Journal of Computational Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Robust Time Efficient Watermarking Technique for Stereo Images Tue, 28 Jul 2015 13:29:43 +0000 Stereoscopic and multiview imaging techniques are used for reproducing a natural or real world scene. However, the fact that more information is displayed requires supporting technologies to ensure the storage and transmission of the sequences. Beyond these supports comes watermarking as a desirable alternative solution for copyright protection of stereo images and videos. This paper introduces a watermarking method applied to stereo images in wavelet domain. This method uses a particle swarm optimization (PSO) evolutionary computation method. The aim is to solve computational complexity problems as well as satisfy an execution time that complies with normal PCs or smart phones processors. Robustness against image attacks is tested, and results are shown. M. A. Abdou and A. A. Saleh Copyright © 2015 M. A. Abdou and A. A. Saleh. All rights reserved. Development of High-Resolution Total Variation Diminishing Scheme for Linear Hyperbolic Problems Wed, 22 Jul 2015 09:52:32 +0000 A high-resolution, total variation diminishing (TVD) stable scheme is derived for scalar hyperbolic problems using the method of flux limiters. The scheme was constructed by combining the 1st-order upwind scheme and the 3rd-order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme (QUICK) using new flux limiter function. The new flux limiter function was established by imposing several conditions to ensure the TVD properties of the scheme. For temporal discretization, the theta method was used, and values for the parameter θ were chosen such that the scheme is unconditionally stable. Numerical results are presented for one-dimensional pure advection problems with smooth and discontinuous initial conditions and are compared to those of other known numerical schemes. The results show that the proposed numerical method is stable and of higher order than other common schemes. Rabie A. Abu Saleem and Tomasz Kozlowski Copyright © 2015 Rabie A. Abu Saleem and Tomasz Kozlowski. All rights reserved. Slope Stability Analysis of Earth-Rockfill Dams Using MGA and UST Wed, 10 Jun 2015 07:01:16 +0000 The nonlinear Unified Strength Theory (UST), which takes into account the effect of intermediate stress and nonlinear behavior on geotechnical strength, is applied in slope stability analysis of earth-rockfill dams (ERD) in this paper. The biggest drawback for general determination of slip surface is that it must presuppose the shape of slip surface and is unable to identify the critical noncircular slip surface more accurately. This paper proposes an optimal analytic model of slope stability analysis of ERD and employs modified genetic algorithm (MGA) to search for the slip surface on the basis of shear failure criteria of the nonlinear UST without prior assumption of the shape of slip surface. The application of MGA dependent on Matlab toolbox to the slope stability analysis of ERD shows that MGA can consequently overcome the weakness of easily falling into local optimal solutions brought by general optimal algorithms. Li Nansheng, Tang Bo, and Xie Lihui Copyright © 2015 Li Nansheng et al. All rights reserved. An Estimate of the Probability Density Function of the Sum of a Random Number of Independent Random Variables Mon, 06 Apr 2015 06:36:11 +0000 A new estimate of the probability density function (PDF) of the sum of a random number of independent and identically distributed (IID) random variables is shown. The sum PDF is represented as a sum of normal PDFs weighted according to the PDF. The analytical model is verified by numerical simulations. The comparison is made by the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit test. Angelo Gifuni, Antonio Sorrentino, Giuseppe Ferrara, and Maurizio Migliaccio Copyright © 2015 Angelo Gifuni et al. All rights reserved. Finite Element Analysis of System-Level Electronic Packages for Space Applications Tue, 24 Mar 2015 13:25:39 +0000 Thermal analysis was required in order to aid in the design and testing of a radiation tolerant computing (RTC) system using a radiation sensor. During development of the system, different test beds were employed in order to characterize the radiation sensor and its supporting electronic systems. The most common preliminary tests are high altitude balloon tests which allow the sensor to experience cosmic radiation at high altitudes, consistent with space flight operations. In this study, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to evaluate primary system architecture, system support structures, and the flight payload in order to determine if the system would survive preliminary and future testing. ANSYS FEA software was used to create thermal models which accurately simulated convective cooling, system heat generation, and solar radiation loading on the exterior of the payload. The results of the models were then used to optimize payload PC board (PCB) design to ensure that the internal electronic systems would be within acceptable operating temperatures. Adrien Lambert, Ahsan Mian, Justin Hogan, Todd Kaiser, and Brock LaMeres Copyright © 2015 Adrien Lambert et al. All rights reserved. New Application for the Generalized Incomplete Gamma Function in the Heat Transfer of Nanofluids via Two Transformations Thu, 19 Mar 2015 13:00:14 +0000 The boundary layer flow of nanofluids is usually described by a system of nonlinear differential equations with infinity boundary conditions. These boundary conditions at infinity are transformed into classical boundary conditions via two different transformations. Accordingly, the original heat transfer equation is changed into a new one which is expressed in terms of the new variable. The exact solutions have been obtained in terms of the exponential function for the stream function and in terms of the incomplete Gamma function for the temperature distribution. Furthermore, it is found in this project that a certain transformation reduces the computational work required to obtain the exact solution of the heat transfer equation. Hence, such transformation is recommended for future analysis of similar physical problems. Besides, the other published exact solution was expressed in terms of the WhittakerM function which is more complicated than the generalized incomplete Gamma function of the current analysis. It is important to refer to the fact that the analytical procedure followed in our project is easier and more direct than the one considered in a previous published work. Abdelhalim Ebaid and Hibah S. Alhawiti Copyright © 2015 Abdelhalim Ebaid and Hibah S. Alhawiti. All rights reserved. Holistic Ontology-Based Assistance System for Efficient Process Model Parameter Identification Mon, 23 Feb 2015 08:22:24 +0000 Accurate models of technical systems are the basis for many tasks like system analysis, predictions, or controller design. Usually, the values of several important parameters cannot be determined by theoretical analysis only; instead, process identification is necessary. For several applications, the efficiency of the identification procedure is very important, for example, for the creation of thermal models of machine tools, because of the large time constants and the expensive machine time. The goal of the authors is the support of this task as far as possible by software. This paper contributes to that goal twofold: on the one hand, it provides a collection of influences which have to be considered for supporting the identification procedure. On the other hand, concepts for computer-based support are presented—ontologies and automatic design methods based on evolutionary algorithms. Burkhard Hensel, Thomas Wagner, André Gellrich, Klaus Kabitzsch, and Bernd Kauschinger Copyright © 2015 Burkhard Hensel et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Enhancement Technique on Nonuniform and Uniform Ultrasound Images Mon, 12 Jan 2015 06:13:13 +0000 The absence of adequate scientific resources in the area of medical sciences sometimes leads to improper diagnosis of diseases and hence the treatments of such diseases are affected badly. However, with the advancement of technology, the complicacy of various malfunctions inside the human body reduces. Ultrasound imaging is one of the biomedical scanning techniques that let the pathologist make comment reasonably and accurately on the disease or irregularity seen in the scan while low imaging quality lets the diagnosis go wrong. Even a little distortion can route the pathologist away from the main cause of the disease. In this research work, the enhancement of dark ultrasound images has been done. An algorithm is developed using enhancement technique for nonuniform and uniform dark images. Finally, we compared the quality of the processed and unprocessed images. Both ETNUD and mean and median filtering techniques were used for image analysis. Parveen Lehana, Priti Rajput, Santoresh Kumari, and Sandeep Arya Copyright © 2015 Parveen Lehana et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulations of Dynamic Behavior of Polyurea Toughened Steel Plates under Impact Loading Mon, 29 Dec 2014 09:40:37 +0000 The objective of the work discussed herein is to develop a nonlinear 3D finite element model to simulate dynamic behavior of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading. Experimental and numerical work related to model development are presented. Material properties are incorporated into numerical models to account for strain-rate effects on the dynamic behavior of polyurea and steel. One bare steel plate and four polyurea toughened steel plates were tested under impact loading using a pendulum impact device. Displacement time-history data from experimental work was used to validate the numerical models. Details on material model construction, finite element model development, and model validation are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the developed numerical models can reasonably predict dynamic response of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading. Chien-Chung Chen and Daniel G. Linzell Copyright © 2014 Chien-Chung Chen and Daniel G. Linzell. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Structure for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network Tue, 23 Dec 2014 09:09:36 +0000 In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been used for various applications such as environmental monitoring, military and medical applications. A wireless sensor network uses a large number of sensor nodes that continuously collect and send data from a specific region to a base station. Data from sensors are collected from the study area in the common scenario of sensor networks. Afterward, sensed data is sent to the base station. However, neighboring sensors often lead to redundancy of data. Transmission of redundant data to the base station consumes energy and produces traffic, because process is run in a large network. Data aggregation was proposed in order to reduce redundancy in data transformation and traffic. The most popular communication protocol in this field is cluster based data aggregation. Clustering causes energy balance, but sometimes energy consumption is not efficient due to the long distance between cluster heads and base station. In another communication protocol, which is based on a tree construction, because of the short distance between the sensors, energy consumption is low. In this data aggregation approach, since each sensor node is considered as one of the vertices of a tree, the depth of tree is usually high. In this paper, an efficient hierarchical hybrid approach for data aggregation is presented. It reduces energy consumption based on clustering and minimum spanning tree. The benefit of combining clustering and tree structure is reducing the disadvantages of previous structures. The proposed method firstly employs clustering algorithm and then a minimum spanning tree is constructed based on cluster heads. Our proposed method was compared to LEACH which is a well-known data aggregation method in terms of energy consumption and the amount of energy remaining in each sensor network lifetime. Simulation results indicate that our proposed method is more efficient than LEACH algorithm considering energy consumption. Hedieh Sajedi and Zahra Saadati Copyright © 2014 Hedieh Sajedi and Zahra Saadati. All rights reserved. An Image Dehazing Model considering Multiplicative Noise and Sensor Blur Mon, 22 Dec 2014 07:40:12 +0000 A restoration model considering the data-dependent multiplicative noise, shift-invariant blur, and haze has been introduced in this paper. The proposed strategy adopts a two-step model to perform a single image dehazing under the blurred and noisy observations. The first step uses the well-known dark channel prior method to estimate the transmission of the medium and atmospheric light that signifies the global color of the haze and dehaze the images. The second step performs denoising and deblurring under a Gamma distributed noise setup and a linear blurring artefact. The restoration under the above mentioned setup has quite a few applications in satellite and long-distant telescopic imaging systems, where the captured images are noisy due to atmospheric pressure turbulence and hazy due to the presence of atmospheric dust formation; further they are blurred due to the common device artefacts. The proposed strategy is tested using a large amount of available image-sets and the performance of the model is analysed in detail in the results section. P. Jidesh and A. A. Bini Copyright © 2014 P. Jidesh and A. A. Bini. All rights reserved. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Boundary Layer of Unsteady Viscous Nanofluid along a Vertical Stretching Sheet Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:52:42 +0000 Heat and mass transfer in the boundary-layer flow of unsteady viscous nanofluid along a vertical stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field, thermal radiation, heat generation, and chemical reaction are presented in this paper. The sheet is situated in the xz-plane and y is normal to the surface directing towards the positive y-axis. The sheet is continuously stretching in the positive x-axis and the external magnetic field is applied to the system parallel to the positive y-axis. With the help of similarity transformations, the partial differential equations are transformed into a couple of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The new problem is then solved numerically by a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Effects of the necessary parameters in the flow field are explicitly studied and briefly explained graphically and in tabular form. For the selected values of the pertinent parameters appearing in the governing equations, numerical results of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are obtained. The results are compared to the works of others (from previously published journals) and they are found in excellent agreement. Eshetu Haile and B. Shankar Copyright © 2014 Eshetu Haile and B. Shankar. All rights reserved. Numerical Study of the Generic Sports Utility Vehicle Design with a Drag Reduction Add-On Device Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:11:31 +0000 CFD simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 6.3.26 have been performed on a generic SUV design and the settings are validated using the experimental results investigated by Khalighi. Moreover, an add-on inspired by the concept presented by Englar at GTRI for drag reduction has been designed and added to the generic SUV design. CFD results of add-on model and the basic SUV model have been compared for a number of aerodynamic parameters. Also drag coefficient, drag force, mean surface pressure, mean velocities, and Cp values at different locations in the wake have been compared for both models. The main objective of the study is to present a new add-on device which may be used on SUVs for increasing the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Mean pressure results show an increase in the total base pressure on the SUV after using the device. An overall reduction of 8% in the aerodynamic drag coefficient on the add-on SUV has been investigated analytically in this study. Shubham Singh, M. Zunaid, Naushad Ahmad Ansari, Shikha Bahirani, Sumit Dhall, and Sandeep Kumar Copyright © 2014 Shubham Singh et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Unscented Particle Filter with Global Sampling Strategy Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:10:23 +0000 Particle filter (PF) has many variations and one of the most popular is the unscented particle filter (UPF). UPF uses the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to generate particles in the PF framework and has a better performance than the standard PF. However, UPF suffers from its high computation complexity because it has to execute UKF to each particle to obtain proposal distribution. This paper gives an improved UPF aiming at reducing the computation complexity of the algorithm. In comparison to the standard UPF, the new strategy generates proposal distribution from the mean and covariance value of the whole particles instead of from each particle. Thus the improved algorithm utilizes the characteristics of the whole particles and only needs to perform UKF algorithm once to get the proposal distribution at each time step. Experimental results show that, compared to standard UPF, the improved algorithm reduces the time consumption greatly almost without performance degradation. Yi-zheng Zhao Copyright © 2014 Yi-zheng Zhao. All rights reserved. FDTD Acceleration for Cylindrical Resonator Design Based on the Hybrid of Single and Double Precision Floating-Point Computation Thu, 04 Dec 2014 07:52:22 +0000 Acceleration of FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) is very important for the fields such as computational electromagnetic simulation. We consider the FDTD simulation model of cylindrical resonator design that requires double precision floating-point and cannot be done using single precision. Conventional FDTD acceleration methods have a common problem of memory-bandwidth limitation due to the large amount of parallel data access. To overcome this problem, we propose a hybrid of single and double precision floating-point computation method that reduces the data-transfer amount. We analyze the characteristics of the FDTD simulation to find out when we can use single precision instead of double precision. According to the experimental results, we achieved over 15 times of speed-up compared to the CPU single-core implementation and over 1.52 times of speed-up compared to the conventional GPU-based implementation. Hasitha Muthumala Waidyasooriya, Masanori Hariyama, Yasuhiro Takei, and Michitaka Kameyama Copyright © 2014 Hasitha Muthumala Waidyasooriya et al. All rights reserved. Computational Modelling of the Structural Integrity following Mass-Loss in Polymeric Charred Cellular Solids Mon, 27 Oct 2014 07:17:56 +0000 A novel computational technique is presented for embedding mass-loss due to burning into the ANSYS finite element modelling code. The approaches employ a range of computational modelling methods in order to provide more complete theoretical treatment of thermoelasticity absent from the literature for over six decades. Techniques are employed to evaluate structural integrity (namely, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratios, and compressive brittle strength) of honeycomb systems known to approximate three-dimensional cellular chars. That is, reducing the mass of diagonal ribs and both diagonal-plus-vertical ribs simultaneously show rapid decreases in the structural integrity of both conventional and reentrant (auxetic, i.e., possessing a negative Poisson’s ratio) honeycombs. On the other hand, reducing only the vertical ribs shows initially modest reductions in such properties, followed by catastrophic failure of the material system. Calculations of thermal stress distributions indicate that in all cases the total stress is reduced in reentrant (auxetic) cellular solids. This indicates that conventional cellular solids are expected to fail before their auxetic counterparts. Furthermore, both analytical and FE modelling predictions of the brittle crush strength of both auxteic and conventional cellular solids show a relationship with structural stiffness. J. P. M. Whitty, J. Francis, J. Howe, and B. Henderson Copyright © 2014 J. P. M. Whitty et al. All rights reserved. Sinc Collocation Method for Finding Numerical Solution of Integrodifferential Model Arisen in Continuous Mixed Strategy Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 One of the new techniques is used to solve numerical problems involving integral equations and ordinary differential equations known as Sinc collocation methods. This method has been shown to be an efficient numerical tool for finding solution. The construction mixed strategies evolutionary game can be transformed to an integrodifferential problem. Properties of the sinc procedure are utilized to reduce the computation of this integrodifferential to some algebraic equations. The method is applied to a few test examples to illustrate the accuracy and implementation of the method. F. Hosseini Shekarabi Copyright © 2014 F. Hosseini Shekarabi. All rights reserved. Ground to Cloud Lightning Flash Currents and Electric Fields: Interaction with Aircraft and Production of Ionosphere Sprites Sun, 03 Aug 2014 07:59:54 +0000 This paper presents for the first time a case for the importance of ground to cloud (upward leader) lightning flash parameters for safety testing of direct aircraft-lightning interaction and protection of wind turbines, as well as the importance of radiated electric fields for indirect lightning-aircraft interaction and generation of electric discharges called sprites and halos in the ionosphere. By using an electric circuit model of the transverse magnetic waves along the return stroke channel, electric currents at ground level as well as cloud level are determined for both the cloud to ground lightning flash and the ground to cloud lightning flash. We show that when an aircraft triggers lightning, the electric currents will be much more severe in current magnitude, rate of rise of currents, and frequency spectrum than otherwise and are more severe than the parameters observed for the usual and well monitored (and measured) cloud to ground (downward leader) flashes. The rate of rise of currents and the frequency spectrum of the ground to cloud lightning flash are also given here. The electric fields radiated by the lightning flashes that would appear in the ionosphere are presented for both the earth flash and the ground to cloud flash. P. R. P. Hoole, S. Thirukumaran, Harikrishnan Ramiah, Jeevan Kanesan, and S. R. H. Hoole Copyright © 2014 P. R. P. Hoole et al. All rights reserved. A Modified Homotopy Perturbation Transform Method for Transient Flow of a Third Grade Fluid in a Channel with Oscillating Motion on the Upper Wall Thu, 17 Jul 2014 06:27:44 +0000 A new analytical algorithm based on modified homotopy perturbation transform method is employed for solving the transient flow of third grade fluid in a porous channel generated by an oscillating upper wall. This method incorporates the He’s polynomial into the HPM, combined with Laplace transform. Comparison with HPM and OHAM analytical solutions reveals that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate. This proves the validity and great potential of the proposed algorithm as a new kind of powerful analytical tool for transient nonlinear problems. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed, and appropriate conclusions are drawn. Mohammed Abdulhameed, Rozaini Roslan, and Mahathir Bin Mohamad Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Abdulhameed et al. All rights reserved. Direct Numerical Simulation of Twin Swirling Flow Jets: Effect of Vortex-Vortex Interaction on Turbulence Modification Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:55:32 +0000 A direct numerical simulation (DNS) was carried out to study twin swirling jets which are issued from two parallel nozzles at a Reynolds number of and three swirl levels of , 1.08, and 1.42, respectively. The basic structures of vortex-vortex interaction and temporal evolution are illustrated. The characteristics of axial variation of turbulent fluctuation velocities, in both the near and far field, in comparison to a single swirling jet, are shown to explore the effects of vortex-vortex interaction on turbulence modifications. Moreover, the second order turbulent fluctuations are also shown, by which the modification of turbulence associated with the coherent or correlated turbulent fluctuation and turbulent kinetic energy transport characteristics are clearly indicated. It is found that the twin swirling flow has a fairly strong localized vortex-vortex interaction between a pair of inversely rotated vortices. The location and strength of interaction depend on swirl level greatly. The modification of vortex takes place by transforming large-scale vortices into complex small ones, whereas the modulation of turbulent kinetic energy is continuously augmented by strong vortex modification. Wenkai Xu, Nan Gui, Liang Ge, and Jie Yan Copyright © 2014 Wenkai Xu et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Analysis under Uniformly Distributed Moving Masses of Rectangular Plate with General Boundary Conditions Thu, 19 Jun 2014 09:13:36 +0000 The problem of the flexural vibrations of a rectangular plate having arbitrary supports at both ends is investigated. The solution technique which is suitable for all variants of classical boundary conditions involves using the generalized two-dimensional integral transform to reduce the fourth order partial differential equation governing the vibration of the plate to a second order ordinary differential equation which is then treated with the modified asymptotic method of Struble. The closed form solutions are obtained and numerical analyses in plotted curves are presented. It is also deduced that for the same natural frequency, the critical speed for the system traversed by uniformly distributed moving forces at constant speed is greater than that of the uniformly distributed moving mass problem for both clamped-clamped and simple-clamped end conditions. Hence resonance is reached earlier in the uniformly distributed moving mass system. Furthermore, for both structural parameters considered, the response amplitude of the moving distributed mass system is higher than that of the moving distributed force system. Thus, it is established that the moving distributed force solution is not an upper bound for an accurate solution of the moving distributed mass problem. Emem Ayankop Andi and Sunday Tunbosun Oni Copyright © 2014 Emem Ayankop Andi and Sunday Tunbosun Oni. All rights reserved. Natural Convection Flow along an Isothermal Vertical Flat Plate with Temperature Dependent Viscosity and Heat Generation Tue, 27 May 2014 12:42:51 +0000 The purpose of this study is to investigate the natural convection laminar flow along an isothermal vertical flat plate immersed in a fluid with viscosity which is the exponential function of fluid temperature in presence of internal heat generation. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a nondimensional form and the resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations is reduced to a convenient form which are solved numerically using an efficient marching order implicit finite difference method with double sweep technique. Numerical results are presented in terms of the velocity and temperature distribution of the fluid as well as the heat transfer characteristics, namely, the wall shear stress and the local and average rate of heat transfer in terms of the local skin-friction coefficient, the local and average Nusselt number for a wide range of the viscosity-variation parameter, heat generation parameter, and the Rayleigh number. Increasing viscosity variation parameter and Rayleigh number lead to increasing the local and average Nusselt number and decreasing the wall shear stress. Wall shear stress and the rate of heat transfer decreased due to the increase of heat generation. Md. Mamun Molla, Anita Biswas, Abdullah Al-Mamun, and Md. Anwar Hossain Copyright © 2014 Md. Mamun Molla et al. All rights reserved. Modal Spectral Element Solutions to Incompressible Flows over Particles of Complex Shape Wed, 30 Apr 2014 09:15:47 +0000 This paper develops the virtual identity particles (VIP) model to simulate two-phase flows involving complex-shaped particles. VIP assimilates the high efficiency of the Eulerian method and the convenience of the Lagrangian approach in tracking particles. It uses one fixed Eulerian mesh to compute the fluid field and the Lagrangian description to handle constitutive properties of particles. The interaction between the fluid and complex particles is characterized with source terms in the fluid momentum equations, while the same source terms are computed iteratively from the particulate Lagrangian equations. The advantage of VIP is its economy in modeling a two-phase flow problem almost at the cost of solving only the fluid phase with added source terms. This high efficiency in computational cost makes VIP viable for simulating particulate flows with numerous particles. Owing to the spectral convergence and high resolvability of the modal spectral element method, VIP provides acceptable resolution comparable to DNS but at much reduced computational cost. Simulation results indicate that VIP is promising for investigating flows with complex-shaped particles, especially abundant complex particles. Don Liu and Yonglai Zheng Copyright © 2014 Don Liu and Yonglai Zheng. All rights reserved. Data Dissemination Protocol for Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 27 Apr 2014 11:58:46 +0000 In wireless sensor networks, the sensor nodes find the route towards the sink to transmit the data. The sensor node transmits the data directly to the sink, or it relays the data through neighbor nodes. The nodes near to the sink transmit more data than other nodes. It results in the small lifetime of the network. To prolong the lifetime of the network, we use the mobile sink approach. The mobile sink makes the network dynamic. It is a challenging task to find the route in the dynamic network. In this paper, we have proposed a distributed tree-based data dissemination (TEDD) protocol with mobile sink. The protocol is validated through simulation and compared with the existing protocols using some metrics such as energy consumption, average end-to-end delay, and throughput. The experiment results show that the proposed protocol outperforms the existing protocols. Suraj Sharma and Sanjay Kumar Jena Copyright © 2014 Suraj Sharma and Sanjay Kumar Jena. All rights reserved. Numerical Solutions of Fifth and Sixth Order Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems by Daftardar Jafari Method Sun, 30 Mar 2014 08:24:59 +0000 Fifth and sixth order boundary value problems are solved using Daftardar Jafari method (DJM). DJM is introduced by Daftardar-Gejji and Jafari (2006). The approach provides the solution in the form of a rapidly convergent series. The comparison among Daftardar Jafari method (DJM), Adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), variation iteration method (VIM), and the iterative method (ITM) are displayed in table form which shows the efficiency of DJM for the solution of fifth and sixth order BVPs. Inayat Ullah, Hamid Khan, and M. T. Rahim Copyright © 2014 Inayat Ullah et al. All rights reserved. Navier-Stokes Equation and Computational Scheme for Non-Newtonian Debris Flow Thu, 27 Mar 2014 09:08:49 +0000 This paper proposes a computational approach to debris flow model. In recent years, the theoretical activity on the classical Herschel-Bulkley model (1926) has been very intense, but it was in the early 80s that the opportunity to explore the computational model has enabled considerable progress in identifying the subclasses of applicability of different sets of boundary conditions and their approximations. Here we investigate analytically the problem of the simulation of uniform motion for heterogeneous debris flow laterally confined taking into account mainly the geological data and methodological suggestions derived from simulation with cellular automata and grid systems, in order to propose a computational scheme able to operate a compromise between “global” predictive capacities and computing effort. Ignazio Licata and Elmo Benedetto Copyright © 2014 Ignazio Licata and Elmo Benedetto. All rights reserved. Shape of Slender Axisymmetric Ventilated Supercavities Sun, 23 Mar 2014 09:31:30 +0000 The integral-differential equation was obtained to simulate unsteady evolutions of the slender axisymmetric ventilated supercavity with the use of one-dimensional inviscid flow of the incompressible gas in the channel between the cavity surface and the body of revolution. For small ventilation rates, the solution of this equation was expressed as asymptotic series. In the steady case the nonlinear differential equation and its solutions were obtained. It was shown that the ventilation can increase and diminish the supercavity dimensions. Examples of calculations for different hull shapes are presented. At some critical values of the gas injection rate the cavity dimensions can become unbounded. Stability of steady and pulsating gas cavities was investigated in the case of the low gas injection rate. Igor Nesteruk Copyright © 2014 Igor Nesteruk. All rights reserved. QoS-Aware Middleware for Ubiquitous Environment: A Review and Proposed Solution Wed, 19 Mar 2014 09:37:13 +0000 Ubiquitous computing has introduced a new era of computing. Compared to traditional distributed systems, ubiquitous computing systems feature increased dynamism and heterogeneity. In traditional computing environments (mainframe and PC), users actively choose to interact with computers. Ubiquitous computing applications are likely to be different, where computing systems are available anywhere but not visible. The underlying ubiquitous computing infrastructures are more complex and bring up many issues. In this work we survey the literature to demonstrate, in detail, the characteristics and the challenges of the ubiquitous computing as well as the requirements for building ubiquitous software that brings these characteristics into reality. Furthermore we present some existing middleware solutions for ubiquitous environments, and propose our middleware-based architecture to facilitate the user interaction in such environment. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work proposing DDS-based solution for ubiquitous computing as a unified middleware. Anas Al-Roubaiey and M. AL-Rhman Alkhiaty Copyright © 2014 Anas Al-Roubaiey and M. AL-Rhman Alkhiaty. All rights reserved. Solution of Axisymmetric Potential Problem in Oblate Spheroid Using the Exodus Method Mon, 17 Mar 2014 08:11:43 +0000 This paper presents the use of Exodus method for computing potential distribution within a conducting oblate spheroidal system. An explicit finite difference method for solving Laplace’s equation in oblate spheroidal coordinate systems for an axially symmetric geometry was developed. This was used to determine the transition probabilities for the Exodus method. A strategy was developed to overcome the singularity problems encountered in the oblate spheroid pole regions. The potential computation results obtained correlate with those obtained by exact solution and explicit finite difference methods. O. D. Momoh, M. N. O. Sadiku, and S. M. Musa Copyright © 2014 O. D. Momoh et al. All rights reserved. Combined Analytical-Numerical Solution for MHD Viscous Flow over a Stretching Sheet Thu, 13 Mar 2014 16:45:37 +0000 We studied the two-dimensional flow of viscous and electrically conducting fluid over a stretching sheet under the influence of constant magnetic field. Approximate analytical solution of governing nonlinear boundary layer equation via optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) is obtained. For numerical comparison we used Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth-order method. The effect of different parameters on fluid flow is analyzed. It is found that the OHAM solution is very close to the numerical solution for different assigned values of parameters; this thus indicates the feasibility of the proposed method (OHAM). Fazle Mabood and Waqar A. Khan Copyright © 2014 Fazle Mabood and Waqar A. Khan. All rights reserved.