Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Nutritional Content and Elemental and Phytochemical Analyses of Moringa oleifera Grown in Mexico Tue, 28 Apr 2015 13:20:24 +0000 Moringa oleifera is a tree distributed in Mexican semiarid and coastal regions. M. oleifera is used in practice in the treatment of various diseases and is available without a medical prescription, often in the form of an herbal infusion for everyday use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition and nutritional values of dried M. oleifera leaf powder collected from two different regions in Mexico. All samples of M. oleifera exhibited moisture levels varying from 3.06 to 3.34%, lipids from 10.21 to 10.31%, fiber from 7.29 to 9.46%, ashes from 10.71 to 11.18%, crude protein from 10.74 to 11.48%, and carbohydrates from 54.61 to 57.61%. The predominant mineral elements in the leaf powder according to ICP-MS were Ca (2016.5–2620.5 mg/100 g), K (1817–1845 mg/100 g), and Mg (322.5–340.6 mg/100 g). The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (rutin, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, and kaempferol). We concluded that Lombardia M. oleifera samples could be employed in edible and commercial applications. Our results showed that the highest mean value of As from the San Pedro samples exceeds the recommended level and may constitute a health hazard to consumers. Mónica A. Valdez-Solana, Verónica Y. Mejía-García, Alfredo Téllez-Valencia, Guadalupe García-Arenas, José Salas-Pacheco, José J. Alba-Romero, and Erick Sierra-Campos Copyright © 2015 Mónica A. Valdez-Solana et al. All rights reserved. Hydrolysis and Hydrazinolysis of Isatin-Based Ald- and Ketazines Tue, 28 Apr 2015 13:01:17 +0000 The hydrolysis of isatin aldazine 4a–d afforded the unexpected 3,3′-(hydrazine-1,2-diylidene)bis(indolin-2-one) (5) and 1,2-di(arylidene)hydrazines 6a–d through dual hydrolysis of 4a–d. A mechanism to explain the formation of 5 and 6a–d was proposed. In addition, the hydrazinolysis of 4a–d yielded 3-hydrazonoindolin-2-one (2) and 1,2-di(arylidene)hydrazines 6a–d instead of hydrazones 17a–d, while hydrazinolysis of isatin ketazine 5 gave the expected 3-hydrazonoindolin-2-one (2). These results indicated the ability of the title compounds for unusual hydrolysis and hydrazinolysis reactions. Hany S. Ibrahim, Soha R. Abdelhadi, and Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz Copyright © 2015 Hany S. Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. Novel Water Treatment Processes Based on Hybrid Membrane-Ozonation Systems: A Novel Ceramic Membrane Contactor for Bubbleless Ozonation of Emerging Micropollutants Wed, 22 Apr 2015 12:02:36 +0000 The aim of this study is the presentation of novel water treatment systems based on ozonation combined with ceramic membranes for the treatment of refractory organic compounds found in natural water sources such as groundwater. This includes, firstly, a short review of possible membrane based hybrid processes for water treatment from various sources. Several practical and theoretical aspects for the application of hybrid membrane-ozonation systems are discussed, along with theoretical background regarding the transformation of target organic pollutants by ozone. Next, a novel ceramic membrane contactor, bringing into contact the gas phase (ozone) and water phase without the creation of bubbles (bubbleless ozonation), is presented. Experimental data showing the membrane contactor efficiency for oxidation of atrazine, endosulfan, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are shown and discussed. Almost complete endosulfan degradation was achieved with the use of the ceramic contactor, whereas atrazine degradation higher than 50% could not be achieved even after 60 min of reaction time. Single ozonation of water containing MTBE could not result in a significant MTBE degradation. MTBE mineralization by O3/H2O2 combination increased at higher pH values and O3/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.2 reaching a maximum of around 65%. Stylianos K. Stylianou, Katarzyna Szymanska, Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis, and Anastasios I. Zouboulis Copyright © 2015 Stylianos K. Stylianou et al. All rights reserved. Catalytic Synthesis of Glycerol tert-Butyl Ethers as Fuel Additives from the Biodiesel By-Product Glycerol Wed, 22 Apr 2015 07:00:39 +0000 Glycerol is a major by-product in the biodiesel production process. Every 100 kg of biodiesel produced generates approximately 10 kg of crude glycerol. As the biodiesel industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, finding new uses of the excess crude glycerol is important. Many studies have examined alternative uses of crude glycerol. One of them is the use of glycerol derivatives, such as glycerol tert-butyl ethers as fuel additives. In this paper, the etherification kinetics of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol to glycerol tert-butyl ethers was studied using an Amberlyst catalyst. The influences of the catalyst type and loading, reaction time, molar ratio, and temperature were investigated in detail. Rui Huang and Eui Yong Kim Copyright © 2015 Rui Huang and Eui Yong Kim. All rights reserved. Bioactive Phytochemicals: Bioactivity, Sources, Preparations, and/or Modifications via Silver Tetrafluoroborate Mediation Tue, 21 Apr 2015 12:46:02 +0000 This review provides an overview of the biological activities, natural occurrences, and the silver tetrafluoroborate- (AgBF4-) mediated synthesis of proanthocyanidins, glycosides, N-heterocyclic alkaloid analogues (of pyrrole, morphine, quinoline, isoquinoline, and indole), furan analogues, and halocompounds. AgBF4 has been reviewed as an effective reaction promoter, used extensively in the synthesis of relevant biologically active compounds via carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds formation. The literatures from 1979 to April 2014 were reviewed. Matthew C. Achilonu and Dennis O. Umesiobi Copyright © 2015 Matthew C. Achilonu and Dennis O. Umesiobi. All rights reserved. The Physical and Chemical Properties of Fine Carbon Particles-Pinewood Resin Blends and Their Possible Utilization Mon, 20 Apr 2015 10:47:37 +0000 The application of biomass gasification technology is very important in the sense that it helps to relieve the dwindling supply of natural gas from fossil fuels, and the desired product of its gasification process is syngas. This syngas is a mixture of CO and H2; however, by-products such as char, tar, soot, ash, and condensates are also produced. This study, therefore, investigated selected by-products recovered from the gasification process of pinewood chips with specific reference to their potential application in other areas when used as blends. Three samples of the gasification by-products were obtained from a downdraft biomass gasifier system and were characterized in terms of chemical and physical properties. FTIR analysis confirmed similar spectra in all char-resin blends. For fine carbon particles- (soot-) resin blends, almost the same functional groups as observed in char-resin blends appeared. In bomb calorimeter measurements, 70% resin/30% char blends gave highest calorific value, followed by 50% resin/50% soot blends with values of 35.23 MJ/kg and 34.75 MJ/kg consecutively. Provided these by-products meet certain criteria, they could be used in other areas such as varnishes, water purification, and wind turbine blades. Aviwe Melapi, Sampson N. Mamphweli, David M. Katwire, and Edson L. Meyer Copyright © 2015 Aviwe Melapi et al. All rights reserved. Phase Behavior and Physical Parameters of Natural Gas Mixture with Sun, 19 Apr 2015 11:31:52 +0000 The two-flash experiment, constant composition expansion experiment, saturation pressure measurement experiment, and phase transition observation experiment from well bottom hole to well head of four high CO2 content natural gas samples were carried out by using the JEFRI-PVT apparatus made from DBR Company of Canada. The experimental results show that in the four high CO2 content gas samples no phase transitions will take place at temperatures greater than 35°C. In the gas-liquid two-phase region, saturation pressures, critical pressure, critical temperature, and an integrated P-T phase diagram of different CO2 content natural gases are calculated by using the modified PR equation of state and modified (T) equation proposed by Saffari. The deviations between the saturation pressure calculated by using the model proposed in this study and experimental measured saturation pressure are very small; the average relative error is only 2.86%. Thus, the model can be used to predict the phase equilibrium parameters of high CO2 content natural gas. Dali Hou, Hucheng Deng, Hao Zhang, Kai Li, Lei Sun, and Yi Pan Copyright © 2015 Dali Hou et al. All rights reserved. Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Investigation of Cd(II) Dinonyldithiophosphate: Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions Thu, 16 Apr 2015 12:56:04 +0000 Dinonyldithiophosphoric acid (HDDTP) was synthesised from the reaction of phosphorus pentasulphide and nonyl alcohol. Dinonyldithiophosphate complex of cadmium [Cd(DDTP)2] was prepared by mixing solutions of Cd(II) with HDDTP in ethanol at room temperature. The acid and its complex were characterised by elemental analysis and spectroscopy. The thermal behaviour of Cd(DNDTP)2 was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Removal of Cd(II) from aqueous media by HDDTP solution was also studied. The optimum conditions for removal of Cd(II) were investigated for effects of solvent, pH, contact time, concentration, and inorganic anions. Cd(II) was quantitatively removed from aqueous solutions at the pH range of , under the conditions that the stoichiometric ratio of HDDTP/Cd(II) ≥2/1. It can be stated that contact of the Cd(II) with HDDTP was sufficient for quantitative removing of cadmium from acidic aqueous solutions. Nermin Biricik, Hadice Budak Gümgüm, and Bahattin Gümgüm Copyright © 2015 Nermin Biricik et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of the Industrial Residues of Seven Fruits and Prospection of Their Potential Application as Food Supplements Tue, 14 Apr 2015 05:58:40 +0000 Seven residues from tropical fruit (acerola, cashew apple, guava, mango, papaya, pineapple, and sapota) processing were prospected for physicochemical parameters (pH, total soluble solids, water activity, reducing sugar, acidity, protein, moisture, ash, and lipids), functional compounds (total phenolic content, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and free radical scavenging activity—DPPH), fatty acid profile, and mineral content. Prospection of these industrial residues aimed its use as potential sources for food supplementation. Acerola residue was found to be a valuable source of anthocyanins, phenolics, and vitamin C; cashew apple residue could be a source of unsaturated fatty acids; pineapple and papaya residues could be used, respectively, as manganese and phosphorous source. Soraya de Oliveira Sancho, Ana Raquel Araújo da Silva, Allan Nilson de Sousa Dantas, Ticiane Alencar Magalhães, Gisele Simone Lopes, Sueli Rodrigues, José Maria Correia da Costa, Fabiano André Narciso Fernandes, and Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos Silva Copyright © 2015 Soraya de Oliveira Sancho et al. All rights reserved. Micropollutants Identification Affecting the Nearby Environment from Highway Runoff: The Case Study of Cyprus Highway Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:49:08 +0000 Road/highway surfaces accumulate significant quantities of pollutants including nutrients, heavy metals, and polycyclic hydrocarbon aromatic (PHAs). Traffic characteristics (vehicle speed, traffic load, etc.), climate, long dry wet periods, and rainfall event intensity and duration are regarded as important factors in generating pollutants in high way runoff (HRO). Regarding rainfall control, most of the road is served by drainage ditches which collect the runoff and direct it to the nearest natural water courses. This paper focuses on the estimation of pollutant that is coming from two several highways (to the airport and to the biggest industrial area) in Cyprus. Overall, more than 100 different samples were collected and analysed over a period of two years. Several parameters were determined like PHA, COD, electronic conductivity (EC), total suspended solid (TSS), total dissolved solid (TDS), pH, fats and oils (FOG), T. Coliforms, NO3, NO2, NH4, SO4, Cl, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, and Zn. The results indicated that the first flush consists of major pollution due to the fact that all parameters are in high levels. As the rainfall continues the pollution decreases but the influence to the nearby areas of the runoff is high. Antonis A. Zorpas, Lampis A. Ilia, Irene Voukkali, and Vassilis Inglezakis Copyright © 2015 Antonis A. Zorpas et al. All rights reserved. Parametric Study of Time-Dependent Corrosion Product Activity due to 56Mn, 58Co, and 60Co in the Primary Coolant Circuit of a Typical Pressurized Water Reactor Mon, 06 Apr 2015 12:20:19 +0000 Results of a detailed study, based on the parametric analysis of activated corrosion products, in primary coolant of a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) are presented. The parameters influencing time dependent buildup of corrosion product activity (CPA) in primary coolant loop of PWR were identified. The computer program CPAIR was used to accommodate for time dependent corrosion rates. The behaviors of 56Mn, 58Co, and 60Co were studied over the reactor operational time. During the course of normal operation of reactor, the CPA is dominated by 56Mn, while 58Co and 60Co are the predominant radionuclides after reactor shutdown. Parametric study suggests that the total CPA is most sensitive to ion-exchanger removal rates. For a removal rate of 300 cm3-s−1, the specific activity due to 56Mn has the maximum value of 3.552 × 104 Bq-m−3 after 1,000 hours of reactor operation. This value decreases drastically to 8.325 × 103 Bq-m−3 at removal rate of 900 cm3-s−1. Additionally, CPA due to 56Mn, 58Co, and 60Co shows strong dependence on removal rates from the core material surfaces. Variations in the values of radionuclide removal rates from piping surface and radionuclide removal rate from deposition on pipes showed only very small effects on CPA buildup. Muhammad Rafique, Nasir M. Mirza, Sikander M. Mirza, Kimberlee J. Kearfott, Shahab A. Abbasi, and Syed F. Naeem Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Rafique et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity Studies of Ni(II) Complex with Pyridine as a Ligand Mon, 06 Apr 2015 08:33:49 +0000 We represent a metal complex which has been synthesized by the simple reaction with Ni(II) chloride and pyridine (as a lignd) affording a complex having the molecular formula [], characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, electronic, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra, magnetic susceptibility, and also aid of molar conductivity measurement. Conductivity measurement reveals nonelectrolytic nature of the complex. IR and 13C NMR spectra reveal the presence of cis- and trans-structure. On the basis of above analyses the square planar cis- and trans-structures are proposed for the prepared complex. Faridul Islam, Md. Amran Hossain, Nur Mostaq Shah, Hridika Talukder Barua, Md. Alamgir Kabir, Mohammad Jamshed Khan, and Romel Mullick Copyright © 2015 Faridul Islam et al. All rights reserved. Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro Antiplatelet Aggregation Activities of Ferulic Acid Derivatives Thu, 02 Apr 2015 16:18:44 +0000 In order to discover new compounds with antiplatelet aggregation activities, some ferulic acid (FA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. The in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activities of these compounds were assessed by turbidimetric test. The results showed that the target compound 7f had potent antiplatelet aggregation activity with its IC50 27.6 μmol/L, and 7f can be regarded as a novel potent antiplatelet aggregation candidate. Peng-Xuan Zhang, Hang Lin, Cheng Qu, Yu-Ping Tang, Nian-Guang Li, Jun Kai, Guanxiong Shang, Baoquan Li, Li Zhang, Hui Yan, Pei Liu, and Jin-Ao Duan Copyright © 2015 Peng-Xuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Hg from Real Polluted Sediments Using Enhanced-EK Decontamination: Verification of Experimental Methods and Batch-Test Preliminary Results Thu, 02 Apr 2015 14:30:43 +0000 The aim of the research is to apply a biosurfactant-enhanced-EK technology to marine sediment contaminated by high level of Hg. In this work, data from batch-tests using different novel biosurfactant agents were reported. In addition, a dedicated EK bench-scale apparatus was designed and carried out. Technical test was also performed to evaluate the optimal operating features of the EK bench-scale apparatus, assessing the influence of applied voltage and treatment time on the current intensity and electroosmotic flow. Batch experiments were conducted using two sugar esters as biosurfactants and EDTA salt at different concentrations. Results showed that the maximum extraction efficiency was observed for the biosurfactant Olimpicon GC (15%), for which the Hg extraction was shown to be 3.6-fold higher than for 0.2 M EDTA. From technical tests, the observed reduction of current intensity and electroosmotic flow with time highlights the necessity of using conditioning agents during the treatment. Data demonstrates also the good working features of the experimental apparatus. Preliminary results show that EK treatment jointly with biosurfactants such as sugar esters could be a better choice for the remediation of Hg-polluted sediments. The results obtained are of scientific and practical interest and can be used for further researches. Danilo Malarbì, Pietro P. Falciglia, and Federico G. A. Vagliasindi Copyright © 2015 Danilo Malarbì et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Carbonylation of Aromatic Amines with CO Catalyzed by 1,3-Dialkylimidazole-2-selenone in Ionic Liquids Thu, 02 Apr 2015 10:09:52 +0000 1,3-Dialkylimidazole-2-selenone as a novel substituted selenium heterocyclic catalyst was used to catalyze oxidative carbonylation of aromatic amines with carbon monoxide in the presence of air to symmetrical ureas in up to 97% yield in ionic liquids. Fengshou Tian, Yahong Chen, Xiaofang Wang, Peng Li, and Shiwei Lu Copyright © 2015 Fengshou Tian et al. All rights reserved. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on the Phosphate Adsorption Removal by Dolomite Mineral Thu, 02 Apr 2015 10:03:07 +0000 The efficiency of dolomite to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions was investigated. The experimental results showed that the removal of phosphate by dolomite was rapid (the removal rate over 95% in 60 min) when the initial phosphate concentration is at the range of 10–50 mg/L. Several kinetic models including intraparticle diffusion model, pseudo-first-order model, Elovich model, and pseudo-second-order model were employed to evaluate the kinetics data of phosphate adsorption onto dolomite and pseudo-second-order model was recommended to describe the adsorption kinetics characteristics. Further analysis of the adsorption kinetics indicated that the phosphate removal process was mainly controlled by chemical bonding or chemisorption. Moreover, both Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to evaluate the experimental data. The results indicated that Langmuir isotherm was more suitable to describe the adsorption characteristics of dolomite. Maximum adsorption capacity of phosphate by dolomite was found to be 4.76 mg phosphorous/g dolomite. Thermodynamic studies showed that phosphate adsorption was exothermic. The study implies that dolomite is an excellent low cost material for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment process. Xiaoli Yuan, Wentang Xia, Juan An, Jianguo Yin, Xuejiao Zhou, and Wenqiang Yang Copyright © 2015 Xiaoli Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Acid Hydrolysis of Bromazepam Catalyzed by Micelles, Reverse Micelles, and Microemulsions Thu, 02 Apr 2015 06:16:44 +0000 Kinetics of the acid hydrolysis of bromazepam (Bz) has been investigated in micelles, reverse micelles, and microemulcions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) by spectrophotometric method. The rate of the acid hydrolysis of Bz was found to be enhanced both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CTAB in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order rate constant () shows an initial decrease for both low and high H+ concentrations. With further increase in [CTAB], at low [H+], the attains an almost constant value, while, at high [H+], the passes through a maximum and then decreases. The kinetic data for catalysis by micelles of CTAB was interpreted with the pseudophase ion exchange (PIE) model. In CTAB/cyclohexane/1-butanol/water microemulsions, as the water to surfactant ratio () increases, the physicochemical properties and droplet sizes of microemulsions significantly change and distinct changes in reaction environment can be marked. The rate of the hydrolysis reaction exhibits excellent correlation with the physicochemical properties and droplet sizes of the microemulsions and reverse micelles of CTAB. At [H+] = 0.001 M, in reverse micelles and microemulsions of CTAB, the of the acid hydrolysis of Bz decreases sharply followed by a slight increase with increasing . Ferdousi Begum, M. Yousuf A. Mollah, M. Muhibur Rahman, and Md. Abu Bin Hasan Susan Copyright © 2015 Ferdousi Begum et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Aluminum Tripolyphosphate on the Protective Behavior of an Acrylic Water-Based Paint Applied to Rusty Steels Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:45:41 +0000 The protective performance, in conditions of total immersion, of an acrylic water-based paint applied to rusty steel, has been studied using electrochemical techniques. There was no rust, blister, crack, or flake that occurred on coating after 500 h immersion. The data obtained have enabled the protective mechanism to be proposed. The specific pigments utilized in the formulation of the paint studied can release phosphates to form a protective layer on metal substrate, which can impede the access of aggressive species to substrate surface. The coatings performed electrochemical activity in the beginning of immersion; then the layer formed and resistance of coating increased. Dongdong Song, Jin Gao, Lin Shen, Hongxia Wan, and Xiaogang Li Copyright © 2015 Dongdong Song et al. All rights reserved. Solving Reaction-Diffusion and Advection Problems with Richardson Extrapolation Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:07:18 +0000 Richardson extrapolation is a simple but powerful computational tool to enhance the accuracy of time integration methods. In the past years a few theoretical and partly practical works have been presented on this method. Detailed numerical applications of this method, however, are rarely found in the literature. Therefore, it is worth investigating whether this promising technique lives up to the expectations also in practice. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of the Richardson method in one-dimensional numerical (reaction-diffusion) problems. Tamás Mona, István Lagzi, and Ágnes Havasi Copyright © 2015 Tamás Mona et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:46:18 +0000 To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB )as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays) and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and bulk density (BD) of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC), water holding capacity (WHC), and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate. H.-L. Yu, W. Gu, J. Tao, J.-Y. Huang, and H.-S. Lin Copyright © 2015 H.-L. Yu et al. All rights reserved. Natural Enrichment of Trace Elements in Surface Horizons of Calcareous Soils (La Mancha, Spain) Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:25:23 +0000 The study of five soil profiles developed on carbonatic sediments of Tertiary Miocene origin has been carried out. The topography of the area was basically flat and the traditional uses of the soils are the cultivation of dry cereals and grapevine. The geochemical characterization of the aforementioned profiles involves a study of the contents of major and trace elements among other pedologic aspects (texture, pH, organic matter, etc.). The results of this study also indicate a superficial enrichment of trace elements due to the leaching of Ca and moderate biological and anthropic activity. We can consider strontium, Sr, as the trace element that characterizes these limy soils (435 mg/kg average content in total soil and 708 mg/kg in the original rock). These contents are similar to the average value in Castilla-La Mancha of 380 mg/kg and are higher than the average in world soils of about 200 mg/kg. High levels of dangerous or pollutant elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, or Ni) were not detected. The majority of trace element anomalies are related to calcareous material and the leaching of calcium carbonate (Ca), while the influence of the anthropogenic factor is secondary. Soil quality does not indicate toxicity although surficial enrichment suggests a weak threat from consuming crops. Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra, Jose A. Amorós Ortíz-Villajos, Caridad Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Francisco J. García Navarro, Rolando Ruedas Luna, and Raimundo Jiménez Ballesta Copyright © 2015 Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:18:54 +0000 This study presents the fabrication of high-quality activated carbon (AC) from discarded coconut shells. The effects of experimental parameters such as activation temperature and activation time on the basic characteristics of AC, including charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, total pore volume, and iodine adsorption, are investigated. The results indicate that as the activation temperature and activation time increase, the charcoal yield of the AC decreases. In contrast, iodine adsorption, ash content, pH value, and total pore volume increase with activation temperature. The AC sample activated at 1000°C for 120 min had the highest BET specific surface area and total pore volume and thus the best CO2 adsorption performance. This sample was compared with 30-mesh commercial AC. The results reveal that coconut-based AC has better instantaneous adsorption capabilities. Pei-Hsing Huang, Hao-Hsiang Cheng, and Sheau-Horng Lin Copyright © 2015 Pei-Hsing Huang et al. All rights reserved. The HPLC Fingerprint and Isovanillin Content of Benincasa hispida Seeds Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:32:06 +0000 The Benincasa hispida seed is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, there is still a lack of medicinal quality control of B. hispida seeds. The seeds may contain isovanillin, but this finding remains to be confirmed and quantified. The current study aimed to confirm the existence of isovanillin and then preliminarily establish medicinal quality standards for B. hispida seeds. Fourteen batches of unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds were purchased from 7 different producers in China. Semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to isolate and purify the isovanillin from B. hispida seeds. Its chemical structure was elucidated by UV, 1H-NMR, IR spectroscopy, and GC-MS. The B. hispida seed fingerprint and isovanillin determination were performed on an HPLC instrument. Data obtained from the unilateral and bilateral specimens were analyzed with a similarity evaluation system. The HPLC fingerprint showed 19 characteristic peaks with high similarity between the unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds. The isovanillin content among the fourteen batches ranged from 13.46 to 46.80 μg/g. The results of this study may provide a preliminary reference for the quality control of B. hispida seeds. Jing Liu, Pinglin Li, Qi Wang, Bin Li, and Guoqiang Li Copyright © 2015 Jing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:51:54 +0000 Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp.), followed by eugenol (2.23 mM). On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), refractivity index (RI), and molar volume (MV) were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity. Romina P. Pizzolitto, Carla L. Barberis, José S. Dambolena, Jimena M. Herrera, María P. Zunino, Carina E. Magnoli, Héctor R. Rubinstein, Julio A. Zygadlo, and Ana M. Dalcero Copyright © 2015 Romina P. Pizzolitto et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Na2Ti3O7/Titanium Peroxide Composites and Their Adsorption Property on Cationic Dyes Mon, 30 Mar 2015 09:39:32 +0000 Na2Ti3O7/titanium peroxide composites (TN-TP) were successfully prepared with the reaction of Ti foils, NaOH, and H2O2 at 60°C for 24 h in water bath. The Na2Ti3O7 appeared as nanorods in composites. Water bath temperature, water bath time, and the concentration of H2O2 and NaOH were crucial. The reaction mechanism was proposed. TN-TP was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). TN-TP was a mesoporous material and exhibited stronger adsorption capability for neutral red (NR), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), and crystal violet (CV) than pure Na2Ti3O7 and pure titanium peroxide, and the saturated adsorption capacities were 490.21, 386.13, 322.81, and 292.74 mg/g at 25°C, respectively. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model could well describe the adsorption kinetic and isotherm of cationic dyes studied. The results of this work are of great significance for environmental applications of TN-TP as a promising adsorbent material for dyeing water purification. Meixia Zhao, Jiguo Huang, Xueting Guo, Haitao Chen, Hai Zhao, Lili Dong, and Xing-juan Liu Copyright © 2015 Meixia Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Semiarid Environment on Some Nutritional and Antinutritional Attributes of Calendula (Calendula officinalis) Sun, 29 Mar 2015 14:29:55 +0000 Stressful environments have been shown to affect the metabolism in some plants. In the present study, we assessed whether semiarid environment (saline and saline alkaline soil) could affect the nutritional (total proteins, phenolics and riboflavin contents, and catalase activity) and antinutritional (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents) properties differently in different plant parts (leaves, flowers, and roots) of calendula. Although salinity decreased plant biomass, it did not affect total protein and phenolics contents in the calendula. All plant parts were rich in riboflavin contents. However, plants grown under saline-alkali soil had relatively more riboflavin contents in the flowers. Salinity increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in the flowers and roots, whereas saline-alkali soil did not affect it. Plants exposed to both saline and saline-alkali soil had greater catalase activity in the flowers and leaves. Plants exposed to salinity had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the flowers compared with nonsaline and saline-alkali conditions. Nonetheless, the possibility of safely using different parts of calendula as nutraceutical was in the order flower > root > leaf. Overall, the results suggested that plant can be grown in mild saline-alkali (EC ≤ 7; pH = 8.5) soils without affecting its nutraceutical properties. Muhammad Iqbal, Iqbal Hussain, Asma Habib, Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, and Rizwan Rasheed Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Iqbal et al. All rights reserved. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:39:21 +0000 Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole. Pankaj Kumar Arora, Ashutosh Sharma, and Hanhong Bae Copyright © 2015 Pankaj Kumar Arora et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Copolymeric Resveratrol Conjugates Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:38:23 +0000 Resveratrol (RSV), naturally found in plants, is known to have health benefits and has been proposed as a potential anticancer and cardioprotective drug. However, due to its molecular structure, it undergoes rapid metabolism in the body resulting in low bioavailability. Novel polymeric methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) RSV conjugates with varying PCL chain lengths have been synthesised and formulated into micelles and/or nanoparticles for preliminary in vitro stability studies. RSV conjugated with mPEG2000-PCL9500 was found to have improved solubility and stability of RSV as compared to RSV alone. The length of the PCL chain was found to affect the micelle formation, hence the stability in physiological buffers and rat plasma. Yan-Jing Ng, Heather A. E. Benson, David H. Brown, and Yan Chen Copyright © 2015 Yan-Jing Ng et al. All rights reserved. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests Sun, 29 Mar 2015 09:37:08 +0000 Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 , with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment. Morteza Mohsenipour, Shamsuddin Shahid, and Kumars Ebrahimi Copyright © 2015 Morteza Mohsenipour et al. All rights reserved. Polyphenolic Profile of Maize Seedlings Treated with 24-Epibrassinolide Sun, 29 Mar 2015 08:52:44 +0000 High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with image analysis and pattern recognition methods were used for fingerprinting of phenolic compounds present in seedlings of two maize genotypes ZP 434 (new generation hybrid, drought tolerant) and ZP 704 (older generation hybrid, drought sensitive) treated with different concentrations of 24-epibrassinolide. This is the first report of TLC chromatographic profile of phenolics’ mixtures in maize seed extracts influenced by brassinosteroid phytohormones. Nine samples of shoot of seedlings for the whole concentration range of phytohormones (5.2 × 10−7–5.2 × 10−15 M), one sample of root of seedlings treated with 5.2 × 10−15 M 24-epibrassinolide, and the control samples of nontreated seedlings, for both genotypes, were analyzed. Phenolic profiles of root extracts indicate the absence of more polar compounds such as phenolic acids and glycosides present in shoot of seedlings. Also, hormones applied in higher concentrations have an inhibiting effect on the content of phenolics in ZP 434. Application of chemometric methods enables characterization of particular genotype of maize according to its phenolic profile. Hadi Waisi, Aleksandra Kosović, Đurđa Krstić, Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica, Bogdan Nikolić, Vesna Dragičević, and Jelena Trifković Copyright © 2015 Hadi Waisi et al. All rights reserved.