Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Modification of Thionucleobases in Ionic Liquids Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A simple method was established for the preparation of thio-substituted thionucleobases using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [BMIM]+[CF3COO]− and 1-methoxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [MeOEtMIM]+[CF3COO]− as solvents and catalysts without any other catalyst. These reactions proceeded efficiently in RTILs with excellent yield of products. RTILs can be recycled and reused effectively without further purification. Xiaomei Hu, Bixian Zhang, Shijia Dong, and Yunfei Gao Copyright © 2014 Xiaomei Hu et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Methods for the Extraction of Fractionated Rice Bran Protein Wed, 15 Oct 2014 06:37:04 +0000 Two different methods for extracting fractionated rice bran protein (FRBP) from defatted rice bran were investigated according to the solubility of protein in different extraction solvents. The yields of the obtained proteins and their purity were first compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry, protein surface hydrophobicity, and protein secondary molecular structure analyses were subsequently applied to identify and compare the compositional, structural, and functional characteristics of the obtained proteins. The highest yield (13.8%, w/w) and purity (45–47%) of FRBP products were obtained using 0.4 M NaCl, 80% ethanol, and 0.01 M NaOH as extraction solvents to fractionate albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin. Several good properties were exhibited, including good functionality, specific denaturation temperature, and enthalpy values, for FRBP products prepared by the above method. Changyuan Wang, Dan Li, Feng Xu, Tianshu Hao, and Min Zhang Copyright © 2014 Changyuan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Second Atom-Bond Connectivity Index of Special Chemical Molecular Structures Wed, 15 Oct 2014 06:21:27 +0000 In theoretical chemistry, the second atom-bond connectivity index was introduced to measure the stability of alkanes and the strain energy of cycloalkanes. In this paper, we determine the second atom-bond connectivity index of unilateral polyomino chain and unilateral hexagonal chain. Furthermore, the second ABC indices of V-phenylenic nanotubes and nanotori are presented. Wei Gao and Weifan Wang Copyright © 2014 Wei Gao and Weifan Wang. All rights reserved. Impact of Microwave Treatment on Chemical Constituents in Fresh Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tianma) by UPLC-MS Analysis Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Fresh Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tianma) was processed in a microwave oven at 2450 MHz in order to study the effect on the main chemical component changes taking place during microwave treatment. It was found that microwave affected the chemical composition of Tianma. Seven compounds, including gastrodin, gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzylalcohol), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillyl alcohol, vanillin, adenine, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, were identified in this study. As major active compounds, the contents of gastrodin and gastrodigenin in MWT Tianma were both twice as much as those in raw Tianma. Besides, the MS data show that there are still some unidentified compositions in Tianma, and there are also many converted compounds in MWT Tianma, which is worthy of further work. The results have indicated that microwave treated fresh Tianma might be helpful in designing the processing of traditional Chinese medicine and the application of microwave technology in traditional Chinese medicine needs to be researched further in the future. Qimeng Fan, Chaoyin Chen, Dingqi Xie, and Shenglan Zhao Copyright © 2014 Qimeng Fan et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Dithiocarbamate Derivatives Mon, 13 Oct 2014 08:11:09 +0000 18 novel dithiocarbamate derivatives were synthesized in order to investigate their inhibitory potency on acetylcholinesterase enzyme and antimicrobial activity. Structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by spectral data and elemental analyses. The synthesized compounds showed low enzyme inhibitory activity. However, they displayed good antimicrobial activity profile. Antibacterial activity of compounds 4a, 4e, and 4p (MIC = 25 μg/mL) was equal to that of chloramphenicol against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218). Most of the compounds exhibited notable antifungal activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030), Candida krusei (ATCC 6258), and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 7330). Moreover, compound 4a, which carries piperidin-1-yl substituent and dimethylthiocarbamoyl side chain as variable group, showed twofold better anticandidal effect against all Candida species than reference drug ketoconazole. Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Yusuf Özkay, Ümide Demir Özkay, and Hülya Karaca Gençer Copyright © 2014 Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of an Anion-Exchange Membrane Based on Imidazolium-Type Ionic Liquids for a Capacitive Energy Extraction Donnan Potential Device Thu, 18 Sep 2014 13:07:20 +0000 Polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) were synthesized via the photocopolymerization of a vinyl imidazolium ionic liquid, with 1-butyl-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium chloride ([BVBI][Cl]) as the anion-exchange group and styrene, acrylonitrile, and divinylbenzene as cross-linked agents. The physical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties of the prepared AEMs such as water uptake (%), swelling degree (%), ion-exchange capacity (mmol/g), thermal stability, tensile strength (Mpa), tensile modulus (Mpa), elongation (%), and ionic conductivity (S/cm) were evaluated. The synthesized AEMs were shown to have good physical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties for application of a capacitive energy extraction Donnan potential (CDP) device membrane. The CDP device was fabricated by using the synthesized AEM. The specific capacitance of the CDP device with AEM was determined as 2.53 F/g and 3.44 F/g by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The synthesized AEM with imidazolium ionic liquid can be applied as the CDP device membrane. Young-Seok Kim and Seong-Ho Choi Copyright © 2014 Young-Seok Kim and Seong-Ho Choi. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Certain Oximes, Hydrazones, and Olefins Derived from β-Keto Sulfones Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:47:06 +0000 A new series of β-keto sulfone derivatives containing oximes 4a–e, hydrazones 5a, b, and chalcones 7a–d were prepared using microwave irradiation (MWI) by the reaction of β-keto sulfones 3 with hydroxyl amine, hydrazines, and aromatic aldehydes, respectively. The comparative study between microwave irradiation and conventional syntheses showed that MWI is effective in the synthesis of the title compounds through shortening of the reaction time and improvements in their yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established under the basis of their spectral data and X-ray single crystal analysis of compound 5a. The crystal of 5a belongs to triclinic space group P-1, with  Å,  Å,  Å, °, °, °,  Å3,  Mg m−3,  mm−1, , , and for 2690 observed reflections with . Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz, Hazem A. Ghabbour, Mashooq A. Bhat, and Hoong-Kun Fun Copyright © 2014 Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of High Strength Low Alloy Steel in 2.0 M Sulfuric Acid Solutions by 3-Amino-1,2,3-triazole as a Corrosion Inhibitor Thu, 11 Sep 2014 10:04:09 +0000 The corrosion and corrosion inhibition of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel after 10 min and 60 min immersion in 2.0 M H2SO4 solution by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATA) were reported. Several electrochemical techniques along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) were employed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the increase of immersion time from 10 min to 60 min significantly decreased both the solution and polarization resistance for the steel in the sulfuric acid solution. The increase of immersion time increased the anodic, cathodic, and corrosion currents, while it decreased the polarization resistance as indicated by the potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The addition of 1.0 mM ATA remarkably decreased the corrosion of the steel and this effect was found to increase with increasing its concentration to 5.0 mM. SEM and EDS investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the HSLA steel in the 2.0 M H2SO4 solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the ATA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily. El-Sayed M. Sherif, Adel Taha Abbas, D. Gopi, and A. M. El-Shamy Copyright © 2014 El-Sayed M. Sherif et al. All rights reserved. Purification of Anthocyanins with o-Dihydroxy Arrangement by Sorption in Cationic Resins Charged with Fe(III) Thu, 11 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In the present work, a new purification method of anthocyanins with o-dihydroxy arrangement is proposed. This method is based on a ligand-exchange mechanism, using a cationic exchange resin loaded with metallic ions in order to increase the affinity of the resin to the anthocyanin(s) with o-dihydroxy arrangement. This method was used to purify the main anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside; Cy-3-glc) from the anthocyanic methanolic extract of blue corn. The best sorption result was using Fe(III) in its ion form. The purification procedure begins with the formation of a metal-anthocyanin complex (Cy-3-glc-Fe) which was optimal at pH 5, followed by a NaOH 0.1 M elution process in order to eliminate anthocyanins without o-dihydroxy arrangement, sugars, and organic acids. Finally, the pure anthocyanin is obtained by adding HCl 0.1 M which breaks the metal-anthocyanin complex. Araceli Castañeda-Ovando, Carlos Andrés Galán-Vidal, Elizabeth Contreras-López, and Ma. Elena Páez-Hernández Copyright © 2014 Araceli Castañeda-Ovando et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermokinetic Analysis of New Epoxy Sugar Derivative Tue, 09 Sep 2014 07:34:18 +0000 The synthesis of 5,6-O-isopropylidene-1,2-O-(R)-trichloroethylidene-α-D-glucofuranose (compound 1) and 5,6-O-isopropylidene-1,2-O-(R)-trichloroethylidene-3-O-(2′,3′-epoxypropan-1′-yl)-α-D-glucofuranose (compound 2) was carried out. The synthesized compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The FTIR and 1H NMR spectra showed that the epoxy group in compound 2 was attached by means of a nucleophilic substitution reaction. The activation energies for thermal degradation of compounds 1 and 2 were calculated from their TG data by using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Tang methods. Selinay Y. Erişkin, Fatma Ç. Telli, Yeliz Yıldırım, and Yeşim Salman Copyright © 2014 Selinay Y. Erişkin et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a New 68Ga-Semicarbazone Complex: Potential PET Radiopharmaceutical for Tumor Imaging Mon, 08 Sep 2014 10:47:41 +0000 In an attempt to develop new tumor imaging radiotracers with favorable biochemical properties, we have synthesized new 68Ga-2-acetylpyridine semicarbazone (68Ga-[APSC]2) as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) tumor imaging agent using a straightforward and a one-step simple reaction. Radiochemical yield and purity were quantitative without HPLC purification. Biodistribution studies in nude mice model bearing human MDA-MB-231 cell line xenografts displayed significant tumor uptake of 68Ga-[APSC]2 radiotracer after 2 h postinjection (p.i.). The initial results demonstrate that 68Ga-[APSC]2 radiotracer may be useful probe for detecting and staging of hypoxic tumor using PET imaging modality. N. S. Al-Hokbany, Basim Alotaibi, Suad Bin Amer, Subhani M. Okarvi, and Ibrahim Al-Jammaz Copyright © 2014 N. S. Al-Hokbany et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Sulfonated Azo Dye Reactive Red 198 by UV/H2O2 Mon, 08 Sep 2014 06:43:51 +0000 UV/H2O2 system was tested on the color removal of sulfonated azo dye Reactive Red 198 (RR), which is widely used in textile process. The effects of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, pH, and the in-line addition of hydrogen peroxide on high color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were investigated. The kinetic of dye decolorization was also determined. The results showed that 2% H2O2 decreased the process efficiency, while 1% H2O2 solution led to a better performance of the system. Despite the fact that the pH increase had small effect on color removal, it affects positively COD removals. The same behavior was found for temperature increase. A high temperature resulted in a slight decrease in color removal and a sharp decrease for COD removal. In addition the H2O2 in-line provided a small improvement in both color and COD removals. UV/1% H2O2 treatment was the most efficient, the good performance was linked to higher amount of hydroxyl radicals formed. Jefferson P. Ribeiro, Juliene T. Oliveira, André G. Oliveira, Francisco W. Sousa, Eliezer F. Abdala Neto, Carla B. Vidal, Denis de Keukeleire, André B. dos Santos, and Ronaldo F. Nascimento Copyright © 2014 Jefferson P. Ribeiro et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Biological Activity of cis/trans Amide Rotomers of (Z)-N′-(2-Oxoindolin-3-ylidene)formohydrazide Wed, 03 Sep 2014 09:38:15 +0000 (Z)-N′-(2-Oxoindolin-3-ylidene)formohydrazide (2) was synthesized by the reaction of (Z)-3-hydrazonoindolin-2-one (1) with formic acid under reflux. The structure of 2 was characterized by IR, Mass, 1H NMR, and X-ray crystal structure determination. Interestingly, compound 2 appeared in DMSO- as cis and trans amide rotomers in 25% and 75%, respectively. The X-ray analysis showed the Z geometrical isomer of 2 around –C=N– for cis and trans amide rotomers. The crystal of 2 belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c, with (1) Å, (7) Å, (5) Å, (1)°, , (8) Å3,  Mg m−3,  mm−1, , , and for 3798 observed reflections with . Compound 2 exhibited a moderate activity in its antimicrobial evaluation against E. coli and P. aeruginosa and a good activity against S. aureus close to that of the standard drug ciprofloxacin. The in vitro anticancer activity of 2 was evaluated against two human tumor cell lines, namely, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and MCF-7 breast cancer. HepG2 cancer cell line was more susceptible to compound 2 than MCF-7. Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz, Hazem A. Ghabbour, Wagdy M. Eldehna, Maha M. Qabeel, and Hoong-Kun Fun Copyright © 2014 Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative Wed, 03 Sep 2014 09:04:43 +0000 Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a specific example new polymer, a low energy gap, fully regioregular, terminal functionalized, and processable conjugated polymer poly-(3-dodecyloxy-2,5-thienylene vinylene) or PDDTV. The polymer exhibited an optical energy gap of 1.46 eV based on the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. The electrochemically measured highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level is −4.79 eV, resulting in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of −3.33 eV based on optical energy gap. The polymer was synthesized via Horner-Emmons condensation and is fairly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform with gentle heating. DSC showed two endothermic peaks at 67°C and 227°C that can be attributed to transitions between crystalline and liquid states. The polymer is thermally stable up to about 300°C. This polymer appears very promising for cost-effective solar cell applications. Tanya M. S. David, Cheng Zhang, and Sam-Shajing Sun Copyright © 2014 Tanya M. S. David et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidants in Disease and Aging Mon, 01 Sep 2014 11:03:43 +0000 Qiusheng Zheng, Ji Li, Zhenhua Wang, and Chunming Wang Copyright © 2014 Qiusheng Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Cr(VI) Removal from Aqueous by Adsorption on Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Prepared from Silica Fume Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:40:34 +0000 Amino-functionalized mesoporous silica MCM-41 materials have been prepared to develop efficient adsorbents of Cr(VI) in wastewater, using silica fume as silica source. Functionalization with amino groups has been carried out by using grafting method. The materials have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen (N2) adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption potential of the material for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution was investigated by varying experimental conditions such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm by linear regression analysis, and the results show that the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed the Langmuir model. In addition, the kinetics analysis revealed that the overall adsorption process was successfully fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Xitong Li, Caiyun Han, Wenjie Zhu, Wenhui Ma, Yongming Luo, Yang Zhou, Jie Yu, and Kuixian Wei Copyright © 2014 Xitong Li et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Preliminary Properties of Novel Poly(aryl ether)s Containing β-Naphthalene Pendant Group Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Two novel poly(aryl ether)s containing β-naphthalene pendant group were synthesized and the structures of these polymers were confirmed by 1HNMR spectroscopy. The polymers exhibited good thermal stabilities with high Tg of 256°C and 274°C, respectively. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, such as DMAc, DMSO, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3, and can be electrospun into microfiber (1–5 µm) with lots of nanopores (<100 nm) from CHCl3 solution. These fibers showed high hydrophobicity, and the contact angle of fibers is above 120°. L. Wang, D. Tao, X. Z. Xiang, and G. M. Zhu Copyright © 2014 L. Wang et al. All rights reserved. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films Wed, 27 Aug 2014 12:36:00 +0000 LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer. Gyu-bong Cho, Tae-hoon Kwon, Tae-hyun Nam, Sun-chul Huh, Byeong-keun Choi, Hyo-min Jeong, and Jung-pil Noh Copyright © 2014 Gyu-bong Cho et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Novel (E)-Alpha-(methoxyimino)benzeneacetate Derivatives with Modified 1,2,4-Triazole Moiety Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 To find new strobilurin analogues with high activity against resistant pathogens, a series of (E)-α-(methoxyimino)benzeneacetate derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole Schiff base side chain were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR, ESI-HRMS, or elemental analyses. Bioassays indicated that most of the target compounds showed moderate to good fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium graminearum, Cotton rhizoctoniosis, and Blumeria graminis. For example, compounds 6g and 6j exhibited promising antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea Pers., and Fusarium graminearum. Compounds 6c, 6l, and 6m had higher fungicidal activities against Blumeria graminis at the concentration of 50 µg/mL; inhibitory rate is 91.41%, 92.13%, and 91.77%, respectively. Xianyou Wang, Hua Wang, Peiyun Chen, Yanping Pang, Zhilei Zhao, and Guangchen Wu Copyright © 2014 Xianyou Wang et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Mesoporous SnO>2 by Electrostatic Self-Assembly Thu, 21 Aug 2014 13:35:09 +0000 We report a simple and scalable strategy to synthesize mesoporous SnO2 with tin dioxide nanoparticles of 5-6 nm crystalline walls and 3-4 nm pore diameter with the assistance of as templating agent at room temperature. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-DRS, XPS, and BET. The product has a moderately high surface area of 132 m2 g−1 and a narrow mesoporous structure with an average pore diameter of 3.5 nm. The photocatalytic activities of the mesoporous SnO2 were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Yang Jing, Wang Yan, and Xu Xiaowen Copyright © 2014 Yang Jing et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Application of One-Dimensional La(OH)3 Nanostructures: An Overview Thu, 21 Aug 2014 13:14:43 +0000 One-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanomaterials are of particular importance owing to their unique properties and potential applications. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction of 1D La(OH)3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanoneedles, nanobelts, and nanorods. Firstly, various strategies developed to fabricate the 1D La(OH)3 nanostructures are discussed, such as precipitation and composite-hydroxide-mediated, hydrothermal, and solvothermal methods, accompanying the description of the corresponding growth mechanisms. Then, the unique properties such as novel physical properties of 1D La(OH)3 nanostructures resulting from their unique electronic structures and numerous transition modes involving the 4f shells of these ions are represented in detail. Also, the wide applications in photocatalyst, capacitors, and photoluminescence based on the unique properties are discussed. Finally, the paper ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and new directions in this emerging area. Xiang Xiao, Yu Huang, and Fan Dong Copyright © 2014 Xiang Xiao et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Diesel, Inhibitor, and CO2 Additions on the Corrosion Performance of 1018 Carbon Steel in 3% NaCl Solution Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In order to determine the diesel contribution in the coadsorption process of the oil-soluble inhibitors, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to study the performance of oil-soluble inhibitors in both presence and absence of diesel and CO2. The results showed that the presence of the oil phase provides some protection to the steel because the water-soluble fractions are capable of being adsorbed on the steel surface thereby reducing the corrosion rate. The oily phase does not contribute to the adsorption process of the inhibitor because the inhibitor is absorbed into the water-soluble fractions. The oil-soluble inhibitors are effective only when the solution is saturated with CO2. CO2 saturation causes a decrease in the pH of the solution causing both an increase of the inhibitor solubility and a better dispersion of the inhibitor into the electrolyte. J. Porcayo-Calderon, M. Casales-Diaz, L. M. Rivera-Grau, D. M. Ortega-Toledo, J. A. Ascencio-Gutierrez, and L. Martinez-Gomez Copyright © 2014 J. Porcayo-Calderon et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Solid-State Thermolysis of a Metal-Organic Framework, MIL-100(Fe), for Heavy Metal Ions Removal Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:10:30 +0000 Porous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared via a solid-state conversion process of a mesoporous iron(III) carboxylate crystal, MIL-100(Fe). First, the MIL-100(Fe) crystal that served as the template of the metal oxide was synthesized by a low-temperature (<100°C) synthesis route. Subsequently, the porous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were fabricated by facile thermolysis of the MIL-100(Fe) powders via a two-step calcination treatment. The obtained γ-Fe2O3 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and then used as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal in water treatment. This study illustrates that the metal-organic frameworks may be suitable precursors for the fabrication of metal oxides nanomaterials with large specific surface area, and the prepared porous γ-Fe2O3 exhibits a superior adsorption performance for As(V) and As(III) ions removal in water treatment. Shengtao Hei, Yan Jin, and Fumin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shengtao Hei et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Fatty Acid Profile of Argan Oil and Other Edible Vegetable Oils by Gas Chromatography and Discriminant Analysis Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:31:42 +0000 Virgin argan oil is an emergent oil that is being introduced into specialized international markets as a healthy and luxury food. In order to compare the fatty acid composition of argan oil with that of the eleven other vegetable edible oils, a combination of gas chromatography as analytical technique and multivariate discriminant analysis was applied. This analysis takes into account the conjoint effect of all the variables analyzed in the discrimination between oils and also shows the contribution of each variable to oils characterization. The model correctly classified 100% oil samples. According to the fatty acid composition, argan oil showed closest similarity firstly with sesame oil and secondly with high oleic sunflower oil. Olive oil was close to avocado oil and almond oil, followed by argan oil. Thus, similarities and differences between vegetable oils based on their fatty acid profile were established by the application of multivariate discriminant analysis. This method was proven to be a useful tool to study the relationships between oils according to the fat composition and to determine the importance of the fatty acid variables on the oils classification. Ascensión Rueda, Isabel Seiquer, Manuel Olalla, Rafael Giménez, Luis Lara, and Carmen Cabrera-Vique Copyright © 2014 Ascensión Rueda et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium Chloride by Utilizing Fluorine-Containing Waste Acidic Mother Liquid from Clay-Brine Synthetic Cryolite Process Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:56:32 +0000 Clay-brine process employing activated clay, NaCl, HCl, and HF as raw materials is the primarily advanced technology to synthesize cryolite in the present industrial grade. However, plenty of byproducts of fluorine-containing waste HCl at the concentration of about 10%~12% could not be utilized comprehensively and are even hazardous to the environment. This work proposed a new two-step technology to prepare inorganic polymer flocculants polyaluminium chloride (PAC) from synthetic cryolite mother liquor. Many specific factors such as the variety of aluminide source, reaction temperature and time, reagent ratio, and manner of alkaline addition were taken into consideration and their influences on the performances of produced PAC were discussed. It was found that synthetic cryolite mother liquor could react with bauxite and calcium aluminate directly to prepare cheap PAC, with plenty amount of water insoluble CaF2 and CaSiF6 produced as well. However, once HCl was introduced into synthetic cryolite mother liquor as well as by utilizing bauxite as aluminide source and sodium aluminate as adjusting basicity agent, the resultant PAC would dissolve out higher amount of aluminum while producing little amount of water insoluble materials. The coagulation behavior of the specially produced PAC could even match the industrial grade PAC conforming to national standard. Feng-shan Zhou, Bo Hu, Bao-lin Cui, Feng-bao Liu, Fang Liu, Wei-heng Wang, Yang Liu, Rong-rong Lu, Ying-Mo Hu, Yi-he Zhang, and Jin-Guang Wu Copyright © 2014 Feng-shan Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Aluminum Dimer Containing Bulky 1,2,3-Triazolate Ligand Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:24:06 +0000 The first molecular aluminum 1,2,3-triazolato complex was synthesized bearing a bulky 1,2,3-triazolate ligand. Oligomers and polymers were avoided due to the bulkiness and noncoordinating nature of the substituents. The novel Al2N4 ring formed contains symmetrical Al-N bond distances unexpectedly having asymmetric Al-N-N angles of 144.55(15)° and 115.83(14)°. This asymmetry demonstrates the effect of the steric hindrance of the ligand. Issam Kobrsi Copyright © 2014 Issam Kobrsi. All rights reserved. Fused Imidazopyrazoles: Synthetic Strategies and Medicinal Applications Thu, 14 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The current review summarizes the known synthetic routes of fused imidazopyrazoles. This review is classified into two main categories based on the type of annulations, for example, annulation of the imidazole ring onto a pyrazole scaffold or annulation of the pyrazole ring onto an imidazole scaffold. Some medicinal applications of imidazopyrazoles are mentioned. Rizk E. Khidre, Bakr F. Abdel-Wahab, and Othman Y. Alothman Copyright © 2014 Rizk E. Khidre et al. All rights reserved. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:57:20 +0000 Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC) were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were investigated using a weight loss method, an open circuit potential method (OCP), and a potentiodynamic polarization curves method in anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were then used to determine the corrosion morphology in verifying the SRB activity and corrosion products formation. Results from the study show that the corrosion rate (CR) of weight loss method for the isolated SRB is recorded as 0.2017 mm/yr compared to 0.2530 mm/yr for ATCC 7757. The Tafel plot recorded the corrosion rate of 0.3290 mm/yr for Sg. Ular SRB and 0.2500 mm/yr for Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results showed that the consortia of isolated SRB were of comparable effects and features with the single ATCC 7757 strain. Arman Abdullah, Nordin Yahaya, Norhazilan Md Noor, and Rosilawati Mohd Rasol Copyright © 2014 Arman Abdullah et al. All rights reserved. Predicting Flash Point of Organosilicon Compounds Using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:09:59 +0000 The flash point (FP) of a compound is the primary property used in the assessment of fire hazards for flammable liquids and is amongst the crucial information that people handling flammable liquids must possess as far as industrial safety is concerned. In this work, the FPs of 236 organosilicon compounds were collected and used to construct a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for predicting their FPs. The CODESSA PRO software was adopted to calculate the required molecular descriptors, and 350 molecular descriptors were developed for each compound. A modified stepwise regression algorithm was applied to choose descriptors that were highly correlated with the FP of organosilicon compounds. The proposed model was a linear regression model consisting of six descriptors. This 6-descriptor model gave an value of 0.9174, value of 0.9106, and value of 0.8989. The average fitting error and the average predictive error were found to be of 10.34 K and 11.22 K, respectively, and the average fitting error in percentage and the average predictive error in percentage were found to be of 3.30 and 3.60%, respectively. Compared with the known reproducibility of FP measurement using standard test method, these predicted results were of a satisfactory precision. Chen-Peng Chen, Chan-Cheng Chen, and Hsu-Fang Chen Copyright © 2014 Chen-Peng Chen et al. All rights reserved. Galvanic Displacement of Gallium Arsenide Surface: A Simple and Low-Cost Method to Deposit Metal Nanoparticles and Films Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:08:17 +0000 Herein, we report galvanic displacement of metal nanoparticles and films onto single-crystalline GaAs (100) substrates, a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate highly controlled metal/semiconductor interface. A time-resolved surface analysis of Au/GaAs system was conducted and microscopic mechanism of galvanic displacement was elucidated in detail. Quantitative temporal XPS measurements of the Au/GaAs interface showed that, initially, fast Au growth was slowed down as the deposition process proceeded. This was attributed to growing oxide layer blocking hole conduction and causing quenching of the deposition process. Addition of various inorganic acids, which function as oxide etchants, was found to enhance deposition rates by effectively removing surface oxide, with HF the most effective. Various precious metals, such as Pt and Ag, could be deposited onto GaAs through galvanic displacement, which demonstrates the versatility of the method. Ngoc Duy Pham, Seok Ju Park, Jun Pil Lee, and Ilwhan Oh Copyright © 2014 Ngoc Duy Pham et al. All rights reserved.