Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Study on the Morphology of a Dispersed Particle Gel Used as a Profile Control Agent for Improved Oil Recovery Sun, 20 Jul 2014 09:07:52 +0000 To achieve in-depth profile control of injection water and improve oil recovery, a new profile control agent, termed as dispersed particle gel (DPG), has been developed and reported. In this paper, the morphology of DPG and the factors that influence its morphology are systematically investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM studies show that DPG is composed of small pseudospherical particles and that their sizes can be controlled by adjusting the shearing rate, the initial polymer mass concentration, and the salinity. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is used to study the effects of the initial polymer mass concentration, the shearing rate, the salinity, and the high-temperature aging on the particle size of DPG. The aggregation ability of DPG is explained using the DLVO theory and space stability theory. This work provides a scientific basis and technical support for the formula design of DPG and its application in the oil and gas field. Qing You, Yongchun Tang, Caili Dai, Mingwei Zhao, and Fulin Zhao Copyright © 2014 Qing You et al. All rights reserved. Thermal Decomposition of Hydrocalumite over a Temperature Range of 400–1500°C and Its Structure Reconstruction in Water Thu, 17 Jul 2014 11:25:55 +0000 The thermal decomposition process and structure memory effect of hydrocalumite were investigated systematically for the first time over a wide temperature range of 400–1500°C. The calcined hydrocalumite samples and their rehydrated products were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and SEM-EDX. The results show that the calcination products at temperatures ranging from 500 to 900°C are basically mayenite and lime, while one of the final products obtained by calcination at and above 1000°C is probably tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6). For the hydrocalumite samples calcined at temperatures below 1000°C, their lamellar structure can be completely recovered in deionized water at room temperature. However, the further increase of calcination temperature could impair the regeneration ability of hydrocalumite via contact with water. Upon calcination of hydrocalumite at 1000–1500°C followed by reaction with water, a stable compound tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) was produced, which is the reason why less hydrocalumite could be regenerated. Jiao Tian and Qinghai Guo Copyright © 2014 Jiao Tian and Qinghai Guo. All rights reserved. Prediction and Evaluation of the Mixture Toxicity of Twelve Phenols and Ten Anilines to the Freshwater Photobacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 12:10:34 +0000 Twelve substituted phenols and ten substituted anilines were chosen to investigate if the dose addition and independent action models can be used to evaluate the mixture toxicity of phenolic and aniline derivatives (PADs). Their photobacterium toxicity to the freshwater luminescent bacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 showed that the two-parameter Weibull or Logit function could be effectively applied to describe the dose-response relationships. The joint toxicity of three equivalent-effect concentration ratio (EECR) mixtures and twelve uniform design concentration ratio (UDCR) mixtures could be well evaluated using the dose addition (DA) or the independent action (IA) model within 95% confidence intervals. Lingyun Mo, Zongqiang Zhu, Yinian Zhu, Honghu Zeng, and Yanhong Li Copyright © 2014 Lingyun Mo et al. All rights reserved. Stability of Positively Charged Nanoemulsion Formulation Containing Steroidal Drug for Effective Transdermal Application Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper emphasizes the formation of a positively charged nanoemulsion system for steroid drugs (hydrocortisone). It is believed that positively charged nanoemulsion provides more effective penetration of the skin. Therefore in our study we focused on the incorporation of phytosphingosine which serves as a positively charged cosurfactant in the nanoemulsion system. Negatively charged nanoemulsions were formulated mainly for comparison. Freshly prepared formulations were formed with particle size less than 300 nm and showed good stability over time. The oil-in-water nanoemulsion also showed good viscosity, conductivity, and pH values. From TEM micrograph, particle size showed consistent results with the measurement using photon correlation spectroscopy. It was concluded that both positively and negatively charged nanoemulsions showed good stability and have great potential in transdermal delivery system. Though, further investigation of the drug release and drug penetration of both positively and negatively charged nanoemulsions will be studied to further prove the efficacy of nanoemulsion with hydrocortisone as a delivery system for dermal application. Stephanie Da Costa, Mahiran Basri, Norashikin Shamsudin, and Hamidon Basri Copyright © 2014 Stephanie Da Costa et al. All rights reserved. Design and Implementation of 8051 Single-Chip Microcontroller for Stationary 1.0 kW PEM Fuel Cell System Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted significant interest as a potential green energy source. However, if the performance of such systems is to be enhanced, appropriate control strategies must be applied. Accordingly, the present study proposes a sophisticated control system for a 1.0 kW PEMFC system comprising a fuel cell stack, an auxiliary power supply, a DC-DC buck converter, and a DC-AC inverter. The control system is implemented using an 8051 single-chip microcontroller and is designed to optimize the system performance and safety in both the startup phase and the long-term operation phase. The major features of the proposed control system are described and the circuit diagrams required for its implementation introduced. In addition, the touch-sensitive, intuitive human-machine interface is introduced and typical screens are presented. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the PEMFC system are briefly examined. Overall, the results confirm that the single-chip microcontroller presented in this study has significant potential for commercialization in the near future. Pei-Hsing Huang, Jenn-Kun Kuo, and Yuan-Yao Hsu Copyright © 2014 Pei-Hsing Huang et al. All rights reserved. Photodegradation of Trace Trichloronitromethane in Water under UV Irradiation Mon, 14 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This study’s objective was to study the photodegradation of TCNM (trichloronitromethane) in water under UV light. The effects of light intensity, nitrate ions, chloride ions, humic acid, and pH on the photochemical degradation of TCNM were investigated under the irradiation of low pressure mercury lamp (λ = 254 nm, 12 W). The photodegradation rate of TCNM was found to increase with increasing the concentration of nitrate ions, chloride ions, humic acid, pH, and light intensity. The photodegradation of TCNM was examined at pH 6.0 with initial concentrations () of TCNM at 10.0–200.0 µg/L. The overall rate of degradation of TCNM was modeled using a pseudofirst-order rate law. Finally, the proposed mechanism involved in the photodegradation of TCNM was also discussed by analysis. Results of this study can contribute to the development of new source control strategies for minimization of TCNM risk at drinking water and wastewater utilities. Lin Deng, Zhiren Wu, Caiqian Yang, and Yung-Li Wang Copyright © 2014 Lin Deng et al. All rights reserved. The Preparation of Matrine Liposome and Its Antiglioma Activity Study Mon, 14 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of the study was to study the preparation of matrine liposome and its activity for resisting cells, to study the preparation of matrine liposome by orthogonal design, and to observe the inhibiting effect of matrine on glioma through MTT method, Flow Cytometer, and electron microscope. The results showed that we take the encapsulation efficiency as the index; the optimal preparation of matrine liposome is 100 mg of lecithin, 40 mg of cholesterol, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with pH value 6.4, and 40 mg of matrine. The result of MTT testing is shown that the tested group with medium and high dosage (0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mg/L) of matrine has significant inhibiting rate to the growth of BT 325 cells. The value in tested group with medium and high dosage is up to . The methods of Flow Cytometer and electron microscope prove that matrine can inhibit the growth of BT 325 cells. Matrine is active in inhibiting brain glioma. Shao-Rong Han, Hai Gong, Yan-Ming Wang, Xiao-Yan Lv, Cong Zhang, An-Na Tong, Guang-Hui Yuan, and Bao-Yi Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shao-Rong Han et al. All rights reserved. Improving the Efficiency of a Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment of the Semiconductor Industry through Zeta Potential Measurements Thu, 10 Jul 2014 12:22:50 +0000 Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration) through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a key factor for assessing the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes based on the optimum dosages and windows for polyelectrolytes coagulation-flocculation effectiveness. In this paper, strategic pH variations allowed the prediction of the dosage of polyelectrolyte on wastewater from real electroplating baths, including the isoelectric point (IEP) of the dispersions of water and commercial polyelectrolytes used in typical semiconductor industries. The results showed that there is a difference between polyelectrolyte demand required for the removal of suspended solids, turbidity, and organic matter from wastewater (23.4 mg/L and 67 mg/L, resp.). It was also concluded that the dose of polyelectrolytes and coagulation-flocculation window to achieve compliance with national and international regulations as EPA in USA and SEMARNAT in Mexico is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of the dispersions and treatment conditions (pH and polyelectrolyte dosing strategy). Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado, Mercedes Teresita Oropeza-Guzmán, and Adrián Ochoa-Terán Copyright © 2014 Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Docking Studies of the Novel N-(2,2-Di(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)ethyl)adamantane-1-carboxamide, a Potential 11β-HSD1 Inhibitor Wed, 09 Jul 2014 14:19:59 +0000 The synthesis of the novel 1-adamantyl-(N-meso-dipyrrolylmethylene)-carboxamide is described, providing a three-step, two-pot reaction. Docking studies with 11β-HSD1 revealed favorable binding interactions with the enzyme. Salvador Gallardo-Alfonzo, Ana Lilia Ocampo-Néstor, Claudia Contreras-Celedón, and Luis Chacón-García Copyright © 2014 Salvador Gallardo-Alfonzo et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of the Effect of MgO and CaCO3 as Support Materials in the Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes with Fe/Co as Catalyst Wed, 09 Jul 2014 11:32:02 +0000 A comparative study of the effect of magnesium oxide and calcium carbonate as support material in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes using the catalyst Fe/Co is presented. The synthesized carbon nanotubes were characterized with Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The morphology of the carbon nanotubes synthesized with magnesium oxide as support material gives rise to carbon nanotubes with consistent and well-defined structure unlike that synthesized with calcium carbonate. The ratio of synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was 0.8544 for magnesium oxide supported compared to 0.8501 for calcium carbonate supported carbon nanotube. Ezekiel D. Dikio, Albert J. Kupeta, and Force T. Thema Copyright © 2014 Ezekiel D. Dikio et al. All rights reserved. Construction of Differential-Methylation Subtractive Library Wed, 09 Jul 2014 07:40:51 +0000 Stress-induced ROS changes DNA methylation patterns. A protocol combining methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease (MS-RE) digestion with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to construct the differential-methylation subtractive library was developed for finding genes regulated by methylation mechanism under cold stress. The total efficiency of target fragment detection was 74.64%. DNA methylation analysis demonstrated the methylation status of target fragments changed after low temperature or DNA methyltransferase inhibitor treatment. Transcription level analysis indicated that demethylation of DNA promotes gene expression level. The results proved that our protocol was reliable and efficient to obtain gene fragments in differential-methylation status. Wei Hu, Xiaolei Liang, Tian Dong, Yanfeng Hu, Jie Liu, Lina Mao, Xu Liu, and Yurong Bi Copyright © 2014 Wei Hu et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia Leaf Extract against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart Tue, 08 Jul 2014 11:10:58 +0000 The purpose of this study is to clarify the cardioprotective property of the aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf (EA) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model of isolated rat heart was set up by the use of improved Langendorff retrograde perfusion technology. Compared with the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, the aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf (0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL) pretreatment markedly improved the coronary flow (CF) and raised left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and maximum rise/down velocity (max). The infarct size of the EA-treated hearts was smaller than that of I/R group. After treatment with EA, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased; malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content reduced more obviously () than that of I/R injury myocardial tissue. Conclusion. Results from the present study showed that the aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf has obvious protective effects on myocardial I/R injury, which may be related to the improvement of myocardial oxidative stress states. Binsheng Wang, Hengyi Qu, Jun Ma, Xiling Sun, Dong Wang, Qiusheng Zheng, and Du Xing Copyright © 2014 Binsheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Electrodeposition Combination with Hydrothermal Preparation of ZnO Films and Their Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Mon, 07 Jul 2014 06:36:16 +0000 A suitable method is necessary for the high performance of dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this paper, photoanodes of DSSCs have been fabricated through electrodeposition and combination with hydrothermal method. The results of mix method showed better performance than the single one. After the second step electrodeposition, the ZnO films formed flack finally. With the increase of hydrothermal time, ZnO films become thicker and bigger, which can offer large surface area to absorb much more dyes. The short-circuit current (2.4 mA/cm2) and open-circuit voltage (0.67 V) were greater than the single one, alternating current impedance indicating that electrodeposition and hydrothermal mix are a more suitable method for high performance DSSCs. We expected to obtain higher conversion efficiency of DSSCs by this method. Xiaoping Zou, Yan Liu, Cuiliu Wei, Zongbo Huang, and Xiangmin Meng Copyright © 2014 Xiaoping Zou et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Dosing Modes of Coagulate on Arsenic Removal Thu, 03 Jul 2014 07:36:22 +0000 Three different dosing modes, including one single dosing mode and two sequential dosing modes, were applied in high-arsenic contaminated water treatment. The results illustrated that the As (V) soluble and the As (V) nonspecifically sorbed were the insignificant species from Fe-As (V) samples in the sequential dosing mode, while they were higher in the single dosing mode. However, it could be further concluded that the mobility of the Fe-As (V) in sequential dosing mode was greater than that in single dosing mode. Besides, the main arsenic speciation governing the arsenic-borne coagulates was the As (V) associated with poorly crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe in sequential or single dosing mode. Moreover, the particle size distribution analysis indicated that the sequential dosing mode was more prevalent in neutralizing and adsorbing the As (V) compared with the single dosing mode. In the FT-IR spectra, the presence of arsenic was highlighted by a well resolved band at 825–829 cm−1. The positions of the As–O stretching vibration bands were shifted gradually as the dosing mode changed from the single to the sequential. This result could be related to the distribution of arsenic speciation in different dosing modes. Zhibin Zhang, Jinxiang Li, Cuizhen Sun, Yanhao Zhang, Lilong Huang, and Meng Wang Copyright © 2014 Zhibin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Pathogenesis, Genetic Background, and the Role of Nutritional Supplements Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:49:37 +0000 Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss and blindness worldwide, mainly affecting people over 65 years old. Dry and wet ARDM are the main types of the disease, which seem to have a multifactorial background. The aim of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ARMD pathogenesis and exhibit the role of diet and nutritional supplements in the onset and progression of the disease. Environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol, and, diet appear to interact with mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, contributing to the pathogenesis of ARMD. Inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress, induced by the daily exposure of retina to high pressure of oxygen and light radiation, have been also associated with ARMD lesions. Other than medical and surgical therapies, nutritional supplements hold a significant role in the prevention and treatment of ARMD, eliminating the progression of macular degeneration. Marilita M. Moschos, Eirini Nitoda, Irini P. Chatziralli, and Constantinos A. Demopoulos Copyright © 2014 Marilita M. Moschos et al. All rights reserved. An Investigation of Proton Conductivity of Vinyltriazole-Grafted PVDF Proton Exchange Membranes Prepared via Photoinduced Grafting Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:08:57 +0000 Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered to be a promising technology for clean and efficient power generation in the twenty-first century. In this study, high performance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and proton conductivity of poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) (PVTri) were combined in a graft copolymer, PVDF-g-PVTri, by the polymerization of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole on a PVDF based matrix under UV light in one step. The polymers were doped with triflic acid (TA) at different stoichiometric ratios with respect to triazole units and the anhydrous polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared. All samples were characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. Their thermal properties were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TGA demonstrated that the PVDF-g-PVTri and PVDF-g-PVTri-(TA)x membranes were thermally stable up to 390°C and 330°C, respectively. NMR and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results demonstrated that PVDF-g-PVTri was successfully synthesized with a degree of grafting of 21%. PVDF-g-PVTri-(TA)3 showed a maximum proton conductivity of  Scm−1 at 150°C and anhydrous conditions. CV study illustrated that electrochemical stability domain for PVDF-g-PVTri-(TA)3 extended over 4.0 V. Sinan Sezgin, Deniz Sinirlioglu, Ali Ekrem Muftuoglu, and Ayhan Bozkurt Copyright © 2014 Sinan Sezgin et al. All rights reserved. In Silico Study of Leishmania donovani α-β Tubulin and Inhibitors Tue, 01 Jul 2014 10:56:42 +0000 Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, a severe form of leishmaniasis that affects vital organs. An important target for the treatment of this disease is the protein α-β tubulin, which was modeled in this paper and proposed as a target for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Two classes of compounds were studied, dinitroanilines and oxadiazoles. According to the docking results, dinitroanilines interact better with the L loop domain and oxadiazoles interact better with the colchicine domain. Tamiris M. Assis, Daiana T. Mancini, Teodorico C. Ramalho, and Elaine F. F. da Cunha Copyright © 2014 Tamiris M. Assis et al. All rights reserved. Catalytic Combustion of Low Concentration Methane over Catalysts Prepared from Co/Mg-Mn Layered Double Hydroxides Tue, 01 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A series of Co/Mg-Mn mixed oxides were synthesized through thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) precursors. The resulted catalysts were then subjected for catalytic combustion of methane. Experimental results revealed that the Co4.5Mg1.5Mn2LDO catalyst possessed the best performance with the °C. After being analyzed via XRD, BET-BJH, SEM, H2-TPR, and XPS techniques, it was observed that the addition of cobalt had significantly improved the redox ability of the catalysts whilst certain amount of magnesium was essential to guarantee the catalytic activity. The presence of Mg was helpful to enhance the oxygen mobility and, meanwhile, improved the dispersion of Co and Mn oxides, preventing the surface area loss after calcination. Hongfeng Liu, Xingrui Fu, Xiaole Weng, Yue Liu, Haiqiang Wang, and Zhongbiao Wu Copyright © 2014 Hongfeng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Dechlorination of Hexachloroethane in Water Using Iron Shavings and Amended Iron Shavings: Kinetics and Pathways Mon, 30 Jun 2014 10:34:20 +0000 In contrast to previous studies which employed zero-valent iron powder, this paper investigated reductive dechlorination of hexachloroethane (HCA) using iron shavings and bimetallic iron shavings modified with Cu, Ag, or Pd. Results clearly show that iron shavings offer superior reductive dechlorination of HCA. In addition, surface-normalized pseudo first-order dechlorination rates of 0.0073 L·m−2·h−1, 0.0136 L·m−2·h−1, 0.0189 L·m−2·h−1, and 0.0084 L·m−2·h−1 were observed in the presence of iron shavings (Fe0) and the bimetallic iron shavings Cu/Fe, Ag/Fe, and Pd/Fe, respectively. Bimetallic iron shavings consisting of Cu/Fe and Ag/Fe could greatly enhance the reductive reaction rate; Pd/Fe was used to achieve complete dechlorination of HCA within 5 hours. The additives of Ag and Pd shifted product distributions, and the reductive dechlorination of HCA occurred via β reductive elimination and sequential hydrogenolysis in the presence of all iron shavings. This study consequently designed a reaction pathway diagram which reflected the reaction pathway and most prevalent dechlorination products. Iron shavings are a common byproduct of mechanical processing plants. While the purity of such Fe metals may be low, these shavings are readily available at low costs and could potentially be used in engineering applications such as contamination control technologies. D. L. Wu, Y. X. Liu, Z. G. Liu, and L. M. Ma Copyright © 2014 D. L. Wu et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition Effect of Glycerol on the Corrosion of Copper in NaCl Solutions at Different pH Values Mon, 30 Jun 2014 06:20:37 +0000 The inhibitory effect of glycerol on copper corrosion in aerated NaCl (0.5 M) solutions at three pH values (4, 7, and 10) was evaluated. Inhibition efficiency was assessed with conventional electrochemical techniques: open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance analysis. Glycerol reduced the corrosion rate of copper in NaCl solutions. The best inhibition effect () was produced in alkaline (pH 10) chloride media. This effect can be ascribed to increased viscosity and the presence of copper-glycerol complexes. Santos Lorenzo Chi-Ucán, Andrea Castillo-Atoche, Pedro Castro Borges, José Antonio Manzanilla-Cano, Gerardo González-García, Rodrigo Patiño, and Luis Díaz-Ballote Copyright © 2014 Santos Lorenzo Chi-Ucán et al. All rights reserved. Cardioprotective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Lavender Flower against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Sun, 29 Jun 2014 10:56:37 +0000 This study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective property of the aqueous extract of lavender flower (LFAE). The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of rat was prepared by Langendorff retrograde perfusion technology. The heart was preperfused with K-H solution containing LFAE for 10 min before 20 minutes global ischemia, and then the reperfusion with K-H solution was conducted for 45 min. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximum up/downrate of left ventricular pressure (±) were recorded by physiological recorder as the myocardial function and the myocardial infarct size was detected by TTC staining. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in the effluent were measured to determine the myocardial injury degree. The superoxide anion dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardial tissue were detected to determine the oxidative stress degree. The results showed that the pretreatment with LFAE significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size and also decreased the LDH, CK activities, and MDA level, while it increased the LVDP, ±, SOD activities, and the coronary artery flow. Our findings indicated that LFAE could provide protection for heart against the I/R injury which may be related to the improvement of myocardial oxidative stress states. Dong Wang, Xin Guo, Mingjie Zhou, Jichun Han, Bo Han, and Xiling Sun Copyright © 2014 Dong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne Sun, 29 Jun 2014 08:48:06 +0000 During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%), linalool (22.92%), cineole (11.26%), and 3,7,11-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-6,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (4.50%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of D-camphor and linalool. D-camphor and linalool showed strong fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 2.36 and 18.04 mg/L air, resp.) and contact toxicity (LD50 = 13.44 and 12.74 μg/adult, resp.) against L. serricorne. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. camphora and its active compounds had the potential to be developed as natural fumigants and insecticides for control of L. serricorne. Hai Ping Chen, Kai Yang, Chun Xue You, Ning Lei, Rui Qi Sun, Zhu Feng Geng, Ping Ma, Qian Cai, Shu Shan Du, and Zhi Wei Deng Copyright © 2014 Hai Ping Chen et al. All rights reserved. Electrochemical Deposition of Platinum and Palladium on Gold Nanoparticles Loaded Carbon Nanotube Support for Oxidation Reactions in Fuel Cell Thu, 26 Jun 2014 08:46:09 +0000 Pt and Pd sequentially electrodeposited Au nanoparticles loaded carbon nanotube (Au-CNT) was prepared for the electrocatalytic study of methanol, ethanol, and formic acid oxidations. All electrochemical measurements were carried out in a three-electrode cell. A platinum wire and Ag/AgCl were used as auxiliary and reference electrodes, respectively. Suspension of the Au-CNT, phosphate buffer, isopropanol, and Nafion was mixed and dropped on glassy carbon as a working electrode. By sequential deposition method, PdPtPt/Au-CNT, PtPdPd/Au-CNT, and PtPdPt/Au-CNT catalysts were prepared. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of those catalysts in 1 M H2SO4 solution showed hydrogen adsorption and hydrogen desorption reactions. CV responses for those three catalysts in methanol, ethanol, and formic acid electrooxidations studied in 2 M CH3OH, CH3CH2OH, and HCOOH in 1 M H2SO4 show characteristic oxidation peaks. The oxidation peaks at anodic scan contribute to those organic substance oxidations while the peaks at cathodic scan are related with the reoxidation of the adsorbed carbonaceous species. Comparing all those three catalysts, it can be found that the PdPtPt/Au-CNT catalyst is good at methanol oxidation; the PtPdPt/Au-CNT effectively enhances ethanol oxidation while the PtPdPd/Au-CNT exceptionally catalyzes formic acid oxidation. Therefore, a different stoichiometry affects the electrochemical active surface area of the catalysts to achieve the catalytic oxidation reactions. Surin Saipanya, Somchai Lapanantnoppakhun, and Thapanee Sarakonsri Copyright © 2014 Surin Saipanya et al. All rights reserved. Nickel Alloy Catalysts for the Anode of a High Temperature PEM Direct Propane Fuel Cell Thu, 26 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 High temperature polymer electrode membrane fuel cells that use hydrocarbon as the fuel have many theoretical advantages over those that use hydrogen. For example, nonprecious metal catalysts can replace platinum. In this work, two of the four propane fuel cell reactions, propane dehydrogenation and water dissociation, were examined using nickel alloy catalysts. The adsorption energies of both propane and water decreased as the Fe content of Ni/Fe alloys increased. In contrast, they both increased as the Cu content of Ni/Cu alloys increased. The activation energy for the dehydrogenation of propane (a nonpolar molecule) changed very little, even though the adsorption energy changed substantially as a function of alloy composition. In contrast, the activation energy for dissociation of water (a molecule that can be polarized) decreased markedly as the energy of adsorption decreased. The different relationship between activation energy and adsorption energy for propane dehydrogenation and water dissociation alloys was attributed to propane being a nonpolar molecule and water being a molecule that can be polarized. Shadi Vafaeyan, Alain St-Amant, and Marten Ternan Copyright © 2014 Shadi Vafaeyan et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of Two Common Acacia Species in Sudan Wed, 25 Jun 2014 05:51:16 +0000 Journal of Chemistry Copyright © 2014 Journal of Chemistry. All rights reserved. Methane Steam Reforming over an Ni-YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode in Stack Configuration Tue, 24 Jun 2014 14:04:58 +0000 The kinetics of catalytic steam reforming of methane over an Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) have been investigated with the cell placed in a stack configuration. In order to decrease the degree of conversion, a single cell stack with reduced area was used. Measurements were performed in the temperature range 600–800°C and the partial pressures of all reactants and products were varied. The obtained rates could be well fitted with a power law expression (). A simple model is presented which is capable of predicting the methane conversion in a stack configuration from intrinsic kinetics of the anode support material. The predictions are compared with the stack measurements presented here, and good agreement is observed. D. Mogensen, J.-D. Grunwaldt, P. V. Hendriksen, J. U. Nielsen, and K. Dam-Johansen Copyright © 2014 D. Mogensen et al. All rights reserved. Neuroprotective Activity of Water Soluble Extract from Chorispora bungeana against Focal Cerebral Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury in Mice Mon, 23 Jun 2014 11:54:06 +0000 The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether the water extract of Chorispora bungeana was an antioxidant agent against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Our results showed that water extract of Chorispora bungeana treatment significantly reduced neurological deficit scores, infarct size, MDA and carbonyl contents, and GSH/GSSG ratio compared with the model control group. After being treated by Chorispora bungeana, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities remarkably increased. Chorispora bungeana treatment also improved 8-OHdG expression and cell apoptosis. Our findings indicated that the water extract of Chorispora bungeana possesses neuroprotective effect which is most likely achieved by antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Ya-Xuan Sun, Ting Liu, Xue-Ling Dai, Ya-Bo Li, Yu-Yao Li, Hua Zhang, and Li-Zhe An Copyright © 2014 Ya-Xuan Sun et al. All rights reserved. Phthaloylchitosan-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Mon, 23 Jun 2014 11:01:50 +0000 Phthaloylchitosan-based gel polymer electrolytes were prepared with tetrapropylammonium iodide, Pr4NI, as the salt and optimized for conductivity. The electrolyte with the composition of 15.7 wt.% phthaloylchitosan, 31.7 wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC), 3.17 wt.% propylene carbonate (PC), 19.0 wt.% of Pr4NI, and 1.9 wt.% iodine exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.27 × 10−3 S cm−1. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated with this electrolyte exhibits an efficiency of 3.5% with of 7.38 mA cm−2, of 0.72 V, and fill factor of 0.66. When various amounts of lithium iodide (LiI) were added to the optimized gel electrolyte, the overall conductivity is observed to decrease. However, the efficiency of the DSSC increases to a maximum value of 3.71% when salt ratio of Pr4NI : LiI is 2 : 1. This cell has , and fill factor of 7.25 mA cm−2, 0.77 V and 0.67, respectively. S. N. F. Yusuf, M. F. Aziz, H. C. Hassan, T. M. W. J. Bandara, B.-E. Mellander, M. A. Careem, and A. K. Arof Copyright © 2014 S. N. F. Yusuf et al. All rights reserved. Mosquito Larvicidal Constituents from the Ethanol Extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. Roots against Aedes albopictus Mon, 23 Jun 2014 06:33:12 +0000 The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the ethanol extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Compositae) roots against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus and to isolate any larvicidal constituents from the extract. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, 11,13-dihydroisoalantolactone (1), macrophyllilactone E (2), 5α-epoxyalantolactone (3), and epoxyisoalantolactone (4) were isolated and identified as the active constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth-instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC50 values of 21.86 μg/mL and 18.65 μg/mL, respectively, while the ethanol extract had a LC50 value of 25.23 μg/mL. Compounds 3 and 4 also possessed larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquitoes with LC50 values of 29.37 μg/mL and 35.13 μg/mL, respectively. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of I. racemosa and the four isolated constituents have potential for use in the control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in the search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides. Qing He, Xin Chao Liu, Rui Qi Sun, Zhi Wei Deng, Shu Shan Du, and Zhi Long Liu Copyright © 2014 Qing He et al. All rights reserved. Production of Biologically Activated Carbon from Orange Peel and Landfill Leachate Subsequent Treatment Technology Mon, 23 Jun 2014 05:41:27 +0000 In order to improve adsorption of macromolecular contaminants and promote the growth of microorganisms, active carbon for biological wastewater treatment or follow-up processing requires abundant mesopore and good biophile ability. In this experiment, biophile mesopore active carbon is produced in one-step activation with orange peel as raw material, and zinc chloride as activator, and the adsorption characteristics of orange peel active carbon is studied by static adsorption method. BET specific surface area and pore volume reached 1477 m2/g and 2.090 m3/g, respectively. The surface functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The surface of the as-prepared activated carbon contained hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group. The analysis based on X-ray diffraction spectrogram (XRD) and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum indicated that the as-prepared activated carbon, with smaller microcrystalline diameter and microcrystalline thickness and enhanced reactivity, exhibited enhanced adsorption performance. This research has a deep influence in effectively controlling water pollution, improving area water quality, easing orange peel waste pollution, and promoting coordinated development among society, economy, and environment. Zhigang Xie, Wei Guan, Fangying Ji, Zhongrong Song, and Yanling Zhao Copyright © 2014 Zhigang Xie et al. All rights reserved.