Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Alternations in Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Composition in Egg Yolk of Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi Hens Fed with Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.) Thu, 27 Aug 2015 13:29:31 +0000 The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of hemp seed (HS) supplementation on egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in laying hens. Sixty hens (Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi) were evenly distributed into four groups (three replicates per group) at the peak production (34 weeks). HS was included into the ration at the level of 0.0 (HS-0), 15 (HS-15), 20 (HS-20), and 25% (HS-25) and continued the supplementation for consecutively three weeks. At the end of the experiment, three eggs per replicate were randomly collected and analyzed for egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol profile. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that supplementation of HS-25 significantly decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), and stearic (C18:0). Similarly, total as well as individual monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids increased significantly in the HS-25. In addition, total omega-3 and omega-6 increased significantly in the HS-25 group. From the present result, we concluded that addition of HS at the rate of 25% to the diet of laying hens augmented the cholesterol and fatty acids profile in egg yolk. Suhaib Shahid, Naila Chand, Rifat Ullah Khan, Syed Muhammad Suhail, and Nazir Ahmad Khan Copyright © 2015 Suhaib Shahid et al. All rights reserved. Microwave Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Isatin Derivatives Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:12:46 +0000 Three series of isatin derivatives [3-hydrazino, 3-thiosemicarbazino, and 3-imino carboxylic acid derivatives] were synthesized employing microwave irradiation. The prepared compounds were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography for derivatives 5b. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria and fungi. The results revealed that the N-alkyl isatin derivatives were biologically active with different spectrums activity. Most of the 3-hydrazino and 3-thiosemicarbazino isatin derivatives were biologically inactive and generally the active derivatives showed weak to moderate activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. The imino isatin carboxylic acid derivatives (2-[4-(1-benzyl-5-bromo-2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino) phenyl]acetic acid, 5d) showed promising activity against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and against fungal pathogens. Ayman El-Faham, Wael N. Hozzein, Mohammad A. M. Wadaan, Sherine N. Khattab, Hazem A. Ghabbour, Hoong-Kun Fun, and Mohammed Rafiq Siddiqui Copyright © 2015 Ayman El-Faham et al. All rights reserved. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Quinones from Compost for Microbial Community Analysis Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:14:31 +0000 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract quinones from compost to monitor the microbial community dynamics during composting. The 0.3 g of dried compost was extracted using 3 mL min−1 of carbon dioxide (90%) and methanol (10%) at 45°C and 25 MPa for a 30 min extraction time. The extracted quinones were analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with 0.3 mL min−1 of methanol mobile phase for a 50 min chromatographic run time. A comparable detected amount of quinones was obtained using the developed method and an organic solvent extraction method, being 36.06 μmol kg−1 and 34.54 μmol kg−1, respectively. Significantly low value of dissimilarity index () between the two methods (0.05) indicated that the quinone profile obtained by both methods was considered identical. The developed method was then applied to determine the maturity of the compost by monitoring the change of quinone during composting. The UQ-9 and MK-7 were predominant quinones in the initial stage of composting. The diversity of quinone became more complex during the cooling and maturation stages. This study showed that SFE had successfully extracted quinones from a complex matrix with simplification and rapidity of the analysis that is beneficial for routine analysis. Ni Luh Gede Ratna Juliasih, Lee Chang Yuan, Yuki Sago, Yoichi Atsuta, and Hiroyuki Daimon Copyright © 2015 Ni Luh Gede Ratna Juliasih et al. All rights reserved. Chemical and Functional Characterization of Sarcoplasmic Proteins from Giant Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Mantle Wed, 26 Aug 2015 07:26:26 +0000 Modification of pH and NaCl concentration changed the physicochemical properties of sarcoplasmic proteins (SP) from jumbo squid mantle and consequently their functional properties. Better results of emulsifying activity index (EAI) and foam capacity (FC) were exhibited at pH 11 in NaCl absence due to higher solubility. But better emulsifying stability index (ESI) was obtained at pH 11 in 0.5 M NaCl, while, foaming stability (FS) was better at pH near to isoelectric point (pI). These results suggest that SP from jumbo squid may be a promising ingredient, whose functional properties can be manipulated by changing pH and NaCl concentration. Rosa Linda Lopez-Enriquez, Victor Manuel Ocano-Higuera, Wilfrido Torres-Arreola, Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer, and Enrique Marquez-Rios Copyright © 2015 Rosa Linda Lopez-Enriquez et al. All rights reserved. Groundwater Recharge and Hydrogeochemical Evolution in Leizhou Peninsula, China Wed, 19 Aug 2015 11:22:01 +0000 An analysis of the stable isotopes and the major ions in the surface water and groundwater in the Leizhou Peninsula was performed to identify the sources and recharge mechanisms of the groundwater. In this study, 70 water samples were collected from rivers, a lake, and pumping wells. The surface water was considered to have a lower salinity than the groundwater in the region of study. The regression equations for δD and δ18O for the surface water and the groundwater are similar to those for precipitation, indicating meteoric origins. The δD and δ18O levels in the groundwater ranged from −60; to −25; and −8.6; to −2.5, respectively, and were lower than the stable isotope levels from the winter and spring precipitation. The groundwater in the southern area was classified as the Ca2+-Mg2+--type, whereas the groundwater in the northern area included three types (Na+-Cl−-type, Ca2+-Mg2+--type, and Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl−-type), indicating rapid and frequent water-rock exchange in the region. A reasonable conclusion is that the groundwater chemistry is dominated by rock weathering and rainwater of local origin, which are influenced by seawater carried by the Asian monsoon. Yintao Lu, Changyuan Tang, Jianyao Chen, and Junhong Chen Copyright © 2015 Yintao Lu et al. All rights reserved. One-Step Synthesis of Spherical γ-Fe2O3 Nanopowders and the Evaluation of Their Photocatalytic Activity for Orange I Degradation Wed, 19 Aug 2015 07:36:43 +0000 Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanopowders were synthesized under aeration (oxidizing) conditions by aqueous synthesis in this study. The microstructures of the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET-BJH. The XRD analysis and the chemical experiments showed that well-crystallized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were successfully obtained with a mean particle size of approximately 17 nm. The prepared γ-Fe2O3 was spherical with a BET surface area of 14.357 m2/g and a total pore volume of 0.050 cm3/g. Varying the reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, and reaction time, we obtained crystallized γ-Fe2O3 powders with different crystallization extent and different particle sizes. When the pH of the reaction suspension was increased, the reaction time was prolonged, and the reaction temperature was increased, the γ-Fe2O3 powders underwent superior crystallization and had larger particle sizes. All the obtained γ-Fe2O3 powders had significant photocatalytic activities under both UV and visible light irradiation for Orange I degradation, and the powders with better crystallization and larger particle size had relatively lower activities for Orange I photocatalytic degradation. The one-step aqueous synthesis method presented in this paper may provide an advantageous pathway to synthesize large quantities of this important iron oxide. Chunhua Liang, Hui Liu, Jianmin Zhou, Xiaochun Peng, and Haizhou Zhang Copyright © 2015 Chunhua Liang et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage Tue, 18 Aug 2015 16:36:52 +0000 The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy). Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness) at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase) in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness) at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin. Tomaž Požrl, Blaž Cigić, Lea Demšar, Janez Hribar, and Tomaž Polak Copyright © 2015 Tomaž Požrl et al. All rights reserved. Harmful Chemicals in the Environment: Measurement, Fate, and Remediation Sun, 16 Aug 2015 08:06:26 +0000 Jian Lu, Patrick C. Wilson, Xianghua Wen, Qiang Jin, and Jun Wu Copyright © 2015 Jian Lu et al. All rights reserved. Spatial/Temporal Characterization and Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Mangla Reservoir, Pakistan Thu, 13 Aug 2015 12:10:04 +0000 Composite water samples were collected from different sites of Mangla reservoir, Pakistan, in premonsoon, monsoon, and postmonsoon seasons. The physicochemical parameters and trace/heavy metals were determined in all water samples. The results manifested significant seasonal variations among Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and the metals exhibited highest contribution in premonsoon season except Mn. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) revealed considerable anthropogenic intrusions in the reservoir. Probable risk associated with the metals levels on human health was also evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) by ingestion and dermal routes for adults and children. It was noted that Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb () were the most important pollutants leading to noncarcinogenic concerns. The levels of all metals were below unity, suggesting that these metals posed no hazards via dermal absorption, while the oral intake was the major exposure pathway. The largest contributors to chronic risks were Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb in all the seasons. Therefore, immediate measures should be taken for sustaining the healthy aquatic ecosystem. Muhammad Saleem, Javed Iqbal, Gulraiz Akhter, and Munir H. Shah Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Saleem et al. All rights reserved. Harmful Chemicals in Soil and Risk Assessment of an Abandoned Open Dumpsite in Eastern China Wed, 12 Aug 2015 13:25:18 +0000 The concentrations of pollutants in soil samples collected in and around a dumpsite in Heze, Shandong, China, were investigated, and the potential ecological and health risks of these pollutants were assessed. Seventeen soil samples from five different locations were analysed for pollution characteristics, and the target pollutants included inorganic pollutants and heavy metals as well as volatile organic compounds/semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). Results showed that the mean concentration level of each pollutant from the interior area was relatively higher than that from the boundary area of the dumpsite. Inorganic pollutants and heavy metals were detected in all of the soil samples. According to potential ecological risk assessment with environmental background values of Shandong as screening values, heavy metals in majority of the samples pose low ecological risk to the ecosystem except Hg. Hg poses a considerable or very high risk because of its high levels of accumulation. In consideration of future land use pattern, human health risks derived from environmental exposure to heavy metals were assessed. Carcinogenic risk and noncarcinogenic hazards for adults are acceptable, while noncarcinogenic hazards for children exceed the safety threshold. The health risks are primarily attributed to oral exposure to As and Cr. Ying Huang, YongXia Li, Jian Yang, MinMin Xu, Bo Sun, FuWei Gao, and Ning Wang Copyright © 2015 Ying Huang et al. All rights reserved. Mineralization of Quinoline by BDD Anodes: Variable Effects and Its Effluent Characteristics Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:54:37 +0000 BDD anodes were selected for quinoline mineralization and influence of operating parameters, such as current density, initial quinoline concentration, supporting electrolyte, and initial pH was investigated. Based on the consideration of quinoline removal efficiency and average current efficiency, at initial quinoline concentration of 50 mg L−1 and pH of 7, the optimal condition was confirmed as current density of 75 mA cm−2, electrolysis time of 1.5 h, and Na2SO4 concentration of 0.05 mol L−1 by orthogonal test. At different electrolysis time, its effluent characteristics were focused on. The biodegradability (the ratio between BOD5 and COD) was enhanced from initial 0.02 to 0.57 at 90 min. The specific oxygen uptake rate was used to assess effluent toxicity, and the value gradually reduced with decreasing effluent organic concentration with mean value of 5.51, 4.19, and 2.20 mgO2 g−1MLSS at electrolysis time of 15, 30, and 45 min, respectively. Compared with control sample (prepared with glucose), the effluent of quinoline mineralization showed obvious inhibition effect on microorganisms at electrolysis time of 15 min, and then it was significantly faded at 30 min and 45 min. C. R. Wang, J. Wang, X. G. Ma, H. Li, and S. Z. Zhang Copyright © 2015 C. R. Wang et al. All rights reserved. Sorption of Pyrene by Clay Minerals Coated with Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) from Landfill Leachate Wed, 12 Aug 2015 07:05:28 +0000 Interactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from landfill leachate with clays could affect significantly the fate of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soils. The complexes of montmorillonite (MT) and kaolinite (KL) with DOM extracted from landfill leachate were prepared under controlled conditions, termed CMT and CKL, respectively. The bare clays and their complexes were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch experiments were designed to investigate the sorption behavior of pyrene onto the clays in the presence of DOM. The maximum sorption capacities of pyrene on MT, CMT, KL, and CKL were 22.18, 38.96, 42.00, and 44.99 μg·g−1, respectively, at the initial concentration of 1000 ± 150 μg·L−1. The sorption isotherms of pyrene by the bare clays followed the Henry model well, whereas the Freundlich sorption isotherm provided a better fit to the equilibrium data of the sorption by the complexes. The role of montmorillonite and kaolinite complexes with DOM in the retention of pyrene in soils was different. This may be due to the different crystal structures between montmorillonite and kaolinite. Pingxiao Wu, Yong Wen, Yun Xiang, Jianbing Zhou, Jianwei Du, Nengwu Zhu, and Ping Li Copyright © 2015 Pingxiao Wu et al. All rights reserved. Heavy Metal Residues in Soil and Accumulation in Maize at Long-Term Wastewater Irrigation Area in Tongliao, China Tue, 11 Aug 2015 13:22:17 +0000 Soil and plant samples were collected from Tongliao, China, during the maize growth cycle between May and October 2010. Heavy metals, such as Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn, were analyzed. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the wastewater-irrigated area were higher than those in the topsoil from the groundwater-irrigated area. The concentrations of metals in the maize increased as follows: Pb < Ni < Zn < Cr. In addition, Cr, Pb, and Ni mainly accumulated in the maize roots, and Zn mainly accumulated in the maize fruit. The results of translocation factors (TF) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) of maize for heavy metals revealed that maize is an excluder plant and a potential accumulator plant and can serve as an ideal slope remediation plant. In addition, the increasing heavy metal contents in soils that have been polluted by wastewater irrigation must result in the accumulation of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in maize. Thus, the pollution level can be decreased by harvesting and disposing of and recovering the plant material. Yintao Lu, Hong Yao, Dan Shan, Yichen Jiang, Shichao Zhang, and Jun Yang Copyright © 2015 Yintao Lu et al. All rights reserved. Oxidation of Enrofloxacin with Permanganate: Kinetics, Multivariate Effects, Identification of Oxidation Products, and Determination of Residual Antibacterial Activity Tue, 11 Aug 2015 12:36:05 +0000 Permanganate [Mn(VII)] chemistry oxidation of fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENR) in water is investigated with respect to the kinetics, pH effect, buffer effect, and the evaluation of residual antibacterial activity after oxidative treatment. The degradation of ENR by Mn(VII) obeyed a secondary-order kinetics. Modern high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the structures of degradation products. Four main oxidation products were identified at different pH values. Several influencing factors, pH value, and buffer obviously affect reaction rate and products relative abundance. Autocatalysis taking place at slightly acidic pH promotes the reaction but has no effect on the product types. A plausible oxidation pathway for enrofloxacin with Mn(VII) was proposed. The oxidation took place at the piperazine ring. Structural changes to the piperazine ring include N-dealkylation, hydroxylation, and hydrolysis. Residual antibacterial activity of the oxidative reaction solutions against nonresistant Escherichia coli reference strain DH5α is evaluated by means of quantitative bioassays. It is noticed that the oxidation products exhibited negligible antibacterial activity just when the structures of the products changed. Yongpeng Xu, Shiyao Liu, Fang Guo, and Fuyi Cui Copyright © 2015 Yongpeng Xu et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Ethanethiol Gas by Iron Oxide Porous Ceramsite Biotrickling Filter Tue, 11 Aug 2015 12:29:28 +0000 The performance of ethanethiol removal in biotrickling filter was investigated by microorganisms fixed on iron oxide-based porous ceramsite (IPC) under different operating parameters conditions. Ethanethiol removal efficiency was examined as a function of inlet concentration, empty bed residence time (EBRT), and spray density of nutrient solution. The results showed that the optimized operation conditions and operation characteristics of biotrickling filter for this study were at the inlet concentration of less than 250 mgm−3, the spray density of 0.24 m3m−2 h−1, and the EBRT of 68.7 s. The variation of the EBRT of about 100 s and the spray density of about 0.24 m3m−2 h−1 did not change the ethanethiol removal efficiencies at certain ethanethiol concentrations of less than about 300 mg/m3, respectively. The main metabolic product was sulfate such as under continuous long-running regime in filter. The ethanethiol desulfurization process better meets the Michaelis-Menien model with calculated kinetic degradation parameters  mgm−3 and  gm−3 h−1. Peipei Wang, Shuchuan Peng, Chengzhu Zhu, Xiongjun Zhang, and Fei Teng Copyright © 2015 Peipei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Parameter Identification of the 2-Chlorophenol Oxidation Model Using Improved Differential Search Algorithm Tue, 11 Aug 2015 11:50:12 +0000 Parameter identification plays a crucial role for simulating and using model. This paper firstly carried out the sensitivity analysis of the 2-chlorophenol oxidation model in supercritical water using the Monte Carlo method. Then, to address the nonlinearity of the model, two improved differential search (DS) algorithms were proposed to carry out the parameter identification of the model. One strategy is to adopt the Latin hypercube sampling method to replace the uniform distribution of initial population; the other is to combine DS with simplex method. The results of sensitivity analysis reveal the sensitivity and the degree of difficulty identified for every model parameter. Furthermore, the posteriori probability distribution of parameters and the collaborative relationship between any two parameters can be obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithms, the optimization performance of improved DS in kinetic parameter estimation is studied and compared with that of the basic DS algorithm, differential evolution, artificial bee colony optimization, and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. And the experimental results demonstrate that the DS with the Latin hypercube sampling method does not present better performance, while the hybrid methods have the advantages of strong global search ability and local search ability and are more effective than the other algorithms. Guang-zhou Chen, Jia-quan Wang, and Ru-zhong Li Copyright © 2015 Guang-zhou Chen et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Variations in Groundwater Level and Salinity in Coastal Plain of Eastern China Influenced by Climate Tue, 11 Aug 2015 11:26:28 +0000 The coastline of China is approximately 18,000 km long. In most coastal cities, seawater intrusion is a serious threat to groundwater resources. Nine shallow monitoring wells were constructed to study the dynamics of shallow groundwater level and salinity in the coastal plain region of Jiangsu province, China. Results showed that precipitation, evaporation, and river stage affected the groundwater level in our study area. Positive correlations were observed among the groundwater level, precipitation, and river stage; then negative correlation existed between the groundwater level and evaporation. The influencing factors on the groundwater level were in the order precipitation > river stage > evaporation. Sufficient precipitation during the wet season diluted the groundwater salinity. After the dilution, between two continuous precipitation events, the groundwater salinity increased as the groundwater level decreased. During the dry season, the groundwater salinity rapidly increased and reached its peak in December. The groundwater salinity in December was 23 times higher than that in July. The groundwater level and salinity in this study were generally associated with the season. Climate factors led to fluctuation of groundwater levels and salinity during the wet season, and seawater intrusion increased the groundwater salinity during the dry season. Shao-feng Yan, Shuang-en Yu, Yu-bai Wu, De-feng Pan, Dong-li She, and Jianzhong Ji Copyright © 2015 Shao-feng Yan et al. All rights reserved. Nitrogen Dynamics Variation in Overlying Water of Jinshan Lake, China Tue, 11 Aug 2015 11:16:04 +0000 Jinshan Lake is a famous urban landscape lake with approximately 8.8 km2 water area, which is located on the north of Zhenjiang, of Jiangsu Province, China. Eighteen sampled sites were selected and overlying water was sampled from 2013 to 2014 to study the seasonal and spatial variation of nitrogen in overlying water of Jinshan Lake. Results showed that physicochemical characteristics of temperature, pH, and DO showed high seasonal variation, whereas they had no significant spatial differences in the 18 sampling points () in overlying water of Jinshan Lake. Nitrogen concentrations showed strong seasonal variation trends. The ranked order of TN was as follows: spring > summer > autumn > winter; the order of -N was as follows: spring > autumn > summer > winter, whereas -N concentrations revealed an inverse seasonal pattern, with maxima occurring in winter and minimal values occurring in spring. Nitrogen concentrations had dramatic spatial changes in 18 sampling points of Jinshan Lake. Physicochemical parameter difference, domestic wastes pollution, and rainfall runoff source may have led to seasonal and spatial fluctuation variations of nitrogen in overlying water of Jinshan Lake, China. Xiaohong Zhou, Mingyuan Wang, Longmei Liu, Zhigang Chen, Yimin Li, and Jinping Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xiaohong Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor Tue, 11 Aug 2015 10:50:14 +0000 Rotating biological contactors (RBC) are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW). The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% -N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature. Rongjun Su, Guangshan Zhang, Peng Wang, Shixiong Li, Ryan M. Ravenelle, and John C. Crittenden Copyright © 2015 Rongjun Su et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System Tue, 11 Aug 2015 09:51:17 +0000 There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole) in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems. Songhe Zhang, Ju Gu, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang, Shaojun Jiao, ZhenLi He, and Bing Han Copyright © 2015 Songhe Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics of UV-MicroO3 Reactor and Its Application to Microcystins Degradation during Surface Water Treatment Tue, 11 Aug 2015 09:46:26 +0000 The UV-ozone (UV-O3) process is not widely applied in wastewater and potable water treatment partly for the relatively high cost since complicated UV radiation and ozone generating systems are utilized. The UV-microozone (UV-microO3), a new advanced process that can solve the abovementioned problems, was introduced in this study. The effects of air flux, air pressure, and air humidity on generation and concentration of O3 in UV-microO3 reactor were investigated. The utilization of this UV-microO3 reactor in microcystins (MCs) degradation was also carried out. Experimental results indicated that the optimum air flux in the reactor equipped with 37 mm diameter quartz tube was determined to be 18∼25 L/h for efficient O3 generation. The air pressure and humidity in UV-microO3 reactor should be low enough in order to get optimum O3 output. Moreover, microcystin-RR, YR, and LR (MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR) could be degraded effectively by UV-microO3 process. The degradation of different MCs was characterized by first-order reaction kinetics. The pseudofirst-order kinetic constants for MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR degradation were 0.0093, 0.0215, and 0.0286 min−1, respectively. Glucose had no influence on MC degradation through UV-microO3. The UV-microO3 process is hence recommended as a suitable advanced treatment method for dissolved MCs degradation. Guangcan Zhu, Xiwu Lu, and Zhonglian Yang Copyright © 2015 Guangcan Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis for Determination of As, Cr, Hg, and Se in Mosses in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Toluca, Mexico Tue, 11 Aug 2015 09:42:28 +0000 This research presents a study of environmental monitoring at different sampling sites from the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Toluca (MAVT), Mexico, using mosses (Leskea angustata (Tayl.) and Fabronia ciliaris (Brid.)) and soil samples. The epiphytic mosses and soils were sampled in two campaigns within two periods of the year, a rainy and dry-cold season. The selected sampling sites included urban regions (UR), transitional regions (TR), and protected natural areas (PA). The samples were analyzed by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to determine As, Cr, Hg, and Se principally. However, due to the versatility of the analytic technique used, other elements including Cs, Co, Sc, Sb, Rb, Ce, La, Eu, and Yb were also detected. Statistical analysis (As, Cr, Hg, and Se) was carried out with principal components and cluster analysis methods; this revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and the degree of pollution in the areas sampled. The obtained results in mosses showed that the concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cs, Rb, Ce, La, and Yb increased with respect to the concentrations obtained during the first sampling, whereas Se, Sc, Sb and Eu, concentrations were decreased. For As and Hg, the concentrations were similar in both sampling periods. The soil samples present the most significant concentration. R. Mejía-Cuero, G. García-Rosales, L. C. Longoria-Gándara, M. C. López-Reyes, and P. Ávila-Pérez Copyright © 2015 R. Mejía-Cuero et al. All rights reserved. Potential of Controlled Irrigation and Drainage for Reducing Nitrogen Emission from Rice Paddies in Southern China Tue, 11 Aug 2015 09:41:09 +0000 The effect of controlled irrigation and drainage (CID) at different growth stages of rice on nitrogen (N) from rice paddy was studied. Submergence at different stages was imposed in specially designed experimental tanks in 2009 and 2010 based on alternate wetting and drying technology (AWD, the control, CK). Treatments include CID treatment at tiller stage (T1), jointing-booting stage (T2), panicle initiation stage (T3), and milky stage (T4). Results showed that fertilization could significantly increase the concentration of -N and TN in surface water but had a little influence on -N. The concentrations of -N and -N in surface water increased at first and then decreased after fertilization, while the concentrations of -N and TN in groundwater kept on being relatively stable. Compared to CK, CID significantly increased the concentration of -N in surface water at four stages. However, it reduced the concentration of -N. Consistent with the reduction of drainage, CID at four stages could significantly decrease the amount of -N and -N losses by runoff in relation to CK. Guang-cheng Shao, Ming-hui Wang, Shuang-en Yu, Na Liu, Meng-hua Xiao, and Min Yuan Copyright © 2015 Guang-cheng Shao et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Electrocatalytic Performance of Bi-Modified Quartz Column Particle Electrode for Phenol Degradation Sun, 09 Aug 2015 11:20:10 +0000 Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and its composites have good electrocatalytic performance. Quartz column is a good kind of catalyst carrier with the characteristics of high mechanical strength and good stability. A novel Bi-modified quartz column particle electrode (BQP) was prepared by the dipping-calcination method. The characterization results revealed that Bi2O3 was successfully loaded on quartz column. The optimum preparation condition was calcining at 550°C for 4 h. Electrocatalytic performance was evaluated by the degradation of phenol and the results indicated that the triclinic phase of Bi2O3 showed the best electrocatalytic property. Besides, when the dosage concentration of the particle electrode was 125 g/L and the electrolytic voltage was 12 V, the degradation rate of phenol (200 mg/L) reached the highest (94.25%), compared with 70.00% of that in two-dimensional (2D) system. In addition, the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 75.50%, compared with 53.30% of that in 2D system. The reusability and regeneration of BQP were investigated and the results were good. Mechanism of enhanced electrochemical oxidation by BQP was evaluated by the capture of hydroxyl radical. Jiguo Huang, Haitao Chen, Shuo Pang, Gang Liu, Huanyu Cui, Lili Dong, and Xingjuan Liu Copyright © 2015 Jiguo Huang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of N-Dichloroacetyl-3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-6-chloro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine Thu, 06 Aug 2015 14:05:30 +0000 A new compound, N-dichloroacetyl-3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-6-chloro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine, was synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of the title compound (C11H10Cl3NO2, ) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group , with , ,  Å, , , ,  Å3, ,  Mg/cm3,  Å, ,  mm−1, , and for 2217 reflections with . Shuang Gao, Hai-Tao Qu, Fei Ye, and Ying Fu Copyright © 2015 Shuang Gao et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds Targeting Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Sanjin Tablets Thu, 06 Aug 2015 06:33:08 +0000 Sanjin Tablets are completely natural preparation with significant efficacy in treating urinary tract infection. To identify the bioactive compounds from Sanjin Tablets, we separated components capable of binding to the soluble proteins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) by affinity binding and characterized their identities using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Our study discovered eight compounds with E. coli protein-binding capabilities, and all these compounds were tracked back to the original natural ingredients of Sanjin Tablets. These compounds presented essentially no antibacteria activity, indicating that they affect UPEC by means other than directly killing the cells. Further molecular modeling analysis predicted molecular targets for these compounds and mapped the residues potentially involved in compound-target interactions. All the predicted targets turned out to be critical proteins regulating the metabolisms of E. coli, suggesting that these compounds may affect metabolic pathways in UPEC and inhibit pathogenesis. These data will benefit future design of drugs with higher efficacy and specificity on targeting pathogenic bacteria. Jie Meng, Zhun Zou, Chen Lu, Tingting Li, Cui Wang, Zheng Wang, Donggai Zhai, Wei Liu, Jieming Zou, and Rongxiu Li Copyright © 2015 Jie Meng et al. All rights reserved. Spectra and Charge Transport of Polar Molecular Photoactive Layers Used for Solar Cells Wed, 05 Aug 2015 14:14:56 +0000 The ground state structures, HOMO and LUMO energy levels, band gaps , ionization potentials (IP), and electron affinities (EA) of three types of copolymer P1 and its derivatives P2, P3, and PBDT-BTA were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP and 6-31G (d) basis set. On the base of optimized structures of ground states, their absorption spectra were obtained by using TD-DFT//Cam-B3LYP/6-31 G (d). Research shows that with the increasing conjugated units, HOMO energy levels increased, LUMO energy levels decreased, and band gaps decreased gradually. Moreover, their ionization potentials decreased and electron affinities increased along with the increase of conjugated chains, and absorption spectra red-shifted. In addition, the side chain has a significant effect on the properties of ground and excited states. In order to investigate the influence of conjugated units and side chain on the charge transport, their hole and electron reorganization energies were calculated, and the results indicated that Pb have a good hole transport capability. Considering the practical application, the HOMO and LUMO energy levels, band gaps, and absorption spectra under external electric field were studied, and the results proved that the external electric field has an effect on the optical and electronic properties. Yuanzuo Li, Dawei Qi, Chaofan Sun, and Meiyu Zhao Copyright © 2015 Yuanzuo Li et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Nanomaterials for Environmental Detection and Remediation Wed, 05 Aug 2015 08:02:23 +0000 Jumin Hao, Qichen Wang, Jianfeng Zhang, Lili He, and Liping Qiu Copyright © 2015 Jumin Hao et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Nanoscale Soil Organic Matter by Middle Infrared Spectrum for Forensic Science Tue, 04 Aug 2015 13:04:41 +0000 Soil is useful as a kind of trace evidence for forensic science. Thus it is very crucial to identify sources of soil. The nanoscale soil organic matter (NSOMs) can be used to differentiate soil sources because their constituents and contents are relatively stable with time but variant by location. In this study, NSOMs from eighteen regions of Shandong Province in China were examined by middle infrared spectrum (4000–400 cm−1). The results showed that the constituents and contents of NSOMs in eighteen samples were dramatically different; a NSOM fingerprint for each sample was drawn based on these characteristics. This suggests that a national or global NSOM fingerprint database could be rapidly established by the one-step middle infrared spectrum analysis for different soil samples, which will be helpful to determine crime scenes by comparing the middle infrared spectrum of forensic soil with the NSOMs fingerprint database. Yingzi Liu, Qiang Li, Yumei Li, Jie Bao, Zhiheng Hu, Dakui Hao, Dongxue Song, Yiwei Wang, and Min Yang Copyright © 2015 Yingzi Liu et al. All rights reserved. Production and Application of Petroleum Oil and Its Alternatives on Internal Combustion Engines Tue, 04 Aug 2015 11:18:42 +0000 Haifeng Liu, Zheng Chen, Ming Huo, and Chao Jin Copyright © 2015 Haifeng Liu et al. All rights reserved.