Journal of Combustion The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Local Strain Rate and Curvature Dependences of Scalar Dissipation Rate Transport in Turbulent Premixed Flames: A Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis Thu, 03 Apr 2014 07:13:49 +0000 The statistical behaviours of the instantaneous scalar dissipation rate of reaction progress variable in turbulent premixed flames have been analysed based on three-dimensional direct numerical simulation data of freely propagating statistically planar flame and V-flame configurations with different turbulent Reynolds number . The statistical behaviours of and different terms of its transport equation for planar and V-flames are found to be qualitatively similar. The mean contribution of the density-variation term is positive, whereas the molecular dissipation term acts as a leading order sink. The mean contribution of the strain rate term is predominantly negative for the cases considered here. The mean reaction rate contribution is positive (negative) towards the unburned (burned) gas side of the flame, whereas the mean contribution of the diffusivity gradient term assumes negative (positive) values towards the unburned (burned) gas side. The local statistical behaviours of , , , , , and have been analysed in terms of their marginal probability density functions (pdfs) and their joint pdfs with local tangential strain rate and curvature . Detailed physical explanations have been provided for the observed behaviour. Y. Gao, N. Chakraborty, and N. Swaminathan Copyright © 2014 Y. Gao et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases Thu, 23 Jan 2014 15:57:27 +0000 The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone was varied, and as well as measurements of gas composition, lower heating value and tar content. The results showed that an increase in the amount of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone resulted in a decrease in the amount of tar produced. An increase in the amount of recirculated gases tended to increase the concentrations of H2 and CH4 and reduce the concentration of CO with the primary (gasification) air flow held constant. Increasing the primary air flow tended to increase the amount of CO and decrease the amount of H2. The maximum of lower heating value was 4.9 MJ/m3. Adi Surjosatyo, Fajri Vidian, and Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho Copyright © 2014 Adi Surjosatyo et al. All rights reserved. Large Eddy Simulation of a Bluff Body Stabilized Lean Premixed Flame Tue, 14 Jan 2014 07:10:49 +0000 The present study is devoted to verify current capabilities of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology in the modeling of lean premixed flames in the typical turbulent combustion regime of Dry Low gas turbine combustors. A relatively simple reactive test case, presenting all main aspects of turbulent combustion interaction and flame stabilization of gas turbine lean premixed combustors, was chosen as an affordable test to evaluate the feasibility of the technique also in more complex test cases. A comparison between LES and RANS modeling approach is performed in order to discuss modeling requirements, possible gains, and computational overloads associated with the former. Such comparison comprehends a sensitivity study to mesh refinement and combustion model characteristic constants, computational costs, and robustness of the approach. In order to expand the overview on different methods simulations were performed with both commercial and open-source codes switching from quasi-2D to fully 3D computations. A. Andreini, C. Bianchini, and A. Innocenti Copyright © 2014 A. Andreini et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Sorbent Characteristics on Fouling and Deposition in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers Firing High Sulfur Indian Lignite Mon, 09 Dec 2013 10:08:23 +0000 125 MWe circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler experienced severe fouling in backpass of the boiler leading to obstruction of gas flow passage, while using high sulfur lignite with sorbent, calcium carbonate, to capture sulfur dioxide. Optical microscopy of the hard deposits showed mainly anhydrite (CaSO4) and absence of intermediate phases such as calcium oxide or presence of sulfate rims on decarbonated limestone. It is hypothesized that loose unreacted calcium oxides that settle on tubes are subjected to recarbonation and further extended sulfation resulting in hard deposits. Foul probe tests were conducted in selected locations of backpass for five different compositions of lignite, with varied high sulfur and ash contents supplied from the mines along with necessary rates of sorbent limestone to control SO2, and the deposits build-up rate was determined. The deposit build-up was found increasing, with increase in ash content of lignite, sorbent addition, and percentage of fines in limestone. Remedial measures and field modifications to dislodge deposits on heat transfer surfaces, to handle the deposits in ash conveying system, and to control sorbent fines from the milling circuit are explained. Selvakumaran Palaniswamy, M. Rajavel, A. Leela Vinodhan, B. Ravi Kumar, A. Lawrence, and A. K. Bakthavatsalam Copyright © 2013 Selvakumaran Palaniswamy et al. All rights reserved. Physical and Combustion Characteristics of Briquettes Made from Water Hyacinth and Phytoplankton Scum as Binder Mon, 30 Sep 2013 08:21:24 +0000 The study investigated the potential of water hyacinths and phytoplankton scum, an aquatic weed, as binder for production of fuel briquettes. It also evaluated some physical and combustion characteristics. The water hyacinths were manually harvested, cleaned, sun-dried, and milled to particle sizes distribution ranging from <0.25 to 4.75 mm using hammer mill. The water hyacinth grinds and binder (phytoplankton scum) at 10% (B1), 20% (B2), 30% (B3), 40% (B4), and 50% (B5) by weight of each feedstock were fed into a steel cylindrical die of dimension 14.3 cm height and 4.7 cm diameter and compressed by hydraulic press at pressure 20 MPa with dwell time of 45 seconds. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics. Initial bulk density of uncompressed mixture of water hyacinth and phytoplankton scum at different binder levels varied between 113.86 ± 3.75 (B1) and 156.93 ± 4.82 kg/m3 (B5). Compressed and relaxed densities of water hyacinth briquettes at different binder proportions showed significant difference . Durability of the briquettes improved with increased binder proportion. Phytoplankton scum improved the mechanical handling characteristics of the briquettes. It could be concluded that production of water hyacinth briquettes is feasible, cheaper, and environmentally friendly and that they compete favourably with other agricultural products. R. M. Davies and O. A. Davies Copyright © 2013 R. M. Davies and O. A. Davies. All rights reserved. Effects of Electric Field on the SHS Flame Propagation of the Si-C System, Examined by the Use of the Heterogeneous Theory Tue, 24 Sep 2013 14:46:01 +0000 Relevant to the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, an analytical study has been conducted to investigate the effects of electric field on the combustion behavior because the electric field is indispensable for systems with weak exothermic reactions to sustain flame propagation. In the present study, use has been made of the heterogeneous theory which can satisfactorily account for the premixed mode of the bulk flame propagation supported by the nonpremixed mode of particle consumption. It has been confirmed that, even for the SHS flame propagation under electric field, being well recognized to be facilitated, there exists a limit of flammability, due to heat loss, as is the case for the usual SHS flame propagation. Since the heat loss is closely related to the representative sizes of particles and compacted specimen, this identification provides useful insight into manipulating the SHS flame propagation under electric field, by presenting appropriate combinations of those sizes. A fair degree of agreement has been demonstrated through conducting an experimental comparison, as far as the trend and the approximate magnitude are concerned, suggesting that an essential feature has been captured by the present study. Atsushi Makino Copyright © 2013 Atsushi Makino. All rights reserved. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions Tue, 10 Sep 2013 08:41:24 +0000 The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, and chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO) are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations. G. Paterakis, K. Souflas, E. Dogkas, and P. Koutmos Copyright © 2013 G. Paterakis et al. All rights reserved. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion: Challenges and Proposed Solutions Mon, 26 Aug 2013 15:03:01 +0000 Engine and car manufacturers are experiencing the demand concerning fuel efficiency and low emissions from both consumers and governments. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative combustion technology that is cleaner and more efficient than the other types of combustion. Although the thermal efficiency and emission of HCCI engine are greater in comparison with traditional engines, HCCI combustion has several main difficulties such as controlling of ignition timing, limited power output, and weak cold-start capability. In this study a literature review on HCCI engine has been performed and HCCI challenges and proposed solutions have been investigated from the point view of Ignition Timing that is the main problem of this engine. HCCI challenges are investigated by many IC engine researchers during the last decade, but practical solutions have not been presented for a fully HCCI engine. Some of the solutions are slow response time and some of them are technically difficult to implement. So it seems that fully HCCI engine needs more investigation to meet its mass-production and the future research and application should be considered as part of an effort to achieve low-temperature combustion in a wide range of operating conditions in an IC engine. Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi and Nuraini Abdul Aziz Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi and Nuraini Abdul Aziz. All rights reserved. FT-IR Investigation of the Structural Changes of Sulcis and South Africa Coals under Progressive Heating in Vacuum: Correlation with Volatile Matter Wed, 10 Jul 2013 11:15:41 +0000 The analysis of gas evolving during the pyrolysis of two very different rank coals was studied by using FT-IR spectroscopy. These coals, coming from Sulcis (Sardinia, Italy) and from South Africa, respectively, were subjected to progressive heating up to 800°C in vacuum. The thermal destruction of coal was followed by monitoring the production of gases in this range of temperature. The gases evolving in the heating from room temperature to 800°C were collected at intervals of 100°C and analysed by infrared spectroscopy. The relative pressures were plotted against temperature. These graphs clearly show the correlation among qualitative gas composition, temperature, and the maximum value of emissions, thus confirming FT-IR analysis as a powerful key for pyrolysis monitoring. Aldo D'Alessio, Anna Maria Raspolli-Galletti, Domenico Licursi, and Marco Martinelli Copyright © 2013 Aldo D'Alessio et al. All rights reserved. The Principal Aspects of Application of Detonation in Propulsion Systems Thu, 20 Jun 2013 11:07:56 +0000 The basic problems of application of detonation process in propulsion systems with impulse and continuous burning of combustible mixture are discussed. The results on propagation of detonation waves in supersonic flow are analyzed relatively to air-breathing engine. The experimental results are presented showing the basic possibility of creation of an engine with exterior detonation burning. The base results on optimization of initiation in impulse detonation engine are explained at the expense of spatial and temporal redistribution of an energy, entered into a mixture. The method and technique for construction of highly effective accelerators for deflagration to detonation transition are discussed also. A. A. Vasil'ev Copyright © 2013 A. A. Vasil'ev. All rights reserved. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA Sun, 02 Jun 2013 09:31:53 +0000 Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs), was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification. Zhigang Li, Xiaoming Zhang, Yuichi Sugai, Jiren Wang, and Kyuro Sasaki Copyright © 2013 Zhigang Li et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Flameless Combustion in 3D Highly Porous Reactors under Diesel Injection Conditions Thu, 23 May 2013 08:34:52 +0000 The heat release process in a free volume combustion chamber and in porous reactors has been analyzed under Diesel engine-like conditions. The process has been investigated in a wide range of initial pressures and temperatures simulating engine conditions at the moment when fuel injection starts. The resulting pressure history in both porous reactors and in free volumes significantly depends on the initial pressure and temperature. At lower initial temperatures, the process in porous reactors is accelerated. Combustion in a porous reactor is characterized by heat accumulation in the solid phase of the porous structure and results in reduced pressure peaks and lowered combustion temperature. This depends on reactor heat capacity, pore density, specific surface area, pore structure, and heat transport properties. Characteristic modes of a heat release process in a two-dimensional field of initial pressure and temperature have been selected. There are three characteristic regions represented by a single- and multistep oxidation process (with two or three slopes in the reaction curve) and characteristic delay time distribution has been selected in five characteristic ranges. There is a clear qualitative similarity of characteristic modes of the heat release process in a free volume and in porous reactors. A quantitative influence of porous reactor features (heat capacity, pore density, pore structure, specific surface area, and fuel distribution in the reactor volume) has been clearly indicated. M. Weclas and J. Cypris Copyright © 2013 M. Weclas and J. Cypris. All rights reserved. N2O and NO Emissions from CFBC Cofiring Dried Sewage Sludge, Wet Sewage Sludge with Coal and PE Tue, 21 May 2013 10:03:11 +0000 Experiments on cofiring dried sewage sludge, wet sewage sludge with coal and polyethylene (PE) were carried out on a pilot scale 0.15MWt circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) plant, and the influence of furnace temperatures, cofiring rates on N2O and NO emissions was investigated. Temperature is an effective parameter influencing N2O emission, and higher temperature leads to significant N2O reduction and decrease of conversion ratio of fuel-N to N2O. Increasing in cofiring rates leads to higher nitrogen content in the mixed fuel, which could result in higher NO and N2O emissions from combustion. With more sewage sludge addition, higher NO but lower N2O emissions are observed. N2O emission from cofiring wet sewage sludge with coal is higher than that from cofiring dried sewage sludge with coal and PE, and fuel-N conversion ratio to N2O and NO is much higher in cofiring wet sewage sludge with coal than that in cofiring dried sewage sludge with coal and PE. Zhiwei Li and Hongzhou He Copyright © 2013 Zhiwei Li and Hongzhou He. All rights reserved. Combustion Rate of Solid Carbon in the Axisymmetric Stagnation Flowfield Established over a Sphere and/or a Flat Plate Tue, 23 Apr 2013 15:52:08 +0000 Carbon combustion in the forward stagnation flowfield has been examined through experimental comparisons, by conducting aerothermochemical analyses, with the surface C-O2 and C-CO2 reactions and the gas-phase CO-O2 reaction taken into account. By virtue of the generalized species-enthalpy coupling functions, close coupling of those reactions has been elucidated. Explicit combustion-rate expressions by use of the transfer number in terms of the natural logarithmic term, just like that for droplet combustion, have further been obtained for the combustion response in the limiting situations. It has been confirmed that before the establishment of CO flame, the combustion rate can fairly be represented by the expression in the frozen mode, that after its establishment by the expression in the flame-attached or flame-detached modes, and that the critical condition derived by the asymptotics can fairly predict the surface temperature for its establishment. The formulation has further been extended to include the surface C-H2O and gas-phase H2-O2 reactions additionally, so as to evaluate the combustion rate in humid airflow. Since those expressions are explicit and have fair accuracy, they are anticipated to make various contributions not only for qualitative/quantitative studies, but also for various aerospace applications, including propulsion with high-energy-density fuels. Atsushi Makino, Masahiro Hojo, and Masahito Shintomi Copyright © 2013 Atsushi Makino et al. All rights reserved. Combustion of Submillimeter Heptane/Methanol and Heptane/Ethanol Droplets in Reduced Gravity Tue, 12 Feb 2013 11:56:22 +0000 Reduced-gravity experiments were performed on combustion of droplets composed of n-heptane mixed with methanol or ethanol. The initial alcohol mass fraction in a droplet was 0% (pure heptane) or 5%. The experiments were performed at 0.1 MPa and 25°C with air or with ambients of oxygen and helium with oxygen mole fractions of 0.3 or 0.4. Initial droplet diameters were in the range 0.67 mm to 0.92 mm. After considering measurement uncertainties, burning rates decreased appreciably as the initial droplet diameter increased for combustion in air but not for combustion in the oxygen/helium environments. It was also found that addition of either methanol or ethanol did not influence burning rates appreciably and that burning rates were larger for the oxygen/helium environments than for air if initial droplet diameter dependences were accounted for. I. Aharon, V. K. Tam, and B. D. Shaw Copyright © 2013 I. Aharon et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Turbulent Reynolds Number on the Performance of Algebraic Flame Surface Density Models for Large Eddy Simulation in the Thin Reaction Zones Regime: A Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis Thu, 06 Dec 2012 07:51:03 +0000 A direct numerical simulation (DNS) database of freely propagating statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with a range of different turbulent Reynolds numbers has been used to assess the performance of algebraic flame surface density (FSD) models based on a fractal representation of the flame wrinkling factor. The turbulent Reynolds number Ret has been varied by modifying the Karlovitz number Ka and the Damköhler number Da independently of each other in such a way that the flames remain within the thin reaction zones regime. It has been found that the turbulent Reynolds number and the Karlovitz number both have a significant influence on the fractal dimension, which is found to increase with increasing Ret and Ka before reaching an asymptotic value for large values of Ret and Ka. A parameterisation of the fractal dimension is presented in which the effects of the Reynolds and the Karlovitz numbers are explicitly taken into account. By contrast, the inner cut-off scale normalised by the Zel’dovich flame thickness does not exhibit any significant dependence on Ret for the cases considered here. The performance of several algebraic FSD models has been assessed based on various criteria. Most of the algebraic models show a deterioration in performance with increasing the LES filter width. Mohit Katragadda, Nilanjan Chakraborty, and R. S. Cant Copyright © 2012 Mohit Katragadda et al. All rights reserved. Moving Bed Gasification of Low Rank Alaska Coal Mon, 26 Nov 2012 08:43:52 +0000 This paper presents process simulation of moving bed gasifier using low rank, subbituminous Usibelli coal from Alaska. All the processes occurring in a moving bed gasifier, drying, devolatilization, gasification, and combustion, are included in this model. The model, developed in Aspen Plus, is used to predict the effect of various operating parameters including pressure, oxygen to coal, and steam to coal ratio on the product gas composition. The results obtained from the simulation were compared with experimental data in the literature. The predicted composition of the product gas was in general agreement with the established results. Carbon conversion increased with increasing oxygen-coal ratio and decreased with increasing steam-coal ratio. Steam to coal ratio and oxygen to coal ratios impacted produced syngas composition, while pressure did not have a large impact on the product syngas composition. A nonslagging moving bed gasifier would have to be limited to an oxygen-coal ratio of 0.26 to operate below the ash softening temperature. Slagging moving bed gasifiers, not limited by operating temperature, could achieve carbon conversion efficiency of 99.5% at oxygen-coal ratio of 0.33. The model is useful for predicting performance of the Usibelli coal in a moving bed gasifier using different operating parameters. Mandar Kulkarni and Rajive Ganguli Copyright © 2012 Mandar Kulkarni and Rajive Ganguli. All rights reserved. Interactive Combustion in a Linear Array of 2D Laminar Isolated and Triple Burner Jets Mon, 19 Nov 2012 15:33:24 +0000 Many practical combustion systems such as residential gas burners contain dense groupings or clusters of jet flames with sufficiently small spacing between them, which causes flame interaction. The interaction effect, due in part to Oxygen deficiency in the interstitial space between the flames, causes the spreading of flames, which may merge together to form larger group flames. This interactive effect is studied analytically by revisiting the laminar isolated flame theory for 2D jets, for which similarity solutions are readily available in compressible form, and symmetrical interaction zones can be observed. Flame characteristics were studied by obtaining analytical expressions for flame specific parameters such as height and width, lift-off height and blow-off velocity, air entrainment and mixing layer growth. The theory for multiple interacting jets describes an approximate criterion for interburner spacing at which flame interaction and group flame formation are first observed. The analytical framework presented in this paper presented in this paper produced results which were compared with experimental measurements. The experimental apparatus allowed the interburner spacing to be varied from 7.87 mm to 50.8 mm, and measurements of flame height, width, lift-off height and group-flame formation under interactive modes. Images of the evolving flow field were taken and Schlieren images of the multiple 2D jets were also recorded using a digital camera. S. T. Tillman, S. Kuchibhatla, K. Annamalai, J. A. Caton, and D. Ranjan Copyright © 2012 S. T. Tillman et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Gas Phase Heat Sink on Suppression of Opposed Flow Flame Spread over Thin Solid Fuels in Microgravity Environment Wed, 14 Nov 2012 15:48:11 +0000 A two-dimensional numerical model of opposed flow flame spread over thin solid fuel is formulated and modeled to study the effect of gas phase heat sink (a wire mesh placed parallel to the fuel surface) on the flame-spread rate and flame extinction. The work focuses on the performance of the wire mesh in microgravity environment at an oxygen concentration 21%. The simulations were carried out for various mesh parameters (wire diameter, “” and number of wires per unit length, “”) and mesh distance perpendicular to fuel surface “”. Simulations show that wire mesh is effective in reducing flame-spread rate when placed at distance less than flame width (which is about 1 cm). Mesh wire diameter is determined not to have major influence on heat transfer. However, smaller wire diameter is preferred for better aerodynamics and for increasing heat transfer surface area (here prescribed by parameter “”). Flame suppression exhibits stronger dependence on number of wires per unit length; however, it is relatively insensitive to number of wires per unit length beyond certain value (here 20 cm−1). Vinayak Malhotra, Chenthil Kumar, and Amit Kumar Copyright © 2012 Vinayak Malhotra et al. All rights reserved. Modelling of the Curvature Term of the Flame Surface Density Transport Equation for Large Eddy Simulations Wed, 07 Nov 2012 14:15:47 +0000 A simplified chemistry based three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of freely propagating statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with a range of different values of turbulent Reynolds number has been used for the a priori modelling of the curvature term of the generalised Flame Surface Density (FSD) transport equation in the context of Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The curvature term has been split into the contributions arising due to the reaction and normal diffusion components of displacement speed and the term originating from the tangential diffusion component of displacement speed. Subsequently, these contributions of the curvature term have been split into the resolved and subgrid contributions. New models have been proposed for the subgrid curvature terms arising from the combined reaction and normal diffusion components and the tangential diffusion component of displacement speed. The performances of the new model and the existing models for the subgrid curvature term have been compared with the corresponding quantity extracted from the explicitly filtered DNS data. The new model for the subgrid curvature term is shown to perform satisfactorily in all cases considered in the current study, accounting for wide variations in LES filter size. Mohit Katragadda and Nilanjan Chakraborty Copyright © 2012 Mohit Katragadda and Nilanjan Chakraborty. All rights reserved. Effect of Cetane Number on Specific Fuel Consumption and Particulate Matter and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from Diesel Engines Wed, 31 Oct 2012 16:04:25 +0000 This paper discusses the effect of ignition delay time in diesel engines on the formation of particulate matter, using fuel formulations with different sulfur concentrations from various sources. Our findings indicate that the cetane number has a significant influence on particulate matter emissions, especially in engines with mechanical fuel injection. The maximum pressure in the combustion chamber increases as the cetane number increases, favoring the increase in the cracking reactions of high molecular weight fractions remaining in the liquid state and thus increasing the production of particulate matter. In certain conditions, this increase in pressure has a beneficial effect on the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Higher temperatures in the combustion chamber augment the speed of oxidation, reducing unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The ignition delay time of fuel has a strong effect on the formation of particulate matter and on the emission of unburned hydrocarbons. Renato Cataluña and Rosangela da Silva Copyright © 2012 Renato Cataluña and Rosangela da Silva. All rights reserved. A Simulation of the Effects of Varying Repetition Rate and Pulse Width of Nanosecond Discharges on Premixed Lean Methane-Air Combustion Sun, 21 Oct 2012 08:45:09 +0000 Two-dimensional kinetic simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of repetition rate and pulse width of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges on stabilizing premixed lean methane-air combustion. The repetition rate and pulse width are varied from 10 kHz to 50 kHz and from 9 ns to 2 ns while the total power is kept constant. The lower repetition rates provide larger amounts of radicals such as O, H, and OH. However, the effect on stabilization is found to be the same for all of the tested repetition rates. The shorter pulse width is found to favor the production of species in higher electronic states, but the varying effects on stabilization are also found to be small. Our results indicate that the total deposited power is the critical element that determines the extent of stabilization over this range of discharge properties studied. Moon Soo Bak and Mark A. Cappelli Copyright © 2012 Moon Soo Bak and Mark A. Cappelli. All rights reserved. The Impact of Variable Inlet Mixture Stratification on Flame Topology and Emissions Performance of a Premixer/Swirl Burner Configuration Thu, 11 Oct 2012 17:05:42 +0000 The work presents the assessment of a low emissions premixer/swirl burner configuration utilizing lean stratified fuel preparation. An axisymmetric, single- or double-cavity premixer, formed along one, two, or three concentric disks promotes propane-air premixing and supplies the combustion zone at the afterbody disk recirculation with a radial equivalence ratio gradient. The burner assemblies are operated with a swirl co-flow to study the interaction of the recirculating stratified flame with the surrounding swirl. A number of lean and ultra-lean flames operated either with a plane disk stabilizer or with one or two premixing cavity arrangements were evaluated over a range of inlet mixture conditions. The influence of the variation of the imposed swirl was studied for constant fuel injections. Measurements of turbulent velocities, temperatures, OH* chemiluminescence and gas analysis provided information on the performance of each burner set up. Comparisons with Large Eddy Simulations, performed with an 11-step global chemistry, illustrated the flame front interaction with the vortex formation region under the influence of the variable inlet mixture stratifications. The combined effort contributed to the identification of optimum configurations in terms of fuel consumption and pollutants emissions and to the delineation of important controlling parameters and limiting fuel-air mixing conditions. P. Koutmos, G. Paterakis, E. Dogkas, and Ch. Karagiannaki Copyright © 2012 P. Koutmos et al. All rights reserved. A Priori Assessment of Algebraic Flame Surface Density Models in the Context of Large Eddy Simulation for Nonunity Lewis Number Flames in the Thin Reaction Zones Regime Thu, 06 Sep 2012 14:43:29 +0000 The performance of algebraic flame surface density (FSD) models has been assessed for flames with nonunity Lewis number (Le) in the thin reaction zones regime, using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) database of freely propagating turbulent premixed flames with Le ranging from 0.34 to 1.2. The focus is on algebraic FSD models based on a power-law approach, and the effects of Lewis number on the fractal dimension D and inner cut-off scale 𝜂𝑖 have been studied in detail. It has been found that D is strongly affected by Lewis number and increases significantly with decreasing Le. By contrast, 𝜂𝑖 remains close to the laminar flame thermal thickness for all values of Le considered here. A parameterisation of D is proposed such that the effects of Lewis number are explicitly accounted for. The new parameterisation is used to propose a new algebraic model for FSD. The performance of the new model is assessed with respect to results for the generalised FSD obtained from explicitly LES-filtered DNS data. It has been found that the performance of the most existing models deteriorates with decreasing Lewis number, while the newly proposed model is found to perform as well or better than the most existing algebraic models for FSD. Mohit Katragadda, Nilanjan Chakraborty, and R. S. Cant Copyright © 2012 Mohit Katragadda et al. All rights reserved. An Investigation on Cocombustion Behaviors of Hydrothermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste with Coal Using a Drop-Tube Reactor Thu, 06 Sep 2012 13:24:57 +0000 This work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of replacing Indonesian coal (INC) with hydrothermally treated municipal solid waste (MSWH) in cocombustion with high ash Indian coal (IC). The combustion efficiencies and emissions (CO, NO) of MSWH, INC and their blends with IC for a series of tests performed under a range of temperatures and air conditions were tested in a drop-tube reactor (DTR). The results showed the following. The combustion efficiency of IC was increased by blending both MSWH and INC and CO emission was reduced with increasing temperature. For NO emission, the blending of MSWH led to the increase of NO concentration whereas the effects of INC depended on the temperature. The combustion behaviors of IC-MSWH blend were comparable to those of the IC-INC blend indicating it is possible for MSWH to become a good substitute for INC supporting IC combustion. Moreover, the CO emission fell while the NO emission rose with increasing excess air for IC-MSWH blend at 900°C and the highest combustion efficiency was obtained at the excess air of 1.9. The existence of moisture in the cocombustion system of IC-MSWH blend could slightly improve the combustion efficiency, reduce CO, and increase NO. Liang Lu, Yuqi Jin, Masato R. Nakamura, Marco J. Castaldi, and Kunio Yoshikawa Copyright © 2012 Liang Lu et al. All rights reserved. Extending Lean Operating Limit and Reducing Emissions of Methane Spark-Ignited Engines Using a Microwave-Assisted Spark Plug Tue, 21 Aug 2012 16:19:53 +0000 A microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of 𝜆=1.46, 𝜆=1.51, 𝜆=1.57, 𝜆=1.68, and 𝜆=1.75. For each 𝜆, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as compared to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at 𝜆=1.68. At 𝜆=1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at 𝜆=1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (𝜆=1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric. Vi H. Rapp, Anthony DeFilippo, Samveg Saxena, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Robert W. Dibble, Atsushi Nishiyama, Ahsa Moon, and Yuji Ikeda Copyright © 2012 Vi H. Rapp et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of CO-H2-Air Turbulent Nonpremixed Flame Using the Eddy Dissipation Concept Model with Lookup Table Approach Tue, 07 Aug 2012 12:25:51 +0000 We present a new combustion simulation technique based on a lookup table approach. In the proposed technique, a flow solver extracts the reaction rates from the look-up table using the mixture fraction, progress variable, and reaction time. Look-up table building and combustion simulation are carried out simultaneously. The reaction rates of the chemical species are recorded in the look-up table according to the mixture fraction, progress variable, and time scale of the reaction. Once the reaction rates are recorded, a direct integration to solve the chemical equations becomes unnecessary; thus, the time for computing the reaction rates is shortened. The proposed technique is applied to an eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model and it is validated through a simulation of a CO-H2-air nonpremixed flame. The results obtained by using the proposed technique are compared with experimental and computational data obtained by using the EDC model with direct integration. Good agreement between our method and the EDC model and the experimental data was found. Moreover, the computation time for the proposed technique is approximately 99.2% lower than that of the EDC model with direct integration. Kazui Fukumoto and Yoshifumi Ogami Copyright © 2012 Kazui Fukumoto and Yoshifumi Ogami. All rights reserved. Comparison of Presumed PDF Models of Turbulent Flames Tue, 31 Jul 2012 14:01:49 +0000 Over the past years, the use of a presumed probability density function (PDF) for combustion progress variable or/and mixture fraction has been becoming more and more popular approach to average reaction rates in premixed and partially premixed turbulent flames. Commonly invoked for this purpose is a beta-function PDF or a combination of Dirac delta functions, with the parameters of the two PDFs being determined based on the values of their first and second moments computed by integrating proper balance equations. Because the choice of any of the above PDFs appears to be totally arbitrary as far as underlying physics of turbulent combustion is concerned, the use of such PDFs implies weak sensitivity of the key averaged quantities to the PDF shape. The present work is aimed at testing this implicit assumption by comparing mean heat release rates, burning velocities, and so forth, averaged by invoking the aforementioned PDFs, with all other things being equal. Results calculated in the premixed case show substantial sensitivity of the mean heat release rate to the shape of presumed combustion-progress-variable PDF, thus, putting the approach into question. To the contrary, the use of a presumed mixture-fraction PDF appears to be a sufficiently reasonable simplification for modeling the influence of fluctuations in the mixture fraction on the mean burning velocity provided that the mixture composition varies within flammability limits. Chen Huang and Andrei N. Lipatnikov Copyright © 2012 Chen Huang and Andrei N. Lipatnikov. All rights reserved. Study of Thermal Energy Production by Combustion of Lard and Diesel Mixtures Tue, 24 Jul 2012 11:21:05 +0000 This work presents the experimental results of lard combustion with diesel for heating. The work is divided into two parts, the first of which deals with the identification of lard as fuels and characterization of diesel, as well as determining the chemical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures of both components. The second part studies the optimum combustion point of lard and oil mixtures in a conventional plant, varying the percentage of lard in mixing, air flow, and injection pressure. J. F. San José Alonso, S. Alonso Miñambres, and I. Gobernado Arribas Copyright © 2012 J. F. San José Alonso et al. All rights reserved. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas Tue, 03 Jul 2012 09:04:41 +0000 Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved. L. De Simio, M. Gambino, and S. Iannaccone Copyright © 2012 L. De Simio et al. All rights reserved.