Journal of Blood Transfusion http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening? Tue, 25 Mar 2014 12:52:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2014/532919/ The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% () of all patients () had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13). Dietmar Enko, Claudia Habres, Franz Wallner, Barbara Mayr, and Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann Copyright © 2014 Dietmar Enko et al. All rights reserved. Mapping Rare Erythrocyte Phenotypes in Morocco: A Tool to Overcome Transfusion Challenges Wed, 12 Mar 2014 06:57:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2014/707152/ The aim of this research is to search for the distribution of blood groups in all the regions of Morocco. This study, done for the first time, aimed to provide the frequency of the Rhesus system and Kell (K) in more than 55000 blood donors from nine different regions around the country. In addition, the frequency of the Cellano, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood antigens was searched for 500 blood donors from the Rabat’s region. Frequency of blood donors with rare blood groups was characterized for the first time in the country and compared to results found from other populations. A. Benahadi, S. Boulahdid, B. Adouani, A. Laouina, A. Mokhtari, A. Soulaymani, K. Hajjout, M. Benajiba, and R. Alami Copyright © 2014 A. Benahadi et al. All rights reserved. Blood Requisition and Utilization Practice in Surgical Patients at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia Thu, 28 Nov 2013 18:01:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2013/758910/ Background. Although blood ordering is a common practice in surgical field, the average requirement for a particular procedure is usually based on subjective anticipation of blood loss rather than on evidence based estimates. Overordering with minimal utilization squanders technical time, reagent and imposes extra expenses on patients. This study was conducted to assess blood utilization practices. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar Hospital. Five-month data were collected from all discharged surgical patients and blood bank registries. Blood utilization was calculated using crossmatch to transfusion ratio (C/T), transfusion probability (%T), and transfusion index (TI) indices. Results. A total of 982 patients were requested to prepare 1,072 crossmatched units. Of these, 468 units were transfused for 286 patients. The overall ratios of C/T, %T, and TI index were 2.3, 47%, and 0.77, respectively. Blood transfusion from the units crossmatched was 43.6%. Moreover, the highest C/T ratio was observed in elective surgical patients. Conclusions. The overall blood utilization was encouraging, but excessive crossmatching with minimal transfusion practice was observed in elective surgical patients. Blood ordering pattern for elective procedures needs to be revised and overordering of blood should be minimized. Moreover, the hospital with blood transfusion committee should formulate maximum surgical blood ordering policies for elective surgical procedures and conduct regular auditing. Tadesse Belayneh, Gashaw Messele, Zewditu Abdissa, and Birehanemeskel Tegene Copyright © 2013 Tadesse Belayneh et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Voluntary Blood Donation among Healthcare Workers at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria Wed, 09 Oct 2013 15:58:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2013/797830/ Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians) and to identify and recruit potential voluntary blood donors. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. A total of 163 staffs were recruited. Pretest questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. Statistical Analysis. The responses were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16. The association between blood donation practice and gender of respondents, category of staff, and level of education was tested using Chi-square and Fisher’s tests where appropriate. were considered statistically significant. Results. The median age of the respondents was 32 years (18–56) with females accounting for 55.6% (90). A total of 74.8% (122) attained tertiary education, and 55.8% (91) of respondents were senior staffs. The majority has good knowledge and positive attitude towards donation; however, only 22.1% (36) have donated blood with 41.7% (15) of these being voluntary. Male workers were more likely to donate (). There is no significant association between blood donation and level of education. Conclusion. There is a strong disparity between the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary donation amongst healthcare workers. Benedict Nwogoh, Usimenahon Aigberadion, and Alexander Ikenna Nwannadi Copyright © 2013 Benedict Nwogoh et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison Study of the Blood Component Quality of Whole Blood Held Overnight at 4°C or Room Temperature Thu, 05 Sep 2013 09:12:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2013/523539/ Background. The use of plasma frozen within 24 hrs is likely to increase. Whole blood (WB) and buffy coats (BCs) can be held for a few hrs or overnight before processing. Methods. Twenty-four bags of WB for plasma and 12 bags for platelet (PLT) concentrates were collected. The fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was prepared within 6 hrs. I-FP24 and II-FP24 samples were prepared either from leukodepleted WB that was held overnight or from WB that was held overnight before leukodepletion. The PLT concentrates (PCs) were prepared from BCs within 6 hrs (PC1) and within 18 to 24 hrs (PC2). The typical coagulation factors and some biochemical parameters were determined. Results. Compared to the FFP samples, the levels of FVII and FVIII in the I-FP24 and II-FP24 samples decreased significantly. The pH, Na+, LDH, and FHb levels differed significantly between II-FP24 and FFP. Compared to PC1, PC2 exhibited lower pH, pO2, and Na+ levels, a higher PLT count, and increased pCO2, K+, Lac, and CD62P expression levels. Conclusion. FP24 is best prepared from WB that was stored overnight at 4°C and then leukodepleted and separated within 24 hrs. PCs are best produced from BCs derived from WB that was held overnight at room temperature. Shichun Wang, Tiantian Wang, Yahan Fan, Shan Huang, Zhongmei Yi, Ruiqing Li, and Shuming Zhao Copyright © 2013 Shichun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Look at Blood Transfusion Utilization in Total Joint Arthroplasty at a Single Academic Medical Center under a Single Surgeon Tue, 16 Jul 2013 11:40:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2013/983250/ The utilization of autologous and allogeneic transfusions in total joint arthroplasties was to characterize patients who may benefit from giving preoperative blood donations. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 525 patients to document preoperative hematocrit, estimated blood loss, length of stay, transfusions, and medical comorbidities. Results of our review showed that total hip arthroplasty revision (THA-R) had the highest prevalence of transfusions (60%) followed by total hip arthroplasty (THA, 53%), total knee arthroplasty-revision (TKA-R, 33%), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA, 23%). There was significant waste of autologous donations: 92% of TKA patients, 64% of THA, and 33% of THA-R patients wasted on average 1.527, 1.321, and 1.5 autologous units, respectively. Pre-operative hematocrit was the strongest predictor of future transfusion need across all procedures, and primary THA had additional predictors in age and gender. Sean Robinson, Owen McGonigle, Sam Volin, Yung-Chi Sun, Matthew Moore, Charles Cassidy, and Eric Smith Copyright © 2013 Sean Robinson et al. All rights reserved. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method Wed, 05 Jun 2013 15:23:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2013/154838/ The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB) which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield, pH, CD62P expression and morphology for platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis, and supernatant K+ for RBCs, and volume and factor VIII activity levels for plasma. All components, produced using either method, met CBS quality control criteria. There were no significant differences in platelet yield between components produced with and without mixing. A significant difference was seen for RBC hemolysis at expiry (), but for both groups, levels met quality control requirements. Noninferiority of components produced without mixing was confirmed for all parameters. Manual mixing is laborious and has a risk of repetitive strain for production staff and its significance is unclear. Elimination of this step will improve process efficiencies without compromising quality. Cherie Mastronardi, Peter Schubert, Elena Levin, Varsha Bhakta, Qi-Long Yi, Adele Hansen, Tamiko Stewart, Craig Jenkins, Wanda Lefresne, William Sheffield, and Jason P. Acker Copyright © 2013 Cherie Mastronardi et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Apparatus for Rapid Deoxygenation of Erythrocyte Concentrates for Alternative Banking Strategies Sun, 10 Mar 2013 08:23:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2013/896537/ Erythrocyte concentrates (ECs) stored for transfusion purposes still represent a lifesaving solution in a wide series of clinically occurring circumstances, especially for traumatized and perioperative patients. However, concerns still arise and persist as to whether current criteria for collection and storage of ECs might actually represent the best case scenario or there might rather be still room for improvement. In particular, the prolonged storage of EC has been associated with the accumulation of a wide series of storage lesions, either reversible (metabolism) or irreversible (protein and morphology). Independent laboratories have contributed to propose alternative strategies, among which is the introduction of oxygen removal treatments to ECs. Convincing biochemical and preliminary clinical evidences have been produced about the benefits derived from the introduction of this practice. We, hereby, propose a rapid, efficient, and time-effective strategy for blood deoxygenation which might fit in current EC production chain. The proposed strategy resulted in the complete deoxygenation of red blood cell hemoglobin ( mmHg). A preliminary small-scale study about the application of the present method resulted in reduced hemolysis, decreased vesiculation, and limited alterations to the red blood cell morphology, as gleaned from flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Further in-depth and larger-scale investigations are encouraged. Lello Zolla and Angelo D'Alessandro Copyright © 2013 Lello Zolla and Angelo D'Alessandro. All rights reserved. Potential Application of Cord Blood-Derived Stromal Cells in Cellular Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Tue, 04 Dec 2012 13:14:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/365182/ Neonatal stromal cells from umbilical cord blood (CB) are promising alternatives to bone marrow- (BM-) derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs). In comparison to BM-MSC, the less mature CB-derived stromal cells have been described as a cell population with higher differentiation and proliferation potential that might be of potential interest for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Recently, it has become clear that cord blood contains different stromal cell populations, and as of today, a clear distinction between unrestricted somatic stromal cells (USSCs) and CB-MSC has been established. This classification is based on the expression of DLK-1, HOX, and CD146, as well as functional examination of the adipogenic differentiation potential and the capacity to support haematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo. However, a marker enabling a prospective isolation of the rare cell populations directly out of cord blood is yet to be found. Further analysis may help to reveal even more subpopulations with different properties, which could be useful for the directed application of these cells in preclinical models. Simone Maria Kluth, Teja Falk Radke, and Gesine Kogler Copyright © 2012 Simone Maria Kluth et al. All rights reserved. Anemia and Blood Transfusions in Critically Ill Patients Mon, 22 Oct 2012 11:45:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/629204/ Anemia is common in critically ill patients. As a consequence packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions are frequent in the critically ill. Over the past two decades a growing body of literature has emerged, linking PRBC transfusion to infections, immunosuppression, organ dysfunction, and a higher mortality rate. However, despite growing evidence that risk of PRBC transfusion outweighs its benefit, significant numbers of critically ill patients still receive PRBC transfusion during their intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this paper, we summarize the current literature concerning the impact of anemia on outcomes in critically ill patients and the potential complications of PRBC transfusions. M. Kamran Athar, Nitin Puri, and David R. Gerber Copyright © 2012 M. Kamran Athar et al. All rights reserved. High Rates of Hepatitis B and C and HIV Infections among Blood Donors in Cameroon: A Proposed Blood Screening Algorithm for Blood Donors in Resource-Limited Settings Wed, 10 Oct 2012 13:27:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/458372/ Background. Infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are currently major public health problems. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted from January to June 2008 at the Blood Bank of the Central Hospital, Yaoundé (Cameroon). The objective was to study the prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV and their coinfections among blood donors. Results. A total of 4650 donors were identified, and the sex ratio (male/female) was 14/1. The median age of donors was 28 years (range: 16 to 69 years). Among blood donors, HBV, HIV, and HCV infection prevalences were 12.14%   , 4.44%  , and 1.44%  , respectively. Coinfection with HIV and HBV was observed among 0.77% donors, followed by hepatitis B and C co-infection (0.21%) and HIV and HCV coinfection (0.06%). Co-infection with HIV-HBV-HCV was encountered in 2 donors. The HIV, HBV, and HCV infections lead to a destruction of one out of six sets of blood collected. Conclusion. There is a need to review policies for blood collection from donors, by modifying the algorithm of blood donors testing. Pretesting potential donors using rapid tests could help to avoid collection and destruction of (infected) blood. Florent Fouelifack Ymele, Basile Keugoung, Jeanne Hortense Fouedjio, Nadege Kouam, Sandrine Mendibi, and Jacqueline Dongtsa Mabou Copyright © 2012 Florent Fouelifack Ymele et al. All rights reserved. State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation Thu, 05 Jul 2012 09:49:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/317632/ Stem cells divide by asymmetric division and display different degrees of potency, or ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. Owing to their unique regenerative capacity, stem cells have generated great enthusiasm worldwide and represent an invaluable tool with unprecedented potential for biomedical research and therapeutic applications. Stem cells play a central role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating tissue development and regeneration in normal and pathological conditions and open large possibilities for the discovery of innovative pharmaceuticals to treat the most devastating diseases of our time. Not least, their intrinsic characteristics allow the engineering of functional tissues for replacement therapies that promise to revolutionize the medical practice in the near future. In this paper, the authors present the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and new developments of transdifferentiation technologies and explore some of the biomedical applications that this emerging technology is expected to empower. Giuseppe Maria de Peppo and Darja Marolt Copyright © 2012 Giuseppe Maria de Peppo and Darja Marolt. All rights reserved. Potential Uses of Cord Blood in Cardiac Surgery Wed, 07 Mar 2012 14:23:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/568132/ Despite advances in the fields of prevention, medical intervention and surgical therapy, cardiovascular disease remains a major public healthcare issue. A promising area of research is the potential application of regenerative therapies with pluripotential stem cells to reduce the burden of heart disease and its sequelae. Umbilical cord blood, a rich source of multiple populations of nonembryonic stem cells, will be a valuable resource and has the potential to advance therapeutic options for patients with acquired and congenital heart disease. Ralph S. Mosca Copyright © 2012 Ralph S. Mosca. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Profiles of Foreign-Born and US-Born Hispanic Blood Donors in a Major Metropolitan Area in the United States Mon, 06 Feb 2012 19:09:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/820514/ Background. The explosive growth of Hispanics in the US makes this population a significant and untapped source for blood donation. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate blood donation behaviors and demographics of foreign-born and US-born Hispanic donors between 2006 and 2009 in metropolitan Atlanta, GA, USA. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess factors associated with foreign-born donors. Results. 5,119 foreign-born and 11,841 US-born Hispanics donated blood. Foreign-born Hispanic donors were more likely than US-born donors to be blood group O (57.6% versus 52.0%; P<.001) and more frequent donors (2.2 versus 2.0; P<.001). Cuban-born donors had the highest rates of return donation (63.2%). In contrast, Mexicans, the most prevalent subpopulation among foreign-born Hispanic donors (31.8%), had the lowest rates of return donation (42.0%). Conclusions. The heterogeneity found among Hispanic donors in this study is valuable for the design of recruitment strategies to increase blood donations. Adelbert B. James, Cassandra D. Josephson, Marta I. Castillejo, George B. Schreiber, and John D. Roback Copyright © 2012 Adelbert B. James et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Efficacy of Three Forms of Parenteral Iron Thu, 19 Jan 2012 10:19:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/473514/ Intravenous iron therapy is a useful treatment for the rapid correction of iron deficiency anaemia and can be used to avoid or reduce the requirement for allogeneic blood transfusion. Several intravenous iron preparations are available commercially which differ in cost, mode of administration and side effect profile. There are few data directly comparing the efficacy of these preparations. In this retrospective single-centre study, we present the results from two hundred and eight patients treated using three different iron preparations (iron dextran, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose) and compare the effect on haemoglobin levels and other measures of iron deficiency six weeks after treatment. Within the limitations of our study design, we show a statistically and clinically significant difference in efficacy between these preparations. Richard Dillon, Ibrahim Momoh, Yvonne Francis, Laura Cameron, Claire N. Harrison, and Deepti Radia Copyright © 2012 Richard Dillon et al. All rights reserved. Ethical Aspects of Blood Donors and the Recipients of Their Blood Thu, 19 Jan 2012 10:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/606753/ To date medical care is inextricable based on blood donors and blood products. The continuing increase and intensification of tests and guidelines also results in a change in deferral and abnormal test results. Donors and recipients of their blood are faced with this information and are confronted with a kaleidoscope of thoughts and emotions. The discussion with respect to paid versus nonpaid donation is not new, but other aspects are less often discussed. We describe these other aspects for donors and recipients of their blood and hope to open the ethical discussion; if and to what extent we should have limits? P. J. M. van den Burg and K. Magnussen Copyright © 2012 P. J. M. van den Burg and K. Magnussen. All rights reserved. Using Basic Ethical Principles to Evaluate Safety Efforts in Transfusion Medicine Thu, 19 Jan 2012 10:13:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/407326/ Pursuit of pharmaceutical purity of the blood in the bag has led to a shrinking donor base and a significantly more expensive product. Decisions regarding new infectious marker testing and donor deferrals have typically been made emphasizing decreasing one specific risk without considering the effect the intervention will have on the overall safety and availability of blood transfusion. Regulations have been formulated by governmental agencies with limited input from the medical community. The decision making process has lacked risk benefit analyses and has not had the robustness associated with spirited discussions. Policies made in this manner may result in certain risks being decreased but can also have adverse unintended consequences. Being guided by the ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice, we need to evaluate our actions in the context of overall blood safety rather than narrowly focusing on any one area. Jay P. Brooks Copyright © 2012 Jay P. Brooks. All rights reserved. Quality of Red Blood Cells Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Stored at Room Temperature Thu, 19 Jan 2012 10:11:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/102809/ Red blood cells (RBCs) from cord blood contain fetal hemoglobin that is predominant in newborns and, therefore, may be more appropriate for neonatal transfusions than currently transfused adult RBCs. Post-collection, cord blood can be stored at room temperature for several days before it is processed for stem cells isolation, with little known about how these conditions affect currently discarded RBCs. The present study examined the effect of the duration cord blood spent at room temperature and other cord blood characteristics on cord RBC quality. RBCs were tested immediately after their isolation from cord blood using a broad panel of quality assays. No significant decrease in cord RBC quality was observed during the first 65 hours of storage at room temperature. The ratio of cord blood to anticoagulant was associated with RBC quality and needs to be optimized in future. This knowledge will assist in future development of cord RBC transfusion product. Mariia Zhurova, John Akabutu, and Jason Acker Copyright © 2012 Mariia Zhurova et al. All rights reserved. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway Tue, 17 Jan 2012 13:23:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/813231/ Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%). The main reasons were intercurrent illness (𝑛=182) (15.6%), skin ulcers (𝑛=170) (14.6%), and risk behaviour (𝑛=127) (10.9%). In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation. Håkon Reikvam, Kjersti Svendheim, Anne S. Røsvik, and Tor Hervig Copyright © 2012 Håkon Reikvam et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Epidemiological Methods for Estimation of Hepatitis B Incidence and Residual Risk for Blood Donors in Southern Brazil Fri, 03 Jun 2011 18:41:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2011/985383/ Background and Objective. The objective of this work was to compare three methods for estimating hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence and residual risk. Methods. Computerized blood donor records in southern Brazil were examined for the period 2004–2006. The methods for estimating HBV incidence included stand-alone HBsAg, HBsAg yield method, and an extension of the latter which added recent anti-HBc seroconversions as incident HBV cases. Results. HBV incidences for the above methods were 9.91, 20.09, and 22.93 per 100000 repeat donors, respectively. In the same order, corresponding residual risks were 1 : 62482, 1 : 30821, and 1 : 47559, respectively. First-time donors had 52 higher HBV incidence compared to repeat donors. Conclusion. Although the three methods compared produced overlapping 95% confidence intervals, their variation was considerably lower for the method which included recent anti-HBc seroconversions. First-time donors are primary cause for concern regarding HBV transmission via blood transfusion in southern Brazil. Emil Kupek and Andrea Petry Copyright © 2011 Emil Kupek and Andrea Petry. All rights reserved. An Audit on Near-Miss Events in Transfusion Medicine: The Experience of the Teaching Hospital in Northeastern Malaysia Thu, 27 Jan 2011 14:02:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2011/963090/ The rate of near misses in transfusion is important as it indicates situations with the potential of adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of mislabeled and miscollected samples received by our transfusion medicine unit. This study was conducted from January to December 2009 in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The total number of near-miss events reported and analysed over the 1-year period was 178 (0.40%). All mislabeled and miscollected samples and its location cases were identified. Mislabeled and miscollected (WBIT) samples were 66.3% and 33.7%, respectively. The highest number of mislabeled and miscollected samples was from accident and emergency unit and medical ward, respectively. Continuous monitoring and analysis of near misses data should be mandatory in order to improve the safety of transfusion. M. N. Noor Haslina, M. Y. Shafini, B. Rosnah, R. Marini, S. Salamah, and M. A. Mohd Fakhri Copyright © 2011 M. N. Noor Haslina et al. All rights reserved. Anti-A and Anti-B Haemolysins amongst Group “O” Voluntary Blood Donors in Northeastern Nigeria Tue, 26 Oct 2010 09:04:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2011/302406/ Background and Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and haemolytic significance of alpha- and beta-haemolysins in our voluntary group “O” donor population. Methods. This was a prospective study carried out at North-East Zonal Centre, the National Blood Transfusion Service, Maiduguri, Nigeria from April 2007 to April 2009. One thousand nine hundred and twenty nine voluntary group “O” blood donors (1609 males and 320 females, median age 26 years ± 7.6 SD) were screened for alpha- (anti-A) and beta- (anti-B) haemolysins using the standard tube technique at 37 degrees C for 1 hour. All samples showing haemolysis were titrated for anti-A and anti-B haemolysins. Results. The overall prevalence of haemolysins in group O donors was 55.4%. Prevalence of alpha- and beta-haemolysins only was 10.3% and 12.6%, respectively, while that of donors having both alpha- and beta-haemolysins in their sera was 32.5%. Visual titre of 8 was seen in 0.4% of lytic alpha-haemolysin and 0.2% of lytic beta-haemolysin whereas donors with both alpha- and beta-haemolysins had a titre of 1.8%. Lytic titre of 16 and 32 was very low in our donor population. Conclusion. This study has shown that although the prevalence of haemolysins is high in our voluntary group “O” donor population, the strength of the lytic antibodies is low. Therefore, despite the labour intensiveness of our haemolysis titration technique and the frequent transfusion of group O blood to certain recipients of blood group A, B, and AB in our environments, there is the need to routinely screen our donors for haemolysins in order to identify those posing the greatest risk to recipients. Further studies to determine episodes of clinically significant haemolysis in recipients of blood group O may be necessary. M. B. Kagu, Sagir G. Ahmed, Aisha A. Mohammed, Waheed K. Moshood, Mohammed B. Malah, and Jimoh M. Kehinde Copyright © 2011 M. B. Kagu et al. All rights reserved.