538765.fig.001a
(a)
538765.fig.001b
(b)
538765.fig.001c
(c)
Figure 1: (a) Representative serum NMR spectra of control subjects and ALS patients, (b) and (c) show imbalance between oxidative/antioxidant and glutamate/gluatamine cycle. It has been speculated that glutamate excitotoxicty exacerbates the formation of ROS, which may be responsible for the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, such as increased BHBT and acetone and decreased concentrations of histidine [26].