Journal of Combustion The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Large Eddy Simulation of a Swirl-Stabilized Pilot Combustor from Conventional to Flameless Mode Tue, 31 May 2016 07:03:50 +0000 This paper investigates flame and flow structure of a swirl-stabilized pilot combustor in conventional, high temperature, and flameless modes by means of a partially stirred reactor combustion model to provide a better insight into designing lean premixed combustion devices with preheating system. Finite rate chemistry combustion model with one step tuned mechanism and large eddy simulation is used to numerically simulate six cases in these modes. Results show that moving towards high temperature mode by increasing the preheating level, the combustor is prone to formation of thermal with higher risks of flashback. In addition, the flame becomes shorter and thinner with higher turbulent kinetic energies. On the other hand, towards the flameless mode, leaning the preheated mixture leads to almost thermal -free combustion with lower risk of flashback and thicker and longer flames. Simulations also show qualitative agreements with available experiments, indicating that the current combustion model with one step tuned mechanisms is capable of capturing main features of the turbulent flame in a wide range of mixture temperature and equivalence ratios. Ehsan Fooladgar and C. K. Chan Copyright © 2016 Ehsan Fooladgar and C. K. Chan. All rights reserved. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation Thu, 12 May 2016 17:32:09 +0000 Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State), Owukpa (Benue State), Ezimo (Enugu State), Amansiodo (Enugu State), and Inyi (Enugu State) of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C) due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%). However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%), unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C) due to its higher liptinite content (7.2%) when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%). The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo. M. Chukwu, C. O. Folayan, G. Y. Pam, and D. O. Obada Copyright © 2016 M. Chukwu et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry Mon, 04 Apr 2016 11:31:45 +0000 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process. Zhiyong Wang, Shijie Wang, Qi Zhang, Qingyan Fang, and Wangsheng Chen Copyright © 2016 Zhiyong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Pyrolysis Kinetic Modelling of Wheat Straw from the Pannonian Region Sun, 03 Apr 2016 14:51:39 +0000 The pyrolysis/devolatilization is a basic step of thermochemical processes and requires fundamental characterization. In this paper, the kinetic model of pyrolysis is specified as a one-step global reaction. This type of reaction is used to describe the thermal degradation of wheat straw samples by measuring rates of mass loss of solid matter at a linear increase in temperature. The mentioned experiments were carried out using a derivatograph in an open-air environment. The influence of different factors was investigated, such as particle size, humidity levels, and the heating rate in the kinetics of devolatilization. As the measured values of mass loss and temperature functions transform in Arrhenius coordinates, the results are shown in the form of saddle curves. Such characteristics cannot be approximated with one equation in the form of Arrhenius law. For use in numerical applications, transformed functions can be approximated by linear regression for three separate intervals. Analysis of measurement resulting in granulation and moisture content variations shows that these factors have no significant influence. Tests of heating rate variations confirm the significance of this impact, especially in warmer regions. The influence of this factor should be more precisely investigated as a general variable, which should be the topic of further experiments. Ivan Pešenjanski, Biljana Miljković, and Marija Vićević Copyright © 2016 Ivan Pešenjanski et al. All rights reserved. Ignition by Hot Transient Jets in Confined Mixtures of Gaseous Fuels and Air Sun, 27 Mar 2016 09:03:47 +0000 Ignition of a combustible mixture by a transient jet of hot reactive gas is important for safety of mines, prechamber ignition in IC engines, detonation initiation, and novel constant-volume combustors. The present work is a numerical study of the hot jet ignition process in a long constant-volume combustor (CVC) that represents a wave rotor channel. The hot jet of combustion products from a prechamber is injected through a converging nozzle into the main CVC chamber containing a premixed fuel-air mixture. Combustion in a two-dimensional analogue of the CVC chamber is modeled using a global reaction mechanism, a skeletal mechanism, or a detailed reaction mechanism for three hydrocarbon fuels: methane, propane, and ethylene. Turbulence is modeled using the two-equation SST -ω model, and each reaction rate is limited by the local turbulent mixing timescale. Hybrid turbulent-kinetic schemes using some skeletal reaction mechanisms and detailed mechanisms are good predictors of the experimental data. Shock wave traverse of the reaction zone is seen to significantly increase the overall reaction rate, likely due to compression heating, as well as baroclinic vorticity generation that stirs and mixes reactants and increases flame area. Less easily ignitable methane mixture is found to show slower initial reaction and greater dependence on shock interaction than propane and ethylene. Abdullah Karimi and M. Razi Nalim Copyright © 2016 Abdullah Karimi and M. Razi Nalim. All rights reserved. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines Thu, 24 Mar 2016 11:03:47 +0000 Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC). It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed. N. H. Walke, M. R. Nandgaonkar, and N. V. Marathe Copyright © 2016 N. H. Walke et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Injection Timings on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural-Gas Direct Injection Engine Thu, 24 Mar 2016 06:06:31 +0000 This experimental part investigates the effect of injection timing on performance and emissions of homogenous mixture compressed natural-gas direct injection. The engine of 1.6 L capacity, 4 cylinders, spark ignition, and compression ratio of 14 was used. Performance and emission were recorded under wide-open throttle using an engine control system (Rotronics) and the portable exhaust gas analyser (Kane). The engine was tested at speed ranging from 1500 revolutions per minute (RPM) to 4000 RPM with 500 RPM increments. The engine control unit (ECU) was modified using Motec 800. The injection timings investigated were at the end of injection (EOI) 120 bTDC, 180 bTDC, 300 bTDC, and 360 bTDC. Results show high brake power, torque, and BMEP with 120 as compared with the other injection timings. At 4000 RPM the power, torque, and BMEP with 120 were 5% compared to that with 180. Furthermore, it shows low BSFC and high fuel conversion efficiency with 120. With 360, the engine produced less CO and CO2 at higher speeds. Saad Aljamali, Shahrir Abdullah, Wan Moh Faizal Wan Mahmood, and Yusoff Ali Copyright © 2016 Saad Aljamali et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a Semiempirical, Zero-Dimensional, Multizone Model to Predict Nitric Oxide Emissions in DI Diesel Engines’ Combustion Chamber Wed, 16 Mar 2016 07:49:41 +0000 In the present study, a semiempirical, zero-dimensional multizone model, developed by the authors, is implemented on two automotive diesel engines, a heavy-duty truck engine and a light-duty passenger car engine with pilot fuel injection, for various operating conditions including variation of power/speed, EGR rate, fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and boost pressure, to verify its capability for Nitric Oxide (NO) emission prediction. The model utilizes cylinder’s basic geometry and engine operating data and measured cylinder pressure to estimate the apparent combustion rate which is then discretized into burning zones according to the calculation step used. The requisite unburnt charge for the combustion in the zones is calculated using the zone equivalence ratio provided from a new empirical formula involving parameters derived from the processing of the measured cylinder pressure and typical engine operating parameters. For the calculation of NO formation, the extended Zeldovich mechanism is used. From this approach, the model is able to provide the evolution of NO formation inside each burned zone and, cumulatively, the cylinder’s NO formation history. As proven from the investigation conducted herein, the proposed model adequately predicts NO emissions and NO trends when the engine settings vary, with low computational cost. These encourage its use for engine control optimization regarding NOx abatement and real-time/model-based NOx control applications. Nicholas S. Savva and Dimitrios T. Hountalas Copyright © 2016 Nicholas S. Savva and Dimitrios T. Hountalas. All rights reserved. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels Mon, 14 Mar 2016 06:28:07 +0000 Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas. E. A. Salgansky, V. M. Kislov, S. V. Glazov, and M. V. Salganskaya Copyright © 2016 E. A. Salgansky et al. All rights reserved. On Laminar Rich Premixed Polydisperse Spray Flame Propagation with Heat Loss Wed, 02 Mar 2016 12:51:05 +0000 A mathematical analysis of laminar premixed spray flame propagation with heat loss is presented. The analysis makes use of a distributed approximation of the Arrhenius exponential term in the reaction rate expression and leads to an implicit expression for the laminar burning velocity dependent on the spray-related parameters for the fuel, gas-related parameters and the intensity of the heat losses. It is shown that the initial droplet load, the value of the evaporation coefficient, and the initial size distribution are the spray-related parameters which exert an influence on the onset of extinction. The combination of these parameters governs the manner in which the spray heat loss is distributed spatially and it is this feature that is the main factor, when taken together with volumetric heat loss, which determines the spray’s impact on flame propagation and extinction. G. Kats and J. B. Greenberg Copyright © 2016 G. Kats and J. B. Greenberg. All rights reserved. Comparative Numerical Study of Four Biodiesel Surrogates for Application on Diesel 0D Phenomenological Modeling Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:08:58 +0000 To meet more stringent norms and standards concerning engine performances and emissions, engine manufacturers need to develop new technologies enhancing the nonpolluting properties of the fuels. In that sense, the testing and development of alternative fuels such as biodiesel are of great importance. Fuel testing is nowadays a matter of experimental and numerical work. Researches on diesel engine’s fuel involve the use of surrogates, for which the combustion mechanisms are well known and relatively similar to the investigated fuel. Biodiesel, due to its complex molecular configuration, is still the subject of numerous investigations in that area. This study presents the comparison of four biodiesel surrogates, methyl-butanoate, ethyl-butyrate, methyl-decanoate, and methyl-9-decenoate, in a 0D phenomenological combustion model. They were investigated for in-cylinder pressure, thermal efficiency, and emissions. Experiments were performed on a six-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine fuelled by methyl ester (MEB) and ethyl ester (EEB) biodiesel from wasted frying oil. Results showed that, among the four surrogates, methyl butanoate presented better results for all the studied parameters. In-cylinder pressure and thermal efficiency were predicted with good accuracy by the four surrogates. emissions were well predicted for methyl butanoate but for the other three gave approximation errors over 50%. Claude Valery Ngayihi Abbe, Raidandi Danwe, and Robert Nzengwa Copyright © 2016 Claude Valery Ngayihi Abbe et al. All rights reserved. Real Costs Assessment of Solar-Hydrogen and Some Fossil Fuels by means of a Combustion Analysis Wed, 03 Feb 2016 10:24:11 +0000 In order to compare solar-hydrogen and the most used fossil fuels, the evaluation of the “external” costs related to their use is required. These costs involve the environmental damage produced by the combustion reactions, the health problems caused by air pollution, the damage to land from fuel mining, and the environmental degradation linked to the global warming, the acid rains, and the water pollution. For each fuel, the global cost is determined as sum of the market price and of the correspondent external costs. In order to obtain a quantitative comparison, the quality of the different combustion reactions and the efficiency of the technologies employed in the specific application sector have to be considered adequately. At this purpose, an entropic index that considers the degree of irreversibility produced during the combustion process and the degradation of surroundings is introduced. Additionally, an environmental index that measures the pollutants released during the combustions is proposed. The combination of these indexes and the efficiency of the several technologies employed in four energy sectors have allowed the evaluation of the total costs, highlighting an economic scenario from which the real advantages concerning the exploitation of different energy carrier are determined. Giovanni Nicoletti, Roberto Bruno, Natale Arcuri, and Gerardo Nicoletti Copyright © 2016 Giovanni Nicoletti et al. All rights reserved. Review of Sensing Methodologies for Estimation of Combustion Metrics Thu, 28 Jan 2016 12:26:12 +0000 For reduction of engine-out emissions and improvement of fuel economy, closed-loop control of the combustion process has been explored and documented by many researchers. In the closed-loop control, the engine control parameters are optimized according to the estimated instantaneous combustion metrics provided by the combustion sensing process. Combustion sensing process is primarily composed of two aspects: combustion response signal acquisition and response signal processing. As a number of different signals have been employed as the response signal and the signal processing techniques can be different, this paper did a review work concerning the two aspects: combustion response signals and signal processing techniques. In-cylinder pressure signal was not investigated as one of the response signals in this paper since it has been studied and documented in many publications and also due to its high cost and inconvenience in the application. Libin Jia, Jeffrey D. Naber, and Jason R. Blough Copyright © 2016 Libin Jia et al. All rights reserved. Thermodynamic Model for Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gas Mon, 18 Jan 2016 14:18:35 +0000 Most of the thermodynamic modeling of gasification for updraft gasifier uses one process of decomposition (decomposition of fuel). In the present study, a thermodynamic model which uses two processes of decomposition (decomposition of fuel and char) is used. The model is implemented in modification of updraft gasifier with external recirculation of pyrolysis gas to the combustion zone and the gas flowing out from the side stream (reduction zone) in the updraft gasifier. The goal of the model obtains the influences of amount of recirculation pyrolysis gas fraction to combustion zone on combustible gas and tar. The significant results of modification updraft are that the increases amount of recirculation of pyrolysis gas will increase the composition of H2 and reduce the composition of tar; then the composition of CO and CH4 is dependent on equivalence ratio. The results of the model for combustible gas composition are compared with previous study. Fajri Vidian, Adi Surjosatyo, and Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho Copyright © 2016 Fajri Vidian et al. All rights reserved. Review on Recent Advances in Pulse Detonation Engines Mon, 18 Jan 2016 12:55:45 +0000 Pulse detonation engines (PDEs) are new exciting propulsion technologies for future propulsion applications. The operating cycles of PDE consist of fuel-air mixture, combustion, blowdown, and purging. The combustion process in pulse detonation engine is the most important phenomenon as it produces reliable and repeatable detonation waves. The detonation wave initiation in detonation tube in practical system is a combination of multistage combustion phenomena. Detonation combustion causes rapid burning of fuel-air mixture, which is a thousand times faster than deflagration mode of combustion process. PDE utilizes repetitive detonation wave to produce propulsion thrust. In the present paper, detailed review of various experimental studies and computational analysis addressing the detonation mode of combustion in pulse detonation engines are discussed. The effect of different parameters on the improvement of propulsion performance of pulse detonation engine has been presented in detail in this research paper. It is observed that the design of detonation wave flow path in detonation tube, ejectors at exit section of detonation tube, and operating parameters such as Mach numbers are mainly responsible for improving the propulsion performance of PDE. In the present review work, further scope of research in this area has also been suggested. K. M. Pandey and Pinku Debnath Copyright © 2016 K. M. Pandey and Pinku Debnath. All rights reserved. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine Wed, 09 Dec 2015 08:02:09 +0000 Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05), PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10), and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15). The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified. Srinivas Kommana, Balu Naik Banoth, and Kalyani Radha Kadavakollu Copyright © 2015 Srinivas Kommana et al. All rights reserved. A Reduced Order Model for the Design of Oxy-Coal Combustion Systems Wed, 28 Oct 2015 11:11:52 +0000 Oxy-coal combustion is one of the more promising technologies currently under development for addressing the issues associated with greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. Oxy-coal combustion involves combusting the coal fuel in mixtures of pure oxygen and recycled flue gas (RFG) consisting of mainly carbon dioxide (CO2). As a consequence, many researchers and power plant designers have turned to CFD simulations for the study and design of new oxy-coal combustion power plants, as well as refitting existing air-coal combustion facilities to oxy-coal combustion operations. While CFD is a powerful tool that can provide a vast amount of information, the simulations themselves can be quite expensive in terms of computational resources and time investment. As a remedy, a reduced order model (ROM) for oxy-coal combustion has been developed to supplement the CFD simulations. With this model, it is possible to quickly estimate the average outlet temperature of combustion flue gases given a known set of mass flow rates of fuel and oxidant entering the power plant boiler as well as determine the required reactor inlet mass flow rates for a desired outlet temperature. Several cases have been examined with this model. The results compare quite favorably to full CFD simulation results. Steven L. Rowan, Ismail B. Celik, Albio D. Gutierrez, and Jose Escobar Vargas Copyright © 2015 Steven L. Rowan et al. All rights reserved. Calculation of Spotting Particles Maximum Distance in Idealised Forest Fire Scenarios Tue, 23 Jun 2015 12:10:25 +0000 Large eddy simulation of the wind surface layer above and within vegetation was conducted in the presence of an idealised forest fire by using an equivalent volumetric heat source. Firebrand’s particles are represented as spherical particles with a wide range of sizes, which were located into the combustion volume in a random fashion and are convected in the ascending plume as Lagrangian points. The thermally thin particles undergo drag relative to the flow and moisture loss as they are dried and pyrolysis, char-combustion, and mass loss as they burn. The particle momentum, heat and mass transfer, and combustion governing equations were computed along particle trajectories in the unsteady 3D wind field until their deposition on the ground. The spotting distances are compared with the maximum spotting distance obtained with Albini model for several idealised line grass or torching trees fires scenarios. The prediction of the particle maximum spotting distance for a 2000 kW/m short grass fire compared satisfactorily with results from Albini model and underpredicted by 40% the results for a high intensity 50000 kW/m fire. For the cases of single and four torching trees the model predicts the maximum distances consistently but for slightly different particle diameter. José C. F. Pereira, José M. C. Pereira, André L. A. Leite, and Duarte M. S. Albuquerque Copyright © 2015 José C. F. Pereira et al. All rights reserved. Conditional Moment Closure Modelling of a Lifted H2/N2 Turbulent Jet Flame Using the Presumed Mapping Function Approach Mon, 15 Jun 2015 12:05:43 +0000 A lifted hydrogen/nitrogen turbulent jet flame issuing into a vitiated coflow is investigated using the conditional moment closure (CMC) supplemented by the presumed mapping function (PMF) approach for the modelling of conditional mixing and velocity statistics. Using a prescribed reference field, the PMF approach yields a presumed probability density function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, which is then used in closing the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR) and conditional velocity in a fully consistent manner. These closures are applied to a lifted flame and the findings are compared to previous results obtained using β-PDF-based closures over a range of coflow temperatures (). The PMF results are in line with those of the β-PDF and compare well to measurements. The transport budgets in mixture fraction and physical spaces and the radical history ahead of the stabilisation height indicate that the stabilisation mechanism is susceptible to . As in the previous β-PDF calculations, autoignition around the “most reactive” mixture fraction remains the controlling mechanism for sufficiently high . Departure from the β-PDF predictions is observed when is decreased as PMF predicts stabilisation by means of premixed flame propagation. This conclusion is based on the observation that lean mixtures are heated by downstream burning mixtures in a preheat zone developing ahead of the stabilization height. The spurious sources, which stem from inconsistent CSDR modelling, are further investigated. The findings reveal that their effect is small but nonnegligible, most notably within the flame zone. Ahmad El Sayed and Roydon A. Fraser Copyright © 2015 Ahmad El Sayed and Roydon A. Fraser. All rights reserved. Combustion Characteristics of Butane Porous Burner for Thermoelectric Power Generation Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:43:31 +0000 The present study explores the utilization of a porous burner for thermoelectric power generation. The porous burner was tested with butane gas using two sets of configurations: single layer porcelain and a stacked-up double layer alumina and porcelain. Six PbSnTe thermoelectric (TE) modules with a total area of 54 cm2 were attached to the wall of the burner. Fins were also added to the cold side of the TE modules. Fuel-air equivalence ratio was varied between the blowoff and flashback limit and the corresponding temperature, current-voltage, and emissions were recorded. The stacked-up double layer negatively affected the combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.20 to 0.42, but single layer porcelain shows diminishing trend in the equivalence ratio of 0.60 to 0.90. The surface temperature of a stacked-up porous media is considerably higher than the single layer. Carbon monoxide emission is independent for both porous media configurations, but moderate reduction was recorded for single layer porcelain at lean fuel-air equivalence ratio. Nitrogen oxides is insensitive in the lean fuel-air equivalence ratio for both configurations, even though slight reduction was observed in the rich region for single layer porcelain. Power output was found to be highly dependent on the temperature gradient. K. F. Mustafa, S. Abdullah, M. Z. Abdullah, and K. Sopian Copyright © 2015 K. F. Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame Mon, 23 Mar 2015 13:24:00 +0000 Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4) has been utilized as a fuel in a lab-scale furnace. A computational approach by standard k-ε combustion and turbulence model is applied. Hydrogen is added to the biogas components and the impacts of hydrogen enrichment on the temperature distribution, flame stability, and pollutant formation are studied. The results confirm that adding hydrogen to the POME biogas content could improve low calorific value (LCV) of biogas and increases the stability of the POME biogas flame. Indeed, the biogas flame length rises and distribution of the temperature within the chamber is uniform when hydrogen is added to the POME biogas composition. Compared to the pure biogas combustion, thermal NOx formation increases in hydrogen-enriched POME biogas combustion due to the enhancement of the furnace temperature. Seyed Ehsan Hosseini, Ghobad Bagheri, Mostafa Khaleghi, and Mazlan Abdul Wahid Copyright © 2015 Seyed Ehsan Hosseini et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of Constant Volume Sulfur Dust Explosions Wed, 25 Feb 2015 11:21:06 +0000 Dust flames have been studied for decades because of their importance in industrial safety and accident prevention. Recently, dust flames have become a promising candidate to counter biological warfare. Sulfur in particular is one of the elements that is of interest, but sulfur dust flames are not well understood. Flame temperature and flame speed were measured for sulfur flames with particle concentrations of 280 and 560 g/m3 and oxygen concentration between 10% and 42% by volume. The flame temperature increased with oxygen concentration from approximately 900 K for the 10% oxygen cases to temperatures exceeding 2000 K under oxygen enriched conditions. The temperature was also observed to increase slightly with particle concentration. The flame speed was observed to increase from approximately 10 cm/s with 10% oxygen to 57 and 81 cm/s with 42% oxygen for the 280 and 560 g/m3 cases, respectively. A scaling analysis determined that flames burning in 21% and 42% oxygen are diffusion limited. Finally, it was determined that pressure-time data may likely be used to measure flame speed in constant volume dust explosions. Joseph Kalman, Nick G. Glumac, and Herman Krier Copyright © 2015 Joseph Kalman et al. All rights reserved. Assessing the Role of Particles in Radiative Heat Transfer during Oxy-Combustion of Coal and Biomass Blends Thu, 19 Feb 2015 10:56:07 +0000 This study assesses the required fidelities in modeling particle radiative properties and particle size distributions (PSDs) of combusting particles in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of radiative heat transfer during oxy-combustion of coal and biomass blends. Simulations of air and oxy-combustion of coal/biomass blends in a 0.5 MW combustion test facility were carried out and compared against recent measurements of incident radiative fluxes. The prediction variations to the combusting particle radiative properties, particle swelling during devolatilization, scattering phase function, biomass devolatilization models, and the resolution (diameter intervals) employed in the fuel PSD were assessed. While the wall incident radiative flux predictions compared reasonably well with the experimental measurements, accounting for the variations in the fuel, char and ash radiative properties were deemed to be important as they strongly influenced the incident radiative fluxes and the temperature predictions in these strongly radiating flames. In addition, particle swelling and the diameter intervals also influenced the incident radiative fluxes primarily by impacting the particle extinction coefficients. This study highlights the necessity for careful selection of particle radiative property, and diameter interval parameters and the need for fuel fragmentation models to adequately predict the fly ash PSD in CFD simulations of coal/biomass combustion. Gautham Krishnamoorthy and Caitlyn Wolf Copyright © 2015 Gautham Krishnamoorthy and Caitlyn Wolf. All rights reserved. Predicting Radiative Heat Transfer in Oxy-Methane Flame Simulations: An Examination of Its Sensitivities to Chemistry and Radiative Property Models Thu, 12 Feb 2015 11:52:20 +0000 Measurements from confined, laminar oxy-methane flames at different O2/CO2 dilution ratios in the oxidizer are first reported with measurements from methane-air flames included for comparison. Simulations of these flames employing appropriate chemistry and radiative property modeling options were performed to garner insights into the experimental trends and assess prediction sensitivities to the choice of modeling options. The chemistry was modeled employing a mixture-fraction based approach, Eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and refined global finite rate (FR) models. Radiative properties were estimated employing four weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) models formulated from different spectroscopic/model databases. The mixture fraction and EDC models correctly predicted the trends in flame length and OH concentration variations, and the O2, CO2, and temperature measurements outside the flames. The refined FR chemistry model predictions of CO2 and O2 deviated from their measured values in the flame with 50% O2 in the oxidizer. Flame radiant power estimates varied by less than 10% between the mixture fraction and EDC models but more than 60% between the different WSGG models. The largest variations were attributed to the postcombustion gases in the temperature range 500 K–800 K in the upper sections of the furnace which also contributed significantly to the overall radiative transfer. Hassan Abdul-Sater, Gautham Krishnamoorthy, and Mario Ditaranto Copyright © 2015 Hassan Abdul-Sater et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of Gas Explosions in Hydrogen Sulfide-Natural Gas-Air Mixtures Thu, 21 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An experimental study of turbulent combustion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and natural gas was performed to provide reference data for verification of CFD codes and direct comparison. Hydrogen sulfide is present in most crude oil sources, and the explosion behaviour of pure H2S and mixtures with natural gas is important to address. The explosion behaviour was studied in a four-meter-long square pipe. The first two meters of the pipe had obstacles while the rest was smooth. Pressure transducers were used to measure the combustion in the pipe. The pure H2S gave slightly lower explosion pressure than pure natural gas for lean-to-stoichiometric mixtures. The rich H2S gave higher pressure than natural gas. Mixtures of H2S and natural gas were also studied and pressure spikes were observed when 5% and 10% H2S were added to natural gas and also when 5% and 10% natural gas were added to H2S. The addition of 5% H2S to natural gas resulted in higher pressure than pure H2S and pure natural gas. The 5% mixture gave much faster combustion than pure natural gas under fuel rich conditions. André Vagner Gaathaug, Dag Bjerketvedt, Knut Vaagsaether, and Sandra Hennie Nilsen Copyright © 2014 André Vagner Gaathaug et al. All rights reserved. Augmenting the Structures in a Swirling Flame via Diffusive Injection Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:48:06 +0000 Small scale experimentation using particle image velocimetry investigated the effect of the diffusive injection of methane, air, and carbon dioxide on the coherent structures in a swirling flame. The interaction between the high momentum flow region (HMFR) and central recirculation zone (CRZ) of the flame is a potential cause of combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB) and occurs when the HMFR squeezes the CRZ, resulting in upstream propagation. The diffusive introduction of methane or carbon dioxide through a central injector increased the size and velocity of the CRZ relative to the HMFR whilst maintaining flame stability, reducing the likelihood of CIVB occurring. The diffusive injection of air had an opposing effect, reducing the size and velocity of the CRZ prior to eradicating it completely. This would also prevent combustion induced vortex breakdown CIVB occurring as a CRZ is fundamental to the process; however, without recirculation it would create an inherently unstable flame. Jonathan Lewis, Agustin Valera-Medina, Richard Marsh, and Steven Morris Copyright © 2014 Jonathan Lewis et al. All rights reserved. Testing Vegetation Flammability: The Problem of Extremely Low Ignition Frequency and Overall Flammability Score Thu, 26 Jun 2014 13:44:37 +0000 In the recent decades changes in fire regimes led to higher vulnerability of fire prone ecosystems, with vegetation being the only component influencing fire regime which can be managed in order to reduce probability of extreme fire events. For these management practices to be effective reliable information on the vegetation flammability is being crucial. Epiradiator based testing methods are one of the methods commonly used to investigate vegetation flammability and decrease in ignition frequency is always interpreted as a decrease in flammability. Furthermore, gathered information is often combined into a single flammability score. Here we present results of leaf litter testing which, together with previously conducted research on similar materials, show that material with very low ignition frequency under certain testing conditions can be extremely flammable if testing conditions are slightly changed. Additionally, our results indicate that combining measured information into one single flammability score, even though sometimes useful, is not always meaningful and should be performed with caution. Zorica Kauf, Andreas Fangmeier, Roman Rosavec, and Željko Španjol Copyright © 2014 Zorica Kauf et al. All rights reserved. Nonpremixed Counterflow Flames: Scaling Rules for Batch Simulations Sun, 22 Jun 2014 04:58:54 +0000 A method is presented to significantly improve the convergence behavior of batch nonpremixed counterflow flame simulations with finite-rate chemistry. The method is applicable to simulations with varying pressure or strain rate, as it is, for example, necessary for the creation of flamelet tables or the computation of the extinction point. The improvement is achieved by estimating the solution beforehand. The underlying scaling rules are derived from theory, literature, and empirical observations. The estimate is used as an initialization for the actual solver. This enhancement leads to a significantly improved robustness and acceleration of batch simulations. The extinction point can be simulated without cumbersome code extensions. The method is demonstrated on two test cases and the impact is discussed. Thomas Fiala and Thomas Sattelmayer Copyright © 2014 Thomas Fiala and Thomas Sattelmayer. All rights reserved. Development and Parametric Evaluation of a Tabulated Chemistry Tool for the Simulation of n-Heptane Low-Temperature Oxidation and Autoignition Phenomena Tue, 10 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Accurate modelling of preignition chemical phenomena requires a detailed description of the respective low-temperature oxidative reactions. Motivated by the need to simulate a diesel oil spray evaporation device operating in the “stabilized” cool flame regime, a “tabulated chemistry” tool is formulated and evaluated. The tool is constructed by performing a large number of kinetic simulations, using the perfectly stirred reactor assumption. n-Heptane is used as a surrogate fuel for diesel oil and a detailed n-heptane mechanism is utilized. Three independent parameters (temperature, fuel concentration, and residence time) are used, spanning both the low-temperature oxidation and the autoignition regimes. Simulation results for heat release rates, fuel consumption and stable or intermediate species production are used to assess the impact of the independent parameters on the system’s thermochemical behaviour. Results provide the physical and chemical insight needed to evaluate the performance of the tool when incorporated in a CFD code. Multidimensional thermochemical behaviour “maps” are created, demonstrating that cool flame activity is favoured under fuel-rich conditions and that cool flame temperature boundaries are extended with increasing fuel concentration or residence time. George Vourliotakis, Dionysios I. Kolaitis, and Maria A. Founti Copyright © 2014 George Vourliotakis et al. All rights reserved. Combustion Characteristics for Turbulent Prevaporized Premixed Flame Using Commercial Light Diesel and Kerosene Fuels Sun, 01 Jun 2014 09:20:02 +0000 Experimental study has been carried out for investigating fuel type, fuel blends, equivalence ratio, Reynolds number, inlet mixture temperature, and holes diameter of perforated plate affecting combustion process for turbulent prevaporized premixed air flames for different operating conditions. CO2, CO, H2, N2, C3H8, C2H6, C2H4, flame temperature, and gas flow velocity are measured along flame axis for different operating conditions. Gas chromatographic (GC) and CO/CO2 infrared gas analyzer are used for measuring different species. Temperature is measured using thermocouple technique. Gas flow velocity is measured using pitot tube technique. The effect of kerosene percentage on concentration, flame temperature, and gas flow velocity is not linearly dependent. Correlations for adiabatic flame temperature for diesel and kerosene-air flames are obtained as function of mixture strength, fuel type, and inlet mixture temperature. Effect of equivalence ratio on combustion process for light diesel-air flame is greater than for kerosene-air flame. Flame temperature increases with increased Reynolds number for different operating conditions. Effect of Reynolds number on combustion process for light diesel flame is greater than for kerosene flame and also for rich flame is greater than for lean flame. The present work contributes to design and development of lean prevaporized premixed (LPP) gas turbine combustors. Mohamed S. Shehata, Mohamed M. ElKotb, and Hindawi Salem Copyright © 2014 Mohamed S. Shehata et al. All rights reserved.