Journal of Biomarkers http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Relationships between Plasma Micronutrients, Serum IgE, and Skin Test Reactivity and Asthma among School Children in Rural Southwest Nigeria Mon, 26 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2014/106150/ Objective. Increasing prevalence of asthma has been attributed to changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the relationship between serum micronutrients and asthma in rural school children in Nigeria. Methods. We administered questionnaires to 1,562 children to identify children with asthma. Serum concentration levels of 12 micronutrients were determined in asthma cases () and controls (). Allergy skin prick test and spirometry were also performed. Results. Plasma levels of the following micronutrients were significantly different between cases and controls: calcium ( versus  mg/dL; ), manganese ( versus  mg/L; ), selenium ( versus  μg/L; ), and albumin ( versus  g/dL; ). Plasma concentrations of iron and selenium were positively correlated with lung function, ( in each case) while manganese serum concentration was negatively correlated with asthma (; ). Conclusions. Children with asthma had reduced levels of plasma manganese, calcium, and albumin but raised level of selenium. The protective or risk effects of these micronutrients on asthma warrant further investigation. Oluwafemi Oluwole, Olatunbosun G. Arinola, Mary D. Adu, Adedayo Adepoju, Babatunde O. Adedokun, Olufunmilayo I. Olopade, and Christopher O. Olopade Copyright © 2014 Oluwafemi Oluwole et al. All rights reserved. Biomarkers Predict Relapse in Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Wed, 30 Apr 2014 07:34:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2014/596503/ Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a small blood vessel vasculitic disorder with a high mortality rate if undiagnosed or treated inadequately. Disease relapse is a key feature of this disease and early identification of relapse episodes is very important in limiting end-organ damage. The advent of indirect immunofluorescence to detect antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) with specific reactivity against the enzyme proteinase-3 (PR3) has been very useful in the diagnosis of GPA but is less helpful in predicting relapse. Indeed, up to date no satisfactory biomarker has been identified that can reliably predict relapse. This study assessed the probability of the occurrence of a relapse when a change was noted in a range of commonly used laboratory tests. These tests included levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-PR3 antibodies, ANCA titre, and the neutrophil count. A group of 30 GPA patients with a total of 66 relapse episodes was investigated and a novel clinical yield score was devised. When a combined rise in CRP, anti-PR3 antibodies, and neutrophil count was observed in the 6-month period before a relapse event, 59% of patient relapses could be predicted. Monitoring changes in this set of parameters helps identify disease relapse. Patrick C. P. Hogan, Robert M. O’Connell, Simone Scollard, Emmett Browne, Emer E. Hackett, and Conleth Feighery Copyright © 2014 Patrick C. P. Hogan et al. All rights reserved. Functional Epigenetic Analysis of Prostate Carcinoma: A Role for Seryl-tRNA Synthetase? Thu, 27 Mar 2014 14:27:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2014/362164/ Transcriptional silencing, as a result of aberrant promoter hypermethylation, is a common mechanism through which genes in cancer cells become inactive. Functional epigenetic screens using demethylating agents to reexpress transcriptional silenced genes may identify such inactivated genes for needing further evaluation. We aimed to identify genes so far not known to be inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in prostate cancer. DU-145 and LNCaP cells were treated with the DNMT inhibitor zebularine. Expression changes of total RNA from treated and untreated cells were compared using an RNA expression microarray. Genes upregulated more than 2-fold were evaluated by RT-qPCR in 50 cases of paired normal and tumor tissues of prostate cancer patients. SARS was found to be downregulated in prostate cancer in 42/50 cases (84%). In addition, GADD45A and SPRY4 showed a remarkable diminished expression (88% and 74%, resp.). The gold standard for promoter hypermethylation-inactivated genes in prostate cancer (GSTP1) was repressed in 90% of our patient samples. ROC analyses reported statistically significant AUC curves in SARS, GADD45A, and GSTP1 and positive Spearman correlations were found between these genes. SARS was discovered to be a novel gene that is repressed in prostate cancer and could therefore be recommended for its involvement in prostate carcinogenesis. Odiljon Ikromov, Imad Alkamal, Ahmed Magheli, Nadine Ratert, Mauricio Sendeski, Kurt Miller, Hans Krause, and Carsten Kempkensteffen Copyright © 2014 Odiljon Ikromov et al. All rights reserved. A Quest to Identify Prostate Cancer Circulating Biomarkers with a Bench-to-Bedside Potential Wed, 12 Mar 2014 08:30:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2014/321680/ Prostate cancer (PCA) is a major health concern in current times. Ever since prostate specific antigen (PSA) was introduced in clinical practice almost three decades ago, the diagnosis and management of PCA have been revolutionized. With time, concerns arose as to the inherent shortcomings of this biomarker and alternatives were actively sought. Over the past decade new PCA biomarkers have been identified in tissue, blood, urine, and other body fluids that offer improved specificity and supplement our knowledge of disease progression. This review focuses on superiority of circulating biomarkers over tissue biomarkers due to the advantages of being more readily accessible, minimally invasive (blood) or noninvasive (urine), accessible for sampling on regular intervals, and easily utilized for follow-up after surgery or other treatment modalities. Some of the circulating biomarkers like PCA3, IL-6, and TMPRSS2-ERG are now detectable by commercially available kits while others like microRNAs (miR-21, -221, -141) and exosomes hold potential to become available as multiplexed assays. In this paper, we will review some of these potential candidate circulating biomarkers that either individually or in combination, once validated with large-scale trials, may eventually get utilized clinically for improved diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment. Jaspreet Singh Batra, Swati Girdhani, and Lynn Hlatky Copyright © 2014 Jaspreet Singh Batra et al. All rights reserved. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer Sun, 09 Mar 2014 12:29:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2014/272683/ Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA) genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA) genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (). Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC. Ramyar Molania, Frouzandeh Mahjoubi, Rezvan Mirzaei, Saeed-Reza Khatami, and Bahar Mahjoubi Copyright © 2014 Ramyar Molania et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome by the Measurement of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Serum: A Prospective Case Control Study Wed, 05 Feb 2014 14:07:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2014/624930/ A prospective case control study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum heart-type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) in comparison to cardiac TnT and TnI in 33 patients admitted with chest pain, diagnosed as NSTE-ACS (non ST elevation acute coronary syndrome) and 22 healthy controls. Area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was highest for H-FABP (AUC 0.79; 95% CI 0.66–0.89) versus cTnI (AUC 0.73; 95% CI 0.59–0.84) and cTnT (AUC 0.71; 95% CI 0.57–0.83). The H-FABP level above 6.5 ng/mL showed 56.7% (CI 37.4–74.5) sensitivity, 0.5 (95% CI 0.3–0.7) negative likelihood ratio (−LR), 100% (CI 84.6–100.0) specificity, and 100% (CI 79.4–100.0) positive predictive value (PPV), 62.9% (CI 44.9–78.5) negative predictive value (NPV). cTnI level above 0.009 μg/L had 40% (CI 22.7–59.4) sensitivity, 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.8) −LR, 100% (CI 84.6–100.0) specificity, 100% (CI 73.5–100.0) PPV, and 55% (CI 38.5–70.7) NPV. cTnT showed 46.7% (CI 28.3–65.7) sensitivity, 0.5 (95% CI 0.4–0.7) −LR, 100% (CI 84.6–100.0) specificity, 100% (CI 76.8–100.0) PPV, and 57.9% (CI 40.8–73.7) NPV at level above 9 μg/L. +LR were 12.5 (95% CI 1.8–86.8), 1.7 (95% CI 1.0–3.0), and 1.2 (95% CI 0.8–1.9) for H-FABP, cTnI, and cTnT respectively. In conclusion measurement of H-FABP is a valuable tool in the early diagnosis of patients with chest pain (6–8 hrs) and seems to be a preferred biomarker in the differential diagnosis of NSTE-ACS. More studies are needed to determine whether serum H-FABP further improves diagnostic performance. Priscilla Abraham Chandran, Basharat Ara Wani, Oruganti Sai Satish, and Noorjahan Mohammed Copyright © 2014 Priscilla Abraham Chandran et al. All rights reserved. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity and Protein Oxidative Modification in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Sun, 22 Dec 2013 10:35:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/430813/ Objectives. The aim of the present investigation was to study the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and correlate its activity to protein oxidation markers in type 2 diabetic patients under poor glycemic control. Methods. G6PD activity, protein carbonyl group concentration, and total thiol group content were measured in blood samples of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control and 20 healthy control subjects. Results. G6PD activity and total thiol group content decreased significantly while glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and protein carbonyl group concentration increased significantly in diabetic patients than in the controls (). In addition, Obtained results revealed that, in diabetics, G6PD activity negatively correlated to protein carbonyl and HbA1C ( and −0.65, resp.), while positively correlated to total thiol () and protein carbonyl negatively correlated to total thiol (), while positively correlated to HbA1C (). Also in controls, G6PD activity negatively correlated to protein carbonyl and HbA1C ( and −0.56, resp.), while positively correlated to total thiol () and protein carbonyl negatively correlated to total thiol (), while positively correlated to HbA1C (). Conclusions. We concluded that G6PD activity decreased in diabetics than in controls and was negatively correlated to oxidative stress markers and HbA1C. G6PD activity can be taken as a biomarker of oxidative stress and poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Aida A. Mahmoud and Amal K. A. Nor El-Din Copyright © 2013 Aida A. Mahmoud and Amal K. A. Nor El-Din. All rights reserved. Markers of Oxidative Stress during Diabetes Mellitus Tue, 17 Dec 2013 15:40:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/378790/ The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising all over the world. Uncontrolled state of hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion/action leads to a variety of complications including peripheral vascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, morbidity, and/or mortality. Large body of evidence suggests major role of reactive oxygen species/oxidative stress in development and progression of diabetic complications. In the present paper, we have discussed the recent researches on the biomarkers of oxidative stress during type 2 diabetes mellitus. Brahm Kumar Tiwari, Kanti Bhooshan Pandey, A. B. Abidi, and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi Copyright © 2013 Brahm Kumar Tiwari et al. All rights reserved. Urinary Measurement of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Helps Diagnose Acute Pyelonephritis in a Preclinical Model Sat, 14 Dec 2013 12:32:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/413853/ Background. The study assessed whether measurement of urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury could be helpful in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and subsequent scarring. Method. Escherichia coli J96 (0.3 mL inoculum containing /mL) was directly injected into the renal cortex of 3-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats (), with saline substituted in a control group (). Following the injection, urine was collected 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after injection. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and interleukin-18 were quantitatively measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of the biomarkers were adjusted for creatinine. Time course changes within a group or between the groups were compared. Correlation analysis was performed to understand the relationship between urinary levels and histological scarring. Results. Significantly elevated urinary NGAL was evident at two and seven days after injection, and Kim-1 was elevated at two days after injection. Receiver operating characteristic analyses confirmed the sensitivity of these markers at these times. No urinary marker at acute stage of APN was correlated with the amount of future scarring, negating their predictive value. Conclusion. Urinary NGAL and Kim-1 could be helpful in diagnosing febrile urinary tract infection in children. Hahn-Ey Lee, Sun Hee Lee, Minki Baek, Hwang Choi, and Kwanjin Park Copyright © 2013 Hahn-Ey Lee et al. All rights reserved. Neopterin in Diagnosis and Monitoring of Infectious Diseases Sun, 08 Dec 2013 09:19:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/196432/ Neopterin is produced by activated monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells upon stimulation by interferon gamma produced by T-lymphocytes. Quantification of neopterin in body fluids has been achieved by standard high-performance liquid chromatography, radioimmunoassays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Neopterin levels predict HIV-related mortality more efficiently than clinical manifestations. Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with a decrease in neopterin levels. Elevated neopterin levels were associated with hepatitis by hepatitis A, B, and C viruses. Serum neopterin levels were found to be a predictor of response to treatment of chronic HCV infection with pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin. Neopterin levels of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were found to be higher in patients with more extensive radiological changes. Elimination of blood donors with elevated neopterin levels to reduce risk of transmission of infections with known and unknown viral pathogens has been undertaken. Neopterin measurement is hereby more cost effective but less sensitive than screening using polymerase chain reaction based assays. In conclusion neopterin is a nonspecific marker of activated T-helper cell 1 dominated immune response. It may be a useful marker for monitoring of infectious disease activity during treatment and for more accurate estimation of extent of disease and prognosis. Michael Eisenhut Copyright © 2013 Michael Eisenhut. All rights reserved. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker for Sample Characterization Sun, 08 Dec 2013 09:04:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/861823/ Sequencing is accepted as the “gold” standard for genetic analysis and continues to be used as a validation and reference tool. The idea of using sequence analysis directly for sample characterization has been met with skepticism. However, herein, utility of direct use of sequencing to identify multiple genomes present in samples is presented and reviewed. All samples and “pure” isolates are populations of genomes. Population-Sequencing is the use of probabilistic matching tools in combination with large volumes of sequence information to identify genomes present, based on DNA analysis across entire genomes to determine genome assignments, to calculate confidence scores of major and minor genome content. Accurate genome identification from mixtures without culture purification steps can achieve phylogenetic classification by direct analysis of millions of DNA fragments. Genome sequencing data of mixtures can function as biomarkers for use to interrogate genetic content of samples and to establish a sample profile, inclusive of major and minor genome components, drill down to identify rare SNP and mutation events, compare relatedness of genetic content between samples, profile-to-profile, and provide a probabilistic or statistical scoring confidence for sample characterization and attribution. The application of Population-Sequencing will facilitate sample characterization and genome identification strategies. John P. Jakupciak Copyright © 2013 John P. Jakupciak. All rights reserved. T-Cell Response to Hepatitis B Core Antigen: Identification of Prior Exposure to and Confirmatory Testing for Screening for Anti-HBc Tue, 03 Dec 2013 09:33:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/812170/ Background. During routine donor screening in the blood bank, it is not uncommon to find isolated reactivity for anti-HBc in the absence of detectable HBV DNA in a first donation but absence of reactivity to anti-HBc in subsequent donations, suggesting a false-positive result for anti-HBc. Study Design and Methods. The blood donor population was screened between January 2010 and October 2011. We selected 2,126 donations positive only for anti-HBc from a total of 125,068 donations. During the process, OBI donors were identified, and their HBcAg-specific T-cell response was analyzed and compared to donors with chronic (HBsAg positive) and recovered (anti-HBc only) infection. We analyzed correlations between signal levels (Co/s) in the competitive assay for anti-HBc and HBV DNA detection. Results. In the 21-month study period, 21 blood donors with anti-HBc alone were identified as OBI (1 in each 5955 donors). The relevant finding was the observation that anti-HBc only subjects with did not have either HBcAg-specific T-cells or detectable HBV DNA and OBI subjects presented with and HBcAg T-cell response. In the subset of 21 OBI subjects, 9 donors remained positive for HBcAg T-cell response after four collections. In all 9 samples, we observed HBV DNA fluctuation. Conclusion. Our data suggest that HBcAg-specific T-cell response could be used to confirm anti-HBc serological status, distinguishing previous exposure to Hepatitis B virus from anti-HBc false-positive results. Patricia Araujo, Roger Y. Dodd, Flavia Latinni, Renata Souza, Ricardo Diaz, and Jose Augusto Barreto Copyright © 2013 Patricia Araujo et al. All rights reserved. Prostasin: An Epithelial Sodium Channel Regulator Tue, 02 Jul 2013 11:17:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/179864/ Prostasin is a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein which is found in prostate gland, kidney, bronchi, colon, liver, lung, pancreas, and salivary glands. It is a serine protease with trypsin-like substrate specificity which was first purified from seminal fluid in 1994. In the last decade, its diverse roles in various biological and physiological processes have been elucidated. Many studies done to date suggest that prostasin is one of several membrane peptidases regulating epithelial sodium channels in mammals. A comprehensive literature search was conducted from the websites of Pubmed Central, the US National Library of Medicine’s digital archive of life sciences literature and the National Library of Medicine. The data was also assessed from journals and books that published relevant articles in this field. Understanding the mechanism by which prostasin and its inhibitors regulate sodium channels has provided a new insight into the treatment of hypertension and some other diseases like cystic fibrosis. Prostasin plays an important role in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signal modulation. Extracellular proteases have been implicated in tumor metastasis and local tissue invasion because of their ability to degrade extracellular matrices. Shakti Aggarwal, Pradeep K. Dabla, and Sarika Arora Copyright © 2013 Shakti Aggarwal et al. All rights reserved. Immunoreactivity of Pluripotent Markers SSEA-5 and L1CAM in Human Tumors, Teratomas, and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Mon, 27 May 2013 11:26:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/960862/ Pluripotent stem cell markers can be useful for diagnostic evaluation of human tumors. The novel pluripotent marker stage-specific embryonic antigen-5 (SSEA-5) is expressed in undifferentiated human induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs), but little is known about SSEA-5 expression in other primitive tissues (e.g., human tumors). We evaluated SSEA-5 immunoreactivity patterns in human tumors, cell lines, teratomas, and iPS cells together with another pluripotent cell surface marker L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM). We tested two hypotheses: (1) SSEA-5 and L1CAM would be immunoreactive and colocalized in human tumors; (2) SSEA-5 and L1CAM immunoreactivity would persist in iPSCs following retinal differentiating treatment. SSEA-5 immunofluorescence was most pronounced in primitive tumors, such as embryonal carcinoma. In tumor cell lines, SSEA-5 was highly immunoreactive in Capan-1 cells, while L1CAM was highly immunoreactive in U87MG cells. SSEA-5 and L1CAM showed colocalization in undifferentiated iPSCs, with immunopositive iPSCs remaining after 20 days of retinal differentiating treatment. This is the first demonstration of SSEA-5 immunoreactivity in human tumors and the first indication of SSEA-5 and L1CAM colocalization. SSEA-5 and L1CAM warrant further investigation as potentially useful tumor markers for histological evaluation or as markers to monitor the presence of undifferentiated cells in iPSC populations prior to therapeutic use. Linda Cassidy, Meerim Choi, Jason Meyer, Rui Chang, and Gail M. Seigel Copyright © 2013 Linda Cassidy et al. All rights reserved. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Metabolomics: Clinical Implication and Therapeutic Approach Thu, 14 Mar 2013 10:44:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/538765/ Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common motor neurodegenerative disorders, primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis due to muscle weakness and atrophy. The majority of patients die within 3–5 years of symptom onset as a consequence of respiratory failure. Due to relatively fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Metabolomics offer a unique opportunity to understand the spatiotemporal metabolic crosstalks through the assessment of body fluids and tissue. So far, one of the most challenging issues related to ALS is to understand the variation of metabolites in body fluids and CNS with the progression of disease. In this paper we will review the changes in metabolic profile in response to disease progression condition and also see the therapeutic implication of various drugs in ALS patients. Alok Kumar, Devlina Ghosh, and R. L. Singh Copyright © 2013 Alok Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Censored Data Analysis Reveals Effects of Age and Hepatitis C Infection on C-Reactive Protein Levels in Healthy Adult Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Wed, 27 Feb 2013 18:25:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/709740/ C-reactive protein, a conserved acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver and involved in inflammation, infection, and tissue damage, is an informative biomarker for human cardiovascular disease. Out of 258 captive adult common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) assayed for CRP, 27.9% of the data were below the quantitation limit. Data were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and results compared to other methods for handling censored data (including deletion, replacement, and imputation). Kaplan-Meier results demonstrated a modest age effect and a strong effect of HCV infection in reducing CRP but did not allow inference of reference intervals. Results of other methods varied considerably. Substitution schemes differed widely in statistical significance, with estimated group means biased by the size of the substitution constant, while inference of unbiased reference intervals was impossible. Single imputation gave reasonable statistical inferences but unreliable reference intervals. Multiple imputation gave reliable results, for both statistical inference and reference intervals, and was comparable to the Kaplan-Meier standard. Other methods should be avoided. CRP did not predict cardiovascular disease, but CRP levels were reduced by 50% in animals with hepatitis C infection and showed inverse relationships with 2 liver function enzymes. Results suggested that hsCRP can be an informative biomarker of chronic hepatic dysfunction. John J. Ely, Tony Zavaskis, and M. Lon Lammey Copyright © 2013 John J. Ely et al. All rights reserved. Tissue Reactivity of the 14F7 Mab Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Tumors of Neuroectodermal, Mesodermal, and Epithelial Origin Wed, 09 Jan 2013 11:19:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/602417/ The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid forming the structure of gangliosides and/or other glycoconjugates (Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen) in human has been considered as a tumor-associated antigen. Specifically, some reports of 14F7 Mab (a highly specific Mab raised against N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside) reactivity in human tumors have been recently published. Nevertheless, tumors of epithelial origin have been mostly evaluated. The goal of the present paper was to evaluate the immunohistochemical recognition of 14F7 Mab in different human tumors of neuroectodermal, mesodermal, and epithelial origins using an immunoperoxidase staining method. Samples of fetal, normal, and reactive astrocytosis of the brain were also included in the study. In general, nontumoral tissues, as well as, low-grade brain tumors showed no or a limited immunoreaction with 14F7 Mab. Nevertheless, high-grade astrocytomas (III-IV) and neuroblastomas, as well as, sarcomas and thyroid carcinomas were mostly reactive with 14F7. No reaction was evidenced in medulloblastomas and ependymoblastomas. Our data suggest that the expression of N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside could be related to the aggressive behavior of malignant cells, without depending on the tumor origin. Our data could also support the possible use of N-glycolyl GM3 as a target for both active and passive immunotherapies of malignancies expressing this molecule. Rancés Blanco, Yisel Quintana, Damián Blanco, Mercedes Cedeño, Charles E. Rengifo, Milagros Frómeta, Martha Ríos, Enrique Rengifo, and Adriana Carr Copyright © 2013 Rancés Blanco et al. All rights reserved. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Three Monoclonal Antibodies Raised against the Epidermal Growth Factor and Its Receptor in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Their Potential Use in the Selection of Patients for Immunotherapy Tue, 11 Dec 2012 10:47:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/627845/ Adequate methods to identify which lung cancer patients are most likely to benefit from the targeted drugs against both epidermal growth factor receptor/epidermal growth factor (EGFR/EGF) are needed. For this reason, we evaluated both the tissue reactivity of ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody (Mab) in human lung carcinomas and its biological activity in NCI-H125 cells. Additionally, we assessed the tissue expression of EGF using two Mabs, CB-EGF1 and CB-EGF2. The overexpression of EGFR was detected in 33.33% and 62.71% of small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), respectively. The ability of ior egf/r3 Mab to bind the extracellular domain of EGFR inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in NCI-H125 cells was also demonstrated. The EGF expression was observed in about 17% and 70% of SCLC and NSCLC, respectively. However, differences in the reactivity of CB-EGF1 and CB-EGF2 were evidenced. A dual expression of EGFR and EGF was observed in 16.67% and 57.63% of SCLC and NSCLC patients, respectively. But, a correlation between them was only obtained in NSCLC. Our results permit to recommend the development of diagnostic kits using ior egf/r3 and/or CB-EGF1 Mabs in order to achieve a better selection of patients to EGFR/EGF-targeting treatment. Charles E. Rengifo, Rancés Blanco, Damián Blanco, Mercedes Cedeño, Milagros Frómeta, and Enrique Rengifo Calzado Copyright © 2013 Charles E. Rengifo et al. All rights reserved. eNOS Gene Variant in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Tue, 04 Dec 2012 11:24:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/403783/ Subject & Aim. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is one of the most important candidate genes in CAD. A functional polymorphism within eNOS gene is a 27 bp VNTR on its intron 4 which has been shown to be associated with various diseases. In this study we investigated eNOS VNTR polymorphism in addition to eNOS gene expression profile in patients with CAD. Material and Methods. The study comprised patients with angiographically confirmed CAD (CAD+) and individuals with normal coronary as CAD−. eNOS VNTR polymorphism frequencies were determined in both groups. In addition eNOS gene expression profile was examined using a quantitative real-time PCR. Results. We have found that aa genotype was significantly increasing the risk of CAD in our patients (aa versus ab + bb, , ; 95% CI: = 0.98 to 16.2). The differences in eNOS expression were not significant between patients and normal group; however in CAD+ patients eNOS expression was higher than the expression level of patients carrying other genotypes (). Conclusion. We have observed that eNOS gene polymorphism was associated with CAD in angiography-confirmed patients. However, the difference in eNOS gene expression was not statistically significant between patients and control which might be due to the contribution of other confounding factors which require further investigations. Milad Abolhalaj, Mahsa M. Amoli, and Parvin Amiri Copyright © 2013 Milad Abolhalaj et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Quercetin on Haematobiochemical and Histological Changes in the Liver of Polychlorined Biphenyls-Induced Adult Male Wistar Rats Mon, 01 Oct 2012 15:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/960125/ Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure damages the rat liver cells. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, red-blood cells, white-blood cells, neutrophils, platelet counts, and RBC indices were significantly decreased. Polymorphs, eosinophil counts, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly increased. Serum liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were increased by PCBs treatment. Serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins and very-low-density lipoproteins were increased in PCBs-treated rats. High-density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, globulin levels, and albumin/globulin ratio were also decreased after PCB exposure. Then levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate were also altered. Serum glucose levels were increased along with total bilirubin after PCBs exposure. Simultaneous quercetin supplementation significantly protected the PCBs-induced changes of hematobiochemical parameters. Thus, quercetin shows a protective role against PCBs-induced alterations in the hematological and biochemical parameters. Kandaswamy Selvakumar, Senthamilselvan Bavithra, Sekaran Suganya, Firdous Ahmad Bhat, Gunasekaran Krishnamoorthy, and Jagadeesan Arunakaran Copyright © 2013 Kandaswamy Selvakumar et al. All rights reserved. Association between a Tetranucleotide Repeat Polymorphism of SPAG16 Gene and Cataract in Male Children Thu, 27 Sep 2012 18:22:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2013/810395/ Purpose. Studies involving genotyping of STR markers at 2q34 have repeatedly found the region to host the disease haplotype for pediatric cataract. Present study investigated the association of D2S2944 marker, in sperm associated antigen 16 (SPAG16) gene and rs2289917 polymorphism, in γ-crystallin B gene, with childhood cataract. Methods. 97 pediatric cataract cases and 110 children with no ocular defects were examined for tetranucleotide repeat marker/SNP using PCR-SSLP/RFLP techniques. Polymorphisms were assessed for association using contingency tables and linkage disequilibrium among alleles of the markers was estimated. Energy-optimization program predicted the secondary structure models of repeats of D2S2944. Results. Seven alleles of D2S2944, with 9–15 “GATA” repeats, were observed. Frequency of the longer allele of D2S2944, ≥(GATA)13 repeats, was 0.73 in cases and 0.56 in controls (). Male children bearing ≥(GATA)13 repeats showed >3-fold higher risk for cataract (CI95% = 1.43–7.00, , ) as compared to female children (, CI95% = 0.49–2.92, ). Cases with haplotype—≥(GATA)13 of D2S2944 and “C” allele rs2289917—have a higher risk for pediatric cataract (, CI95% = 1.595~5.463, ). >(GATA)13 repeats formed energetically more favorable stem-loop structure. Conclusion. Intragenic microsatellite repeat expansion in SPAG16 gene increases predisposition to pediatric cataract by probably interfering posttranscriptional events and affecting the expression of adjacent lens transparency gene/s in a gender bias manner. Shipra Mehra, Suman Kapur, and Suma Ganesh Copyright © 2013 Shipra Mehra et al. All rights reserved.