and Na content increased with increase in Cr concentration. Cr induced toxicity in clusterbean appears at 0.5 mg Cr (VI) Kg−1 soil with maximum inhibitory effect at 2 mg Cr (VI) Kg−1 soil, where impaired sugar supply resulted in decreased guar gum synthesis and altered micronutrient content. The study reveals the possible role of these biochemical parameters in decreasing plant growth and development under heavy metal stress. Punesh Sangwan, Vinod Kumar, R. S. Khatri, and U. N. Joshi Copyright © 2013 Punesh Sangwan et al. All rights reserved. Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Polyamines, and Phenols in Hardwood Cuttings of Recalcitrant-to-Root Wild Grapes Native to East Asia: Vitis davidii and Vitis kiusiana Wed, 27 Nov 2013 13:41:10 +0000 Levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), free, conjugated, and bound polyamines (PAs), and phenols were estimated in the basal portion of hardwood cuttings of Vitis davidii and V. kiusiana in relation to rooting and compared with Vitis labruscana Bailey cv. Campbell Early. A high rate of root formation was observed in ‘Campbell Early’ cuttings 60 days after planting. However, none of the V. davidii and V. kiusiana cuttings formed roots. An increase in IAA contents was observed in ‘Campbell Early’ cuttings, but not in V. davidii and V. kiusiana, 60 days after planting. The content of free, conjugated, and bound PAs was either constant or decreased in ‘Campbell Early’ cuttings during planting and was especially decreased in conjugated putrescine and spermidine. An increase in free and conjugated putrescine was observed after planting in V. kiusiana cuttings. In the cuttings of V. davidii, only bound spermine increased after planting. The content of total phenols, orthodiphenols, total catechins, and gallocatechin derivatives decreased after planting in ‘Campbell Early’ cuttings. Orthodiphenols and total catechin contents increased in the cuttings of V. kiusiana, and gallocatechin derivatives increased in V. davidii. The relationships between these endogenous factors and the recalcitrant-to-root features of V. davidii and V. kiusiana cuttings are discussed. Shuji Shiozaki, Masahiro Makibuchi, and Tsuneo Ogata Copyright © 2013 Shuji Shiozaki et al. All rights reserved. Ethnobotany and Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chromosomal Status and Natural Propagation of Some Plants of Lahaul-Spiti and Adjoining Hills Wed, 13 Nov 2013 13:31:48 +0000 The present study documented the ethnobotanical and medicinal uses of plants from an ecologically fragile cold desert area of Lahaul-Spiti (Himachal Pradesh, India). Local people use plants for curing the stomach troubles, pain reliever, cough, gastric disorders, and aphrodisiac and other household purposes. In addition, chromosome numbers, male meiosis, and natural propagation were also investigated in these ethnobotanically used plants. Present investigations also form the basis for exploitation of intraspecific chromosomal variation/new cytotypes recorded in some of the presently studied species to detect biochemical diversity in the medicinally important plants. For documentation of ethnobotanical information, personal observations and interviews were conducted with medicine men, hakims, farmers, shepherds, local healers, and old aged people. This study identified 40 plant species under 33 genera belonging to 17 families which have been used locally for curing various diseases and other purposes. All the chromosome counts are new to the study area. On worldwide basis, meiotic chromosome counts of and in Rosularia alpestris and Corydalis govaniana, respectively, are the first ever reports. The present study indicates that the people of the area possess good knowledge about the different uses of plants in the area. It has been noticed that due to the lack of interest among younger generations in the preservation of invaluable ethnic knowledge, there is every possible chance of losing such a rich heritage of knowledge. It is very urgent to conserve such invaluable ethnic knowledge before it gets lost. Puneet Kumar and Vijay Kumar Singhal Copyright © 2013 Puneet Kumar and Vijay Kumar Singhal. All rights reserved. Induction of a bZIP Type Transcription Factor and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Soybean Seedling in Response to Starvation Stress Sun, 10 Nov 2013 10:57:02 +0000 To address roles of bZIP transcription factors on regulation of amino acid catabolism under autophagy-induced plant cells, we examined the effect of nutrient starvation on the expression of low energy stress-related transcription factor homologs, GmbZIP53A and GmbZIP53B, and amino acid catabolism-related genes in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Sucrose starvation treatment significantly enhanced the expressions of GmbZIP53A, but not GmbZIP53B asparagine synthase (GmASN1), proline dehydrogenase1 (GmProDH), and branched chain amino acid transaminase 3 (GmBCAT3). GmbZIP53-related immunoreactive signals were upregulated under severe starvation with sucrose starvation and protease inhibitors, while 3% sucrose and sucrose starvation had no or marginal effects on the signal. Profiles of induction of GmASN1, GmProDH and GmBCAT3 under various nutrient conditions were consistent with the profiles of GmbZIP53 protein levels but not with those of GmbZIP mRNA levels. These results indicate that GmbZIP53 proteins levels are regulated by posttranslational mechanism in response to severe starvation stress and that the increased protein of GmbZIP53 under severe starvation accelerates transcriptional induction of GmASN1, GmProDH, and GmBCAT3. Furthermore, it is conceivable that decrease of branched chain amino acid level by the BCAT-mediated degradation eventually enhances autophagy under severe starvation. Takashi Yuasa, Yuri Nagasawa, Katsumasa Osanai, Ayami Kaneko, Daichi Tajima, Nang Myint Phyu Sin Htwe, Yushi Ishibashi, and Mari Iwaya-Inoue Copyright © 2013 Takashi Yuasa et al. All rights reserved. Leaf Epidermal Micromorphology of Portulaca L. Species Found in Vadodara, Gujarat, India Thu, 07 Nov 2013 09:52:47 +0000 Micromorphology of three species of Portulaca was carried out with the help of light microscopy to determine variations within the species which would aid in correct identification of the plants. Epidermal cells are polygonal with sinuous anticlinal walls in all the three species. Length of epidermal cells of P. grandiflora Hook. is higher than P. oleracea Linn. and P. quadrifida Linn. The leaves of P. quadrifida are epistomatic while the remaining species are amphistomatic with paracytic stomata in all the three species. Mean stomatal index and stomatal frequency are more in P. quadrifida while the mean size of stomata (both length and width) is larger in P. grandiflora for both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Based on the diagnostic features, an artificial indented key is prepared. Archana Srivastava, Aruna Girish Joshi, and Vinay Madhukar Raole Copyright © 2013 Archana Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Study of Flowering Pattern in Setaria viridis, a Proposed Model Species for C4 Photosynthesis Research Wed, 09 Oct 2013 17:46:41 +0000 Green foxtail millet (Setaria viridis) has NADP-ME type of C4 photosynthesis. Because of its short life cycle, small genome size of ~515 Mb, small plant stature, high number of seed set, simple growth requirements, and wide adaptability, this diploid () weed is proposed to be a model species for the study of C4 photosynthesis. It is also a representative of bioenergy grasses and a model for genetic study of invasive weeds. Despite having all traits of a model species, it is difficult to cross-pollinate because its flowering behavior is not well studied. We used time lapse digital recording to study the flowering time and pattern along a single panicle. We found that flowering in Setaria was triggered by the darkness of the night and when the temperature was lower than 35°C. The anthesis of all the spikelets in a panicle took up-to three nights flowering from 9:30 pm to 10:00 am in the morning. Each spikelet has three phases of anthesis during which pollination occurs. A spikelet remains open for less than three hours. The pollination time for each spikelet is less than 60 minutes. Information from this study will facilitate the geneticists and plant breeders to plan for efficient crossing of Setaria. Govinda Rizal, Kelvin Acebron, Reychelle Mogul, Shanta Karki, Nikki Larazo, and William Paul Quick Copyright © 2013 Govinda Rizal et al. All rights reserved.