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Journal of Biomarkers
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 321680, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/321680
Review Article

A Quest to Identify Prostate Cancer Circulating Biomarkers with a Bench-to-Bedside Potential

Center of Cancer Systems Biology, GeneSys Research Institute, Tufts University, School of Medicine, 736 Cambridge Street, SEMC-CBR112, Boston, MA 02135, USA

Received 31 July 2013; Revised 7 January 2014; Accepted 10 January 2014; Published 12 March 2014

Academic Editor: Nathalie Scholler

Copyright © 2014 Jaspreet Singh Batra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCA) is a major health concern in current times. Ever since prostate specific antigen (PSA) was introduced in clinical practice almost three decades ago, the diagnosis and management of PCA have been revolutionized. With time, concerns arose as to the inherent shortcomings of this biomarker and alternatives were actively sought. Over the past decade new PCA biomarkers have been identified in tissue, blood, urine, and other body fluids that offer improved specificity and supplement our knowledge of disease progression. This review focuses on superiority of circulating biomarkers over tissue biomarkers due to the advantages of being more readily accessible, minimally invasive (blood) or noninvasive (urine), accessible for sampling on regular intervals, and easily utilized for follow-up after surgery or other treatment modalities. Some of the circulating biomarkers like PCA3, IL-6, and TMPRSS2-ERG are now detectable by commercially available kits while others like microRNAs (miR-21, -221, -141) and exosomes hold potential to become available as multiplexed assays. In this paper, we will review some of these potential candidate circulating biomarkers that either individually or in combination, once validated with large-scale trials, may eventually get utilized clinically for improved diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment.