Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Toxicity and Microbial Degradation of Nitrobenzene, Monochloronitrobenzenes, Polynitrobenzenes, and Pentachloronitrobenzene Sun, 21 Dec 2014 06:21:21 +0000 Nitrobenzene and its derivatives (NBDs) are highly toxic compounds that have been released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. Many bacteria and fungi have been well-characterized for their ability to degrade NBDs. The biochemical and molecular characterization of the microbial degradation of NBDs has also been studied. In this review, we have summarized the toxicity and degradation profiles of nitrobenzene, monochloronitrobenzenes, polynitrobenzenes, and pentachloronitrobenzene. This review will increase our current understanding of toxicity and microbial degradation of NBDs. Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae Copyright © 2014 Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae. All rights reserved. The Accumulation and Seasonal Dynamic of the Soil Organic Carbon in Wetland of the Yellow River Estuary, China Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:52 +0000 The wetland of the Yellow River estuary is a typical new coastal wetland in northern China. It is essential to study the carbon pool and its variations for evaluating the carbon cycle process. The study results regarding the temporal-spatial distribution and influential factors of soil organic carbon in four typical wetlands belonging to the Yellow River estuary showed that there was no significant difference in the contents of the surface soil TOC to the same season among the four types of wetlands. For each type of wetlands, the TOC content in surface soils was significantly higher in October than that in both May and August. On the whole, the obvious differences in DOC contents in surface soils were not observed in the different wetland types and seasons. The peak of TOC appeared at 0–10 cm in the soil profiles. The contents of TOC and DOC were significantly higher in salsa than those in reed, suggesting that the rhizosphere effect of organic carbon in salsa was more obvious than that in reed. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the nitrogen content, salinity, bulk density, and water content were dominant influential factors for organic carbon accumulation and seasonal variation. Xianxiang Luo, Leyun Wang, Meng Dun, Jianqiang Yang, and Zhenyu Wang Copyright © 2014 Xianxiang Luo et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of a Biglucoside and Its Application as Montmorillonite Hydration Inhibitor Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:28 +0000 A biglucoside (BG) was synthesized with glucose and epichlorohydrin as raw materials. The inhibition of BG against montmorillonite swelling was investigated by various methods including montmorillonite linear expansion test, mud ball immersing test, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the BG has good inhibition ability to the hydration swelling and dispersion of montmorillonite. Under the same condition, the linear expansion ratio of montmorillonite in BG solution is much lower than that of MEG. The particle distribution measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy results all prove the efficient inhibition of BG. Xin-chun Zhang, Xing-zhi Wang, Gang Chen, Qiang Deng, and Huarui Hao Copyright © 2014 Xin-chun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Cleavage of β-Keto Sulfones via Nitrous Acid Mon, 15 Dec 2014 07:37:59 +0000 The reaction of nitrous acid with 1-aryl-2-(arylsulfonyl)ethanones 3a–e afforded the unexpected arenecarboxylic acids 12a–e, formic acid 14, and benzene/4-toluenesulfinic acid 15a, b through oxidative cleavage reaction. 4-Chlorobenzoic acid (12a), [1,1′-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (12b), 2-naphthoic acid (12c), 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid (12d), and 2-benzofurancarboxylic acid (12e) were isolated in 72%, 62%, 55%, 58%, and 62% yields, respectively. The reported mechanistic pathways proposed the production of 1-aryl-2-(phenyl/tolylsulfonyl)ethane-1,2-dione 7 instead of arenecarboxylic acids 12. A mechanistic pathway to explain the reaction of nitrous acid with 1-aryl-2-(arylsulfonyl)ethanones 3a–e was suggested. In this pathway, the intermediate 1,2-oxazete 10 lost benzene/4-toluenesulfinic acid 15 to produce 1,2-oxazet-3-one 11. Ring cleavage of the latter intermediate afforded the arenecarboxylic acids 12. Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz Copyright © 2014 Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz. All rights reserved. Use of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid as a Scavenger for Chromium from “Wet Blue” Leather Waste: Thermodynamic and Kinetics Parameters Thu, 11 Dec 2014 09:04:19 +0000 One serious consequence of the current consumer society is the transformation of the environment into a waste receptacle arising from human activities. Because of the potential toxic effects of chromium solid waste containing this metal there are grounds for serious concern for the tanning and leather processing industry. The application of tannery waste as organic fertilizer has led to extensive contamination by chromium in agricultural areas and may cause the accumulation of this metal in soils and plants. This work evaluated the extraction of Cr+3 and Cr+6 contained in solid waste from the leather industry through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Gibbs free energy calculations reveal that the chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms more stable complexes with metal ions of chromium compared with the structures of the complexes [Cr(NTA)(H2O)2] and [Cr-collagen], the latter used to simulate the protein bound chrome leather. José E. Resende, Mateus A. Gonçalves, Luiz C. A. Oliveira, Elaine F. F. da Cunha, and Teodorico C. Ramalho Copyright © 2014 José E. Resende et al. All rights reserved. Interfacial Polycondensation Synthesis of Optically Sensitive Polyurea Microcapsule Wed, 10 Dec 2014 08:56:09 +0000 TMPTA prepolymer resin and photoinitiators of ITX/TPO had been encapsulated in core-shell structured microcapsules as optical responding ingredients based on interfacial polycondensation method, and polyurea structured microcapsule shell had been formed on the sheared O/W interface. The synthesized microcapsule had regular core-shell structure with the diameter of about 0.455 μm and shell thickness of about 40 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra indicated that the encapsulated ITX and TPO photoinitiators could efficiently absorb UV irradiation. Under exposure, the C=C bonds absorbance of the microencapsulated TMPTA decreased rapidly and then nearly unchanged during further exposure after 30 s. This implied that the optical response was achieved by C=C bond cleavage of TMPTA monomer initiated by the photoinitiator radicals, to form network polymers in microcapsules. The relative crosslinking rate was about 50%. Due to core polymer formation, the thermal phase change temperature of exposed microcapsules was narrowed and ranged from 105 to 205°C, compared with that from 125 to 260°C of unexposed microcapsules. Furthermore, the image density decrease at longer irradiation time had also verified the optical responding function of the synthesized microcapsules in macroscopic viewpoint. Weidong Lai, Xinzheng Li, Huiqing Liu, Lu Han, Yajun Zhao, and Xiaowei Li Copyright © 2014 Weidong Lai et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on the Cause of Inorganic Scale Formation in the Water Injection Pipeline of Tarim Oilfield Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:10:15 +0000 Scale formation of water injection pipeline will cause the pipeline to be corroded and increase frictional drag, which will induce the quality and quantity cannot meet the need of oil production process. The cause of scale formation in different oilfield is different because of the complex formation conditions. Taking one operation area of Tazhong oilfield as research object, the authors studied the water quality in different point along water injection pipeline through experiment studies, and analyzed the cause of inorganic scale formation and influence factors. The research results can provide theoretical guidance to anticorrosion and antiscale of oilfield pipeline. Guihong Pei, Chunyang Wang, and Lili Liu Copyright © 2014 Guihong Pei et al. All rights reserved. Monometallic Pd and Pt and Bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 for the HDS of DBT: Effect of the Pd and Pt Incorporation Method Wed, 26 Nov 2014 12:41:02 +0000 The effect of the preparation method of monometallic Pd and Pt and bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 catalysts on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated in this study. The synthesis was accomplished using three methods: (A) impregnation, (B) metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and (C) impregnation-MOCVD. The bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared by the impregnation-MOCVD method was most active for the HDS of DBT compared to those prepared by the single impregnation or MOCVD method due to the synergetic effect between both noble metals. The greater selectivity toward biphenyl indicated that this bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst preferentially removes sulfur via the direct desulfurization mechanism. However, the bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared using the single MOCVD method did not produce any cyclohexylbenzene, which is most likely associated with the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation sites. Reynaldo Martínez Guerrero, Agileo Hernández-Gordillo, Víctor Santes, Jorge Roberto Vargas García, José Escobar, Leonardo Díaz-García, Lucía Díaz Barriga Arceo, and Vicente Garibay Febles Copyright © 2014 Reynaldo Martínez Guerrero et al. All rights reserved. Potential Antioxidant Anthraquinones Isolated from Rheum emodi Showing Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita Tue, 25 Nov 2014 11:51:54 +0000 Antioxidant and nematicidal properties were evaluated for R. emodi extractives which are extracted by standardizing and adopting accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method along with traditional Soxhlet extraction. The extracted material was separated using flash chromatography and the separation conditions and solvents were standardized for the extracted plant constituents. The purity was detected by using analytical reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). LC-MS/MS detection in the direct infusion mode of the isolated, purified products afforded four anthraquinones, characterized by their infrared spectra (IR) and 1H spectra as chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, and aloe-emodin. Five antraquinone glucoside derivatives and piceatannol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside have also been detected from the extracted product. During in vitro evaluation the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract (CE1) was the highest, followed by ethyl acetate crude extract (CE2) and chloroform extract (CE3) in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The CE1 also demonstrated outstanding nematicidal activity as compared with other extracts, pure anthraquinones, and even positive control azadirachtin. The study conclusively demonstrated the antioxidant potential of R. emodi extracts and also its ability in extenuating the Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode). The bioassay results can be extrapolated to actual field condition and clinical studies. Brijesh Tripathi, Rohit Bhatia, Alka Pandey, Jitender Gaur, Gautam Chawala, Suresh Walia, Eun Ha Choi, and Pankaj Attri Copyright © 2014 Brijesh Tripathi et al. All rights reserved. Sensitivity of Larvae and Adult and the Immunologic Characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei under the Acute Hypoxia Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially important species of shrimp in the world. In this study, we performed acute hypoxia tests with Litopenaeus vannamei to estimate 12 h median lethal concentration (LC50) values at different life stages. The results indicated that the 12 h LC50 values were significantly different in different life stages of shrimp . The maximum value of 12 h LC50 was 2.113 mg L−1 for mysis III, and the minimum value was 0.535 mg L−1 for adult shrimp with an average total length of 6 cm. The study also determined the hemocyanin concentration (HC) and the total hemocyte counts (THC) in the conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation. These results showed that the THC decreased and the HC increased under hypoxia, and the THC increased and the HC decreased in the condition of reoxygenation. These results can provide fundamental information for shrimp farming and seedling and also can guide the breeding selection, as well as being very helpful to better understand the hypoxia stress mechanism of shrimp. Hailong Zhou, Yuhu Li, Lin Wei, Zhihuai Zhang, Hao Huang, Xiaoping Diao, and Jianhai Xiang Copyright © 2014 Hailong Zhou et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Second-Order Calibration Methods Applied to Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence Data Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Due to the variety of second-order data being generated by modern instruments and various mathematical algorithms being available for analysis purposes, second-order calibration is gaining widespread acceptance by analytical community. It has the so-called second-order advantage; that is, it enables concentration and spectral profiles of sample components to be extracted even in the presence of unexpected interferences. A comprehensive performance comparison of alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) and its two variants, that is, alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) and self-weighted trilinear decomposition (SWATLD), was presented in this paper. The experiment was based on the simultaneous determination of three dihydroxybenzenes, that is, catechol, hydroquinone, and resorcinol, by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) spectroscopy. Two special measures, that is, the consistency (COS) between the resolved and actual profiles and the mean of recovery, were used for evaluation. The optimal result was obtained by the APTLD model with five components. No perceptible difference on the speed of convergence was found. It indicates that EEMF linked with the APTLD algorithm can serve as a potential tool of quantifying dihydroxybenzenes simultaneously in environmental samples. Hui Chen, Zan Lin, Tong Wu, and Chao Tan Copyright © 2014 Hui Chen et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone in Rats after Administration Separately by Optimization of an UPLC-MS2 Method Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Isoalantolactone and alantolactone are two major active ingredients that are present in many medicinal plants. In this study, a sensitive and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of the two compounds in rat plasma, separately. In this method, an electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was selected for quantification using target fragment ions 233.2187.1 for isoalantolactone (alantolactone) and 245.1189.1 for internal standard (IS). Retention time of the lactones and IS was within 3.0 min. Further calibration suggested a linear regression can be calculated within 2.5–500 ng/mL for isoalantolactone and 4–500 ng/mL for alantolactone. This method was used to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of isoalantolactone and alantolactone at a single dose of 5 mg/kg into male Sprague-Dawley rats by intravenous administration separately. The levels of , Kel, CL, , and AUC were significantly increased in the alantolactone group compared to isoalantolactone. These results suggested that isoalantolactone was distributed and eliminated more rapidly than alantolactone in rats when administered, respectively. Renjie Xu, Mengyue Wang, Ying Peng, and Xiaobo Li Copyright © 2014 Renjie Xu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Inoculum Amount, Initial pH, and Nicotine Load on the Set-Up of Bioaugmented System with Pseudomonas Sp. HF-1 to Treat Tobacco Wastewater Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:35:44 +0000 This study evaluated and optimized the influence of inoculum amount, initial pH, and nicotine load on the construction of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 bioaugmented system for tobacco wastewater treatment. The results demonstrated that the optimum condition for the set-up of strain HF-1 bioaugmented system was 1.10 mg/g (dry weight of strain HF-1/dry weight of activated sludge) of inoculum amount, initial pH 7.0, and 250–1000 mg/L nicotine load. Higher than 1.10 mg/g could lead to noncolonization of strain HF-1 in activated sludge and failure of set-up of this bioaugmented system. Higher than pH 8.0 could restrain the colonization of strain HF-1 in activated sludge. Even though strain HF-1 colonizes in the activated sludge when pH was above 8.0, the removal of nicotine and total organic carbon (TOC) was suppressed due to low activities of bacteria in the activated sludge. Nicotine load did not show inhibition effect on set-up of bioaugmented system, but the ability of TOC removal was restrained when the nicotine load was above 1000 mg/L. This work could offer vital parameters for the set-up of bioaugmented system to treat tobacco wastewater in engineering. Kun Zhang, Hong-zhen He, Dong-sheng Shen, Xin Zheng, Zhou Zhou, Xian-jun Tao, and Mei-zhen Wang Copyright © 2014 Kun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. New Bioactive Oleanane Type Compounds from Coriandrum sativum Linn. Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:39:40 +0000 Five (1–5) new bioactive oleanane type triterpenoids have been isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. of Umbelliferae family. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant was fractionated in organic solvents. Ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography on HPLC RP-18 to get 1-oxo-11β,21β-dihydroxy-oleanane (1), 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-acetyloleanane (2), 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-angeloyloleanane (3), 1-oxo-11β-O-angeloyl-21β-O-acetyloleanane (4), and 1-oxo-11β,21β-O-dibenzoyloleanane (5). The structures were elucidated after analysis of spectroscopic data, UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 1D, and 2D), and mass measurements. Suspension in water of crude ethyl acetate extract was employed to treat sheep with ringworm disease. All isolated compounds (1–5) displayed excellent activity in terms of inhibition zones, MICs, MBCs, and MFCs against both bacteria and fungi. Ethyl acetate extract showed excellent antiringworm activity in sheep. Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Bilal, Rubina Iqbal, Muhammad Akram, Imam Bakhsh Baloch, and Musa Kaleem Baloch Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Iqbal et al. All rights reserved. Design and Synthesis of an Indole-Estrogen Derivative Tue, 18 Nov 2014 07:48:22 +0000 There are several methods reported for synthesis of aromatic-condensed derivatives; nevertheless, expensive reagents and special conditions are required. Therefore, in this study, an indole-estrogen derivative (3-[4-(2-butyl-3-cyclohexylimino-4-piperidin-1-yl-cyclobutylidencarbamoyl)]-phenoxy-NH-indolo[2′,3′:17,16]estra-1,3,5(10)triene) was synthesized using some strategies. The structure of all compounds obtained was confirmed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. In conclusion, a facile procedure for the formation of an indole-estrogen derivative was developed in this study. Figueroa-Valverde Lauro, Díaz-Cedillo Francisco, Rosas-Nexticapa Marcela, Hau-Heredia Lenin, García-Cervera Elodia, Pool-Gómez Eduardo, and Sarabia-Alcocer Betty Copyright © 2014 Figueroa-Valverde Lauro et al. All rights reserved. Earliest Results in the Use of Activated Composite Membranes for the Transport of Silver Ions from Aqueous Solutions Mon, 17 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents the results concerning the first use of activated composite membranes (ACMs) for the facilitated transport of silver ions containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-dithiophosphoric acid (DTPA) as the carrier. DTPA was immobilized by interfacial polymerization in a dense layer that was deposited in a porous layer, which was prepared on a nonwoven fabric support by phase inversion. The influence of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of silver ion as the carrier concentration in the membrane phase and stripping agent variation of the stripping solution have been studied. In the optimal conditions, the amount of silver transported across the ACMs was greater than 50%, whereas if the content of the carrier is modified, more than the 90% of the initial silver is removed from the feed phase. Yucundo Mendoza-Tolentino, Carlos Andrés Galán-Vidal, Giaan Arturo Álvarez-Romero, M. T. Ramírez-Silva, and Ma. Elena Páez-Hernández Copyright © 2014 Yucundo Mendoza-Tolentino et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption of Arsenite by Six Submerged Plants from Nansi Lake, China Thu, 13 Nov 2014 10:08:22 +0000 Nansi Lake is the largest and the most important freshwater lake in north China for the South-North Water Transfer Project. Due to long-time and large-scale fish farming of history, the excess fish food and excretion usually release pentavalent arsenic, which is converted into trivalent arsenic (As (III)) in the lake sediment and released into lake water. Adsorption of arsenite using six submerged plants (Mimulicalyx rosulatus, Potamogeton maackianus, Hydrilla, Watermifoil, Pteris vittata, and Potamogeton crispus) as adsorbing materials was investigated. The experimental data obtained have been analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models and the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion kinetics models. According to the results, the As (III) equilibrium data agreed well with the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of the plants was in the following order: Potamogeton crispus > Pteris vittata > Potamogeton maackianus > Mimulicalyx rosulatus > Hydrilla > Watermifoil. The sorption system with the six submerged plants was better described by pseudo-second-order than by first-order kinetics. Moreover, the adsorption with Potamogeton crispus could follow intraparticle diffusion (IPD) model. The initial adsorption and rate of IPD using Potamogeton crispus and Pteris vittata were higher than those using other plants studied. Zhibin Zhang, Yulin Sun, Cuizhen Sun, Ning Wang, and Yanhao Zhang Copyright © 2014 Zhibin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Role of Dehalogenases in Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Chlorinated Aromatic Compounds Thu, 13 Nov 2014 08:56:27 +0000 This review was conducted to provide an overview of dehalogenases involved in aerobic biodegradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds. Additionally, biochemical and molecular characterization of hydrolytic, reductive, and oxygenolytic dehalogenases was reviewed. This review will increase our understanding of the process of dehalogenation of chlorinated aromatic compounds. Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae Copyright © 2014 Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae. All rights reserved. Preparation and Properties of Polymer/Vermiculite Hybrid Superabsorbent Reinforced by Fiber for Enhanced Oil Recovery Wed, 12 Nov 2014 11:39:23 +0000 A series of polymer/clay hybrid superabsorbent composites (SACFs) comprising acrylamide, acrylic acid, sodium 2-acrylamido-tetradecyl sulfonate, fiber, and vermiculite by in situ intercalation and exfoliated method was successfully synthesized. The structure of SACFs was characterized by IR, SXRD, and SEM measurements. Much notable absorbency for SACF-2 was observed compared to that for SACF-1 in the absence of hydrophobic group in the high cationic solution due to the alkyl carbon chain and sulfonic acid group of hydrophobic moistures protecting the cations from attacking the carboxylate groups. What is more, high temperature fiber which acts as bridge connection for the polymeric network structure enhanced both toughness and strength for SACF-4 in the harsh conditions. At the total dissolved substance of 212000 mg/L for Tarim Basin injected water and the temperature of 120°C, desired absorbency as well as water retaining property for SACF-4 was observed during the long period of thermal ageing. Core flooding experiments demonstrated that SACFs could migrate as amoeba in the porous medium and accumulated in the narrow channel to adjust injection profile, promoting the subsequent water diverting into the unswept zones. Finally, characteristic parameters for SACFs calculated from flooding experiment further confirmed these polymer/clay hybrid composites reinforced by fiber would have robust application in the mature oilfield for profile control. Fayang Jin, Rui Liu, Wanfen Pu, and Cailin Wen Copyright © 2014 Fayang Jin et al. All rights reserved. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain Tue, 11 Nov 2014 07:39:04 +0000 The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition) on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands. Yang Wang, Jingshuang Liu, Longxue He, Jingxin Dou, and Hongmei Zhao Copyright © 2014 Yang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Soil Microbial Community Structure Evolution along Halophyte Succession in Bohai Bay Wetland Sun, 09 Nov 2014 07:17:09 +0000 It is urgent to recover Bohai Bay costal wetland ecosystem because of covering a large area of severe saline-alkali soil. To explore the relationship between halophyte herbaceous succession and microbial community structure, we chose four local communities which played an important role in improving soil microenvironment. We performed phospholipid fatty acid analysis, measured soil parameters, and evaluated shifts of microbial community structure. Results showed that microbial community structure changed significantly along succession and bacteria community was dominant. Total phospholipid fatty acid content increased in different successional stages but decreased with depth, with similar variations in bacterial and fungal biomass. Soil organic carbon and especially total nitrogen were positively correlated with microbial biomass. Colonization of pioneering salt-tolerant plants Suaeda glauca in saline-alkali bare land changed total soil microorganism content and composition. These results showed that belowground processes were strongly related with aboveground halophyte succession. Fungal/bacterial ratio, Gram-negative/Gram-positive bacteria ratio, total microbial biomass, and fungi and bacteria content could indicate the degree of succession stages in Bohai Bay wetland ecosystem. And also these findings demonstrated that microbial community biomass and composition evolved along with vegetation succession environmental variables. Mingyang Cong, Di Cao, Jingkuan Sun, and Fuchen Shi Copyright © 2014 Mingyang Cong et al. All rights reserved. Allelic Variation of Wheat Flour Allergens in a Collection of Wheat Genotypes Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:11:59 +0000 Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world and provides 20% of the daily protein and food calories for 4.5 billion people. Together with rice, it is the most important food crop in the developing world. In the last decades, various symptoms have been recorded across the population due to the consumption of wheat products, also summarized as “wheat allergy.” Wheat allergy is usually reported as a food allergy but can also be a contact allergy as a result of exposure to wheat. Several important wheat allergens have been characterized in the last years through biochemical, immunological, and molecular biological techniques. In the present work, the identification of allelic variation of genes involved in wheat allergy was reported. A collection of wheat genotypes was screened in order to identify new alleles. A total of 14 new alleles were identified for profilin, triosephosphate-isomerase, dehydrin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, α/β gliadin, GluB3-23, and Glutathione transferase allergen genes (located on chromosomes 1B, 3B, 6A, and homoelogous groups 5 and 7), potentially related to a minor allergenicity and useful in breeding programs. D. Nigro, S. L. Giove, S. Fortunato, O. Incerti, S. A. Zacheo, A. Blanco, and A. Gadaleta Copyright © 2014 D. Nigro et al. All rights reserved. Modification of Thionucleobases in Ionic Liquids Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A simple method was established for the preparation of thio-substituted thionucleobases using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [BMIM]+[CF3COO]− and 1-methoxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [MeOEtMIM]+[CF3COO]− as solvents and catalysts without any other catalyst. These reactions proceeded efficiently in RTILs with excellent yield of products. RTILs can be recycled and reused effectively without further purification. Xiaomei Hu, Bixian Zhang, Shijia Dong, and Yunfei Gao Copyright © 2014 Xiaomei Hu et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Methods for the Extraction of Fractionated Rice Bran Protein Wed, 15 Oct 2014 06:37:04 +0000 Two different methods for extracting fractionated rice bran protein (FRBP) from defatted rice bran were investigated according to the solubility of protein in different extraction solvents. The yields of the obtained proteins and their purity were first compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry, protein surface hydrophobicity, and protein secondary molecular structure analyses were subsequently applied to identify and compare the compositional, structural, and functional characteristics of the obtained proteins. The highest yield (13.8%, w/w) and purity (45–47%) of FRBP products were obtained using 0.4 M NaCl, 80% ethanol, and 0.01 M NaOH as extraction solvents to fractionate albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin. Several good properties were exhibited, including good functionality, specific denaturation temperature, and enthalpy values, for FRBP products prepared by the above method. Changyuan Wang, Dan Li, Feng Xu, Tianshu Hao, and Min Zhang Copyright © 2014 Changyuan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Second Atom-Bond Connectivity Index of Special Chemical Molecular Structures Wed, 15 Oct 2014 06:21:27 +0000 In theoretical chemistry, the second atom-bond connectivity index was introduced to measure the stability of alkanes and the strain energy of cycloalkanes. In this paper, we determine the second atom-bond connectivity index of unilateral polyomino chain and unilateral hexagonal chain. Furthermore, the second ABC indices of V-phenylenic nanotubes and nanotori are presented. Wei Gao and Weifan Wang Copyright © 2014 Wei Gao and Weifan Wang. All rights reserved. Impact of Microwave Treatment on Chemical Constituents in Fresh Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tianma) by UPLC-MS Analysis Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Fresh Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tianma) was processed in a microwave oven at 2450 MHz in order to study the effect on the main chemical component changes taking place during microwave treatment. It was found that microwave affected the chemical composition of Tianma. Seven compounds, including gastrodin, gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzylalcohol), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillyl alcohol, vanillin, adenine, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, were identified in this study. As major active compounds, the contents of gastrodin and gastrodigenin in MWT Tianma were both twice as much as those in raw Tianma. Besides, the MS data show that there are still some unidentified compositions in Tianma, and there are also many converted compounds in MWT Tianma, which is worthy of further work. The results have indicated that microwave treated fresh Tianma might be helpful in designing the processing of traditional Chinese medicine and the application of microwave technology in traditional Chinese medicine needs to be researched further in the future. Qimeng Fan, Chaoyin Chen, Dingqi Xie, and Shenglan Zhao Copyright © 2014 Qimeng Fan et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Dithiocarbamate Derivatives Mon, 13 Oct 2014 08:11:09 +0000 18 novel dithiocarbamate derivatives were synthesized in order to investigate their inhibitory potency on acetylcholinesterase enzyme and antimicrobial activity. Structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by spectral data and elemental analyses. The synthesized compounds showed low enzyme inhibitory activity. However, they displayed good antimicrobial activity profile. Antibacterial activity of compounds 4a, 4e, and 4p (MIC = 25 μg/mL) was equal to that of chloramphenicol against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218). Most of the compounds exhibited notable antifungal activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030), Candida krusei (ATCC 6258), and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 7330). Moreover, compound 4a, which carries piperidin-1-yl substituent and dimethylthiocarbamoyl side chain as variable group, showed twofold better anticandidal effect against all Candida species than reference drug ketoconazole. Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Yusuf Özkay, Ümide Demir Özkay, and Hülya Karaca Gençer Copyright © 2014 Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of an Anion-Exchange Membrane Based on Imidazolium-Type Ionic Liquids for a Capacitive Energy Extraction Donnan Potential Device Thu, 18 Sep 2014 13:07:20 +0000 Polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) were synthesized via the photocopolymerization of a vinyl imidazolium ionic liquid, with 1-butyl-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium chloride ([BVBI][Cl]) as the anion-exchange group and styrene, acrylonitrile, and divinylbenzene as cross-linked agents. The physical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties of the prepared AEMs such as water uptake (%), swelling degree (%), ion-exchange capacity (mmol/g), thermal stability, tensile strength (Mpa), tensile modulus (Mpa), elongation (%), and ionic conductivity (S/cm) were evaluated. The synthesized AEMs were shown to have good physical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties for application of a capacitive energy extraction Donnan potential (CDP) device membrane. The CDP device was fabricated by using the synthesized AEM. The specific capacitance of the CDP device with AEM was determined as 2.53 F/g and 3.44 F/g by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The synthesized AEM with imidazolium ionic liquid can be applied as the CDP device membrane. Young-Seok Kim and Seong-Ho Choi Copyright © 2014 Young-Seok Kim and Seong-Ho Choi. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Certain Oximes, Hydrazones, and Olefins Derived from β-Keto Sulfones Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:47:06 +0000 A new series of β-keto sulfone derivatives containing oximes 4a–e, hydrazones 5a, b, and chalcones 7a–d were prepared using microwave irradiation (MWI) by the reaction of β-keto sulfones 3 with hydroxyl amine, hydrazines, and aromatic aldehydes, respectively. The comparative study between microwave irradiation and conventional syntheses showed that MWI is effective in the synthesis of the title compounds through shortening of the reaction time and improvements in their yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established under the basis of their spectral data and X-ray single crystal analysis of compound 5a. The crystal of 5a belongs to triclinic space group P-1, with  Å,  Å,  Å, °, °, °,  Å3,  Mg m−3,  mm−1, , , and for 2690 observed reflections with . Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz, Hazem A. Ghabbour, Mashooq A. Bhat, and Hoong-Kun Fun Copyright © 2014 Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of High Strength Low Alloy Steel in 2.0 M Sulfuric Acid Solutions by 3-Amino-1,2,3-triazole as a Corrosion Inhibitor Thu, 11 Sep 2014 10:04:09 +0000 The corrosion and corrosion inhibition of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel after 10 min and 60 min immersion in 2.0 M H2SO4 solution by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATA) were reported. Several electrochemical techniques along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) were employed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the increase of immersion time from 10 min to 60 min significantly decreased both the solution and polarization resistance for the steel in the sulfuric acid solution. The increase of immersion time increased the anodic, cathodic, and corrosion currents, while it decreased the polarization resistance as indicated by the potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The addition of 1.0 mM ATA remarkably decreased the corrosion of the steel and this effect was found to increase with increasing its concentration to 5.0 mM. SEM and EDS investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the HSLA steel in the 2.0 M H2SO4 solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the ATA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily. El-Sayed M. Sherif, Adel Taha Abbas, D. Gopi, and A. M. El-Shamy Copyright © 2014 El-Sayed M. Sherif et al. All rights reserved.