Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Adsorption Capacity and Geotechnical Properties of Modified Clay Containing SSA Used as Landfill Liner-Soil Materials Mon, 27 Jul 2015 08:36:28 +0000 The potential of clay containing 0~5% sewage sludge ash (SSA) is assessed for use as a landfill liner-soil material. Low temperature N2 adsorption, batch adsorption, permeability, and unconfined compressive strength tests are performed to evaluate pore structure, adsorption capacity, hydraulic conductivity, and unconfined compressive strength of the clays. The pore size distribution of the modified clay containing SSA is mainly composed of micropores (<2 nm) and mesopores (2~7 nm). With the increasing of SSA from 0% to 5%, the adsorption capacity of Zn(II) and Cu(II) to the clay increases 37% and 273%, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of modified clay is from 3.62 × 10−8 to 2.17 × 10−8 cm/s. At SSA = 3%, the unconfined compressive strength of the clay reaches the maximum value of 601.1 kPa. After the clay containing SSA is contaminated by acid and alkali chemical solutions, the amount of mesopores and hydraulic conductivity increase. The adsorption capacity and unconfined compressive strength of contaminated clay decrease about 2∼44% and 25.7∼38.2%, respectively. The modified clay containing SSA can meet the adsorption and geotechnical requirement of landfill liners. Haijun Lu, Yiqie Dong, Jixiang Li, and Changhong Wang Copyright © 2015 Haijun Lu et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Cadmium and Lead from Aqueous Solution by Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Hybrid Fibrous Sorbent: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies Mon, 27 Jul 2015 07:09:00 +0000 Hydroxyapatite (HAp)/chitosan composites were prepared by a coprecipitation method, dropping a mixture of chitosan solution and phosphoric acid solution into a calcium hydroxide solution. Using the HAp/chitosan composites prepared, HAp/chitosan hybrid fibers with various HAp contents were prepared by a wet spinning method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that HAp particles were coated onto the surface of the fiber, and the surface roughness increased with increasing the HAp contents in the fiber. In order to evaluate the heavy metal removal characteristics of the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber, adsorption tests were conducted and the results were compared with those of bare chitosan fibers. The results showed better performance in heavy metal ion removal for the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber than the chitosan fiber. As the HAp content in the hybrid fiber increased, the removal efficiency of heavy metal ions also increased due to the increase of the specific surface area of the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber. Adsorption kinetic and isotherm tests revealed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ adsorption to the hybrid fiber follows pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir-type adsorption, respectively. Soyeon Park, Allan Gomez-Flores, Yong Sik Chung, and Hyunjung Kim Copyright © 2015 Soyeon Park et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Chlorinated Chemicals in H2 Feedstock Using Modified Activated Carbon Sun, 26 Jul 2015 11:51:50 +0000 Activated carbon (GAC) was impregnated by sodium and used as adsorbent to remove chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) gases contaminated in H2 feedstock. The adsorption was carried out in a continuous packed-bed column under the weight hourly space velocity range of 0.8–1.0 hr−1. The adsorption capacity was evaluated via the breakthrough curves. This modified GAC potentially adsorbed HCl and VCM of 0.0681 / and 0.0026 /, respectively. It showed higher adsorption capacity than SiO2 and Al2O3 balls for both organic and inorganic CHCs removal. In addition, the kinetic adsorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons on modified GAC fit well with Yoon-Nelson model. Prapaporn Luekittisup, Visanu Tanboonchauy, Jitlada Chumee, Somrudee Predapitakkun, Rattanawan W. Kiatkomol, and Nurak Grisdanurak Copyright © 2015 Prapaporn Luekittisup et al. All rights reserved. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices Wed, 22 Jul 2015 09:14:40 +0000 The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR) products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. Małgorzata Przygodzka, Henryk Zieliński, Zuzana Ciesarová, Kristina Kukurová, and Grzegorz Lamparski Copyright © 2015 Małgorzata Przygodzka et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of Analytical Methods for the Determination of Polyphenolic Bioactive Compounds in Berry Fruits Wed, 15 Jul 2015 06:26:27 +0000 Berry fruits contain high levels of different phytochemicals, most of which are phenolic molecules. Fruits of the same cultivar from different locations and different harvest years have different chemical compositions, particularly related to polyphenols. The difference may be due to specific climatic conditions, the type of soil in which the plants grow, and the stresses to which the plants were subjected because these phytochemicals are produced as a defense mechanism through a secondary metabolic process. For this reason, it is important to establish simple and reliable procedure to determine polyphenolic compounds in berry fruits considering the increasing attention on these compounds for different potential uses. In order to choose and to improve the most adequate analytical procedure for the determination of the polyphenolic substances in berry fruits, different methods were applied and compared on samples of elderberry and blackberry. Marisa Carmela Caruso, Fernanda Galgano, Maria Pecora, Roberta Tolve, Maria Verrastro, and Fabio Favati Copyright © 2015 Marisa Carmela Caruso et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Parameters and Bioactive Compounds of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Honey Mon, 13 Jul 2015 09:54:20 +0000 Botanical origin, physicochemical properties (ash, colour, diastase activity, electrical conductivity (EC), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), moisture, optical rotation (OP), pH, reducing sugars, total acidity, total soluble solids, and water activity), bioactive compounds (BC), and antioxidant activity obtained from strawberry tree honey from South Portugal were investigated. Results showed that the pollen analysis and physicochemical parameters were found within to meet international honey specifications. Significant differences () in results of ash content, EC, HMF, OP and colour when were compared with analogous famous Italian honey (Sardinia island). For BC, total phenolic and total flavonoid content were 94.47 mg gallic acid/100 g and 5.33 mg quercetin/100 g, respectively. Concerning Portuguese honey, it was also found that radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay) was 43.46% and antioxidant activity was 18.85 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g and 9.92 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g. These results confirmed that Portuguese strawberry tree honey has the highest antioxidant activity, when compared with other kinds of honey. This complete report demonstrates advantages and can help to promote consumption and shown their benefical properties (e.g., antioxidant); which will may increase the commercial value. Pablo A. Ulloa, Miguel Maia, and Amadeu F. Brigas Copyright © 2015 Pablo A. Ulloa et al. All rights reserved. Assessing Risk of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Mon, 13 Jul 2015 09:53:22 +0000 Fumonisins are major mycotoxins found worldwide in maize and maize products. Because of their toxicity for both human and animals, European Union regulations were created to fix the maximal fumonisin B1 and B2 content allowed in foods and feeds. Unfortunately, directly measuring these mycotoxins by current analytical techniques is tedious and expensive and most measurement methods do not lend themselves to online control. Alternative approaches to chemical analysis have been developed and involve models that allow the mycotoxin contamination to be predicted based on environmental conditions and analysis by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In the present work, we use NIR spectroscopy to determine the fumonisin and fungal contents of 117 samples of maize. The determination coefficient between fumonisin and fungal-biomass content was 0.44. We establish herein a threshold for the number of CFUs for fungal biomass beyond which the fumonisin content is likely to exceed the European regulatory level of 4000 μg/kg. In addition, we determine the fungal content by using a NIR-spectroscopy model that allows us to sort samples of maize. Upon calibration, the percentage of well-classified samples was 96%, which compares favorably to the 82% obtained by independent verification. Cecile Levasseur-Garcia, Sylviane Bailly, Didier Kleiber, and Jean-Denis Bailly Copyright © 2015 Cecile Levasseur-Garcia et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating Mon, 13 Jul 2015 09:31:48 +0000 An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett), and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control) were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015%) extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods. Virgilio Cruz, Romeo Rojas, Saúl Saucedo-Pompa, Dolores G. Martínez, Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbó, Olga B. Alvarez, Raúl Rodríguez, Judith Ruiz, and Cristóbal N. Aguilar Copyright © 2015 Virgilio Cruz et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Inorganic Arsenicals on Vegetative Growth of Two Pakistani Origins Sunflower Cultivars Mon, 13 Jul 2015 06:36:05 +0000 Inorganic arsenicals impact on vegetative growth of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (FH-385 as Hybrid 1 and FH-405 as Hybrid 2) was monitored. Various levels of two different sodium salts of arsenic, namely, sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO47H2O) as source of As5+ and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) as source of As3+, were used to evaluate the effect of arsenic on plant water relation parameters. Significant stress effects were found when arsenic was higher in concentrations (>60 mg/kg soil of both salts) as compared to control plants. Genotype FH-405 showed higher levels for shoot and root length, water contents, number of leaves, and leaf area, which indicates well adaptation of this cultivar in arsenic contaminated environment. T5 (100 mg/kg) of both salts showed notable stressful impacts as compared to low arsenic concentrations (20, 40 mg/kg) and especially control plants in case of all morphophysiological parameters of sunflower cultivars. Muhammad Asif Imran, Feroza Hamid Wattoo, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar Wattoo, and Khan Rass Masood Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Asif Imran et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Bioactive Phytochemicals: Bioactivity, Sources, Preparations, and/or Modifications via Silver Tetrafluoroborate Mediation” Sun, 12 Jul 2015 11:23:22 +0000 Matthew C. Achilonu and Dennis O. Umesiobi Copyright © 2015 Matthew C. Achilonu and Dennis O. Umesiobi. All rights reserved. Assignment of O–O and Mo=O Stretching Frequencies of Molybdenum/Tungsten Complexes Revisited Thu, 09 Jul 2015 11:25:57 +0000 The assignment of peroxo stretching frequencies for Molybdenum and Tungsten complexes is studied by DFT and MP2 calculations. We found that M06 functional is unsuitable for assignment of Mo=O and O–O stretches in CpMo(η2-O2)OCH3 and we found that MP2 and even the def2-TZVP do not give accurate order of asymmetric and symmetric Mo=O stretching. We recommend the M06L, which is a good compromise between speed and accuracy, for works involving these complexes. For a series of ten Molybdenum and Tungsten complexes studied we found that, for Mo/W=O stretching frequencies at M06L/def2-TZVP, after scaling, a small RMSD of 15 cm−1 could be obtained. However peroxo stretching frequencies RMSD remains high at 40 cm−1 after scaling. This could potentially point out the need for reassignment of experimental peroxo frequencies in some of the works cited in this report. Choon Wee Kee Copyright © 2015 Choon Wee Kee. All rights reserved. Functionalized Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications 2015 Thu, 09 Jul 2015 06:41:26 +0000 Tifeng Jiao, Lavinia Balan, Xinqing Chen, and Qingrui Zhang Copyright © 2015 Tifeng Jiao et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Derivatives of 4-Hydroxy-2-benzoxazolone Wed, 08 Jul 2015 06:23:52 +0000 Benzoxazolones are widely distributed in plants and are of increasing interest for a variety of pharmacological properties, such as detoxification, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities and tranquilizers (Michaelidou and Hadjipavlou-Litina, 2005; Doğruer et al., 1998). 4-Hydroxy-2-benzoxazolone (HBOA) is one of the major bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese herb drug Acanthus ilicifolius  (Peng and Long, 2006) which has obvious anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Huo et al., 2004; Mani Senthil Kumar et al., 2008; Babu et al., 2001). In this research, we used 2-nitroresorcinol as starting material to prepare HBOA with a novel “one-pot-way.” Derivatives of HBOA TC-2∼TC-4 were obtained via electrophilic reagents and reacted with corresponding primary amines to afford Schiff Base derivatives TC-5∼TC-10 for further study. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of those derivatives were determined by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test. The analgesic activities of the derivatives were determined by the hot-plate test. Guangjin Zheng, Tieyu Chen, Xing Peng, and Shengjing Long Copyright © 2015 Guangjin Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Variations in Element Levels Accumulated in Different Parts of Boletus edulis Collected from Central Yunnan Province, China Mon, 06 Jul 2015 10:29:01 +0000 ICP-AES and microwave assisted digestion were applied to determine P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Cu, Ba, Ni, V, Cd, Sr, Co, and Li in the caps and stipes of Boletus edulis collected from six spatially distant sites in Yunnan province, China. Fruiting bodies of King Bolete are abundant in P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Na, followed by Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co. Contents of P, Mg, Zn, and Cu are more abundant in caps than in stipes of King Bolete. However, elements such as Na, Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co prefer to accumulate in stipes of mushrooms from Yaoan, Chuxiong. The results of this study indicate that spatial variations of elements between caps and stipes are mainly related to different bedrock soil geochemistry and enrichment capability for various elements. Xue-Mei Wang, Ji Zhang, Tao Li, Jie-Qing Li, Yuan-Zhong Wang, and Hong-Gao Liu Copyright © 2015 Xue-Mei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Sand Relative Density on Response of a Laterally Loaded Pile and Sand Deformation Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:36:51 +0000 Two scale-model tests were separately conducted in standard Toyoura sand with relative density of 50% and 80%. The effect of sand relative density on pile-soil interaction was investigated through the response of a laterally loaded pile and the sand movement around the pile. At a displacement of 3.6 mm of the loading point, the applied loads in loose and dense sand were 4.775 N and 21.025 N, respectively, and the maximum moment and soil resistance of the pile in dense sand were over 4 times those in loose sand. However, the deflection of the pile in dense sand was less than that in loose sand; additionally, the depth of zero deflection in dense sand was also less than that in loose sand. At the same time, the maximum displacements of loose sand in the vertical profile and ground surface were over 1.5 times those of dense sand. These characteristics occurred because the relative stiffness ratio of soil and pile increased as the relative density increased, which caused the behavior of the pile in dense sand to be elastic rather than rigid. In addition, the compacted sand particles did not move as easily as the loose sand particles. Bingxiang Yuan, Rui Chen, Jun Teng, Yixian Wang, Wenwu Chen, Tao Peng, Zhongwen Feng, Yang Yu, and Jianghui Dong Copyright © 2015 Bingxiang Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Electrochemical Oxidation Using BDD Anodes Combined with Biological Aerated Filter for Biotreated Coking Wastewater Treatment Mon, 29 Jun 2015 11:25:41 +0000 Coking wastewater is characterized by poor biodegradability and high microorganism toxicity. Thus, it is difficult to meet Grade I of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China by biological treatment technology; specifically, COD cannot meet above standard due to containing refractory organics. A novel coupling reactor, electrochemical oxidation using BDD anodes and biological aerated filter (BAF), has been developed for carbon and nitrogen removal from biotreated coking wastewater, focusing on COD, BOD5, -N, and -N removal on operation over 90 days with average effluent value of 91.3, 9.73, 0.62, and 13.34 mgL−1, respectively. Average value of BOD5/COD and BOD5/-N was enhanced from 0.05 to 0.27 and from 0.45 to 1.21 by electrochemical oxidation, respectively, with average energy consumption of 67.9 kWh kg−1 COD. In addition, the refractory organics also were evidently mineralized in the unit based on the data of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, its effluent provided excellent substrate for biological denitrification in BAF. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.08 h, about 12 mgL−1  -N was depleted through denitrification, and it mainly occurred at top of 0.25 m height of BAF. Therefore, it is feasible to apply the coupling reactor for biotreated coking wastewater treatment and achieve desirable effluent quality. C. R. Wang, Z. F. Hou, M. R. Zhang, J. Qi, and J. Wang Copyright © 2015 C. R. Wang et al. All rights reserved. 4-Nitroaniline Degradation by TiO2 Catalyst Doping with Manganese Sun, 28 Jun 2015 10:56:08 +0000 Stainless steel anode covered with layer film of TiO2 doped with manganese was utilized to decompose 4-nitroaniline in rectangular borosilicate glass reactor, while stainless steel mesh was chosen as cathode; the anode and cathode were connected to the direct-current power; meantime two 60 W (λmax = 365 nm) UV lamps were used as light source. The microstructures on TiO2 before and after being doped with manganese were analyzed by energy disperse X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The performance of degradation of 4-nitroaniline was evaluated by analyzing cracking ratio of 4-nitroaniline ring, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) in remaining solution. Monitored parameters during all the photocatalytic reaction including dissolved oxygen, direct voltage, and radiation dosage of ultraviolet rays were investigated. When dissolved oxygen concentration, direct voltage, and radiation dosage of ultraviolet rays were, respectively, equivalent to 9 mg/L, 24 V, and 1200 μW/cm2, the degradation ratio of 4-nitroaniline reached maximum. The experimental results indicated that cracking ratio of 4-nitroaniline ring and the removal ratio of COD and TOC were, respectively, more than 99%, 85%, and 80% when reaction was run for 10 hours. The values of COD and TOC were, respectively, less than 16 mg/L and 8 mg/L while the experiment was finished. Kai Zheng, Tong-chao Zhang, Pin Lin, Yu-hua Han, Hong-yi Li, Ren-jie Ji, and Hai-yun Zhang Copyright © 2015 Kai Zheng et al. All rights reserved. The Feasibility of Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Discrimination of Aged Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes) after Long-Term Storage Sun, 28 Jun 2015 08:49:27 +0000 Long-term storage can largely degrade the taste and quality of dried shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). This paper aimed at developing a rapid method for discrimination of the regular and aged shiitake by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis and chemometrics. Regular () and aged () samples of shiitake were collected from six main producing areas in two successive years (2013 and 2014). NIR reflectance spectra (4000–12000 cm−1) were measured with finely ground powders. Different data preprocessing method including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2), and standard normal variate (SNV) were investigated to reduce the unwanted spectral variations. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) were used to develop classification models. The results indicate that SNV and D2 can largely enhance the classification accuracy. The best sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of classification were 0.967, 0.953, and 0.961 obtained by SNV-LS-SVM and 0.933, 0.930, and 0.932 obtained by SNV-PLSDA, respectively. Moreover, the low model complexity and the high accuracy in predicting objects produced in different years demonstrate that the classification models had a good generalization performance. Lu Xu, Xian-Shu Fu, Chen-Bo Cai, and Yuan-Bin She Copyright © 2015 Lu Xu et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Aminonaphthoquinones and Benzo[b]phenazine-6,11-dione Derivatives as Potential Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds Sun, 28 Jun 2015 07:32:54 +0000 A series of 2-arylamino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (3a–h) by the reaction of 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone with aryl amines (2a–h) and benzo[b]phenazine-6,11-dione derivatives (4a–c) by the treatment of 2-arylamino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (3a–h) with sodium azide were synthesized and tested for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results suggest that compounds 3d and 3g had potent antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 78.12 μg/mL). All synthesized compounds (3a–h, 4a–c) possessed activity against E. faecalis with MIC values of between 312.5 and 1250 μg/mL. Benzo[b]phenazine-6,11-dione derivatives (4a–c) were mostly active against Gram-positive bacteria. The structures of the new members of the series were established on the basis of their spectral properties (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry). Amaç Fatih Tuyun, Nilüfer Bayrak, Hatice Yıldırım, Nihal Onul, Emel Mataraci Kara, and Berna Ozbek Celik Copyright © 2015 Amaç Fatih Tuyun et al. All rights reserved. Low Temperature Synthesis of MnO2/Graphene Nanocomposites for Supercapacitors Sun, 28 Jun 2015 07:09:26 +0000 MnO2/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple route in a water-reflux condenser system. The as-prepared composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman microscope, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. Capacitive properties of the synthesized composite electrodes were investigated via cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectrometry in a 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Results show that this method can control the morphology and structure of MnO2 loaded onto the graphene sheets. Because excessive MnO2 enwrapping graphene would affect the overall conductivity, the composite prepared by lower temperature has better characteristics of supercapacitor. 60-MnO2/graphene composite (48 wt% MnO2) displays the specific capacitance as high as 350 F/g at 1000 mA/g, which is higher than that of 100-MnO2/graphene (302 F/g), and it is almost two times higher than that of MnO2 (163 F/g). Furthermore, the composite exhibits excellent long cycle life along with ~93% specific capacitance retained after 5000 cycle tests. Hao Huang, Guangren Sun, Jie Hu, and Tifeng Jiao Copyright © 2015 Hao Huang et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Blasting Compaction on Gravel Soil Sun, 28 Jun 2015 07:06:30 +0000 The settlement control is critical for the safety of road based on high filled embankment. The traditional construction methods have the characteristic with less soil thickness compacted at a time. There are many advantages to compact the gravel soil with blasting. The cavity in soil is formed by blasting and its fillings to form a composite foundation for the embankment. The field data show this composite foundation can meet the requirement of loading and settlement control with less construction time. In geotechnical blasting, the high temperature due to blasting will swell the material around, so its worthy to do the coupled analysis with thermal mechanics (TM) and blasting compaction in the high filled embankment. In this paper, a 3D model is built with FLAC3D to simulate a single hole to predict the range and degree of thermal propagation. Then, the thermal strains got from the model are used to estimate the displacement of surrounding soil to predict the degree of compaction and optimize the distribution of blast holes in plan. Qingwen Li, Yuan Li, Gautam Dasgupta, Dongping Song, Lan Qiao, Liping Wang, and Jianghui Dong Copyright © 2015 Qingwen Li et al. All rights reserved. Structural Features and Synthesis of CeO2-Doped Boroaluminosilicate Oxyfluoride Transparent Glass Ceramics Sun, 28 Jun 2015 06:47:45 +0000 This study investigated the effects of CeO2 on structure and synthesis of boroaluminosilicate transparent glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals prepared through isothermal crystallization of the melt-quenched glasses with composition 54SiO2–10B2O3–13Al2O3–14Na2O–3ZnO–2Li2O–4CaF2 doped with 0–1.2 mol% CeO2. CeO2 in polyvalent states acting as network modifier leads to disruption of the silicate network and the conversion of [BO3] to [BO4] generating the nonlinear variations in crystallization, and thermodynamic and optical features. Glass transition temperature and the crystallization temperature decrease firstly and then increase with the increase of CeO2 content. Correspondingly, the size of CaF2 nanoscale crystals and the absorption coefficient of the glass ceramics are found to pass through a maximum and then decrease with increasing CeO2 addition. Increasing CeO2 concentration and elevating treating temperature lead to red-shift of absorption edge and transparency deterioration of glass ceramics. Zhenlin Wang and Laifei Cheng Copyright © 2015 Zhenlin Wang and Laifei Cheng. All rights reserved. Chemical Interactions in Reinforced Concrete Exposed at a Tropical Marine Environment Wed, 24 Jun 2015 09:57:53 +0000 Prediction of concrete structure behavior is complicated by diverse factors, including interaction between elements and concrete compounds, chlorides diffusion through concrete, and compounds formed by corrosion of steel reinforcement. These factors were evaluated in concrete test cylinders exposed to a tropical marine environment since 1993 (during 126 months). Electrochemical, chlorides profile, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry analyses were done and results compared. This suite of analytical methods accurately characterized reinforced concrete condition and generated data useful in developing prediction models of corrosion in concrete structures. José Manuel Mendoza-Rangel, Pedro Castro-Borges, Patricia Quintana-Owen, Mercedes Balancan-Zapata, and Jesús Alejandro Cabrera-Madrid Copyright © 2015 José Manuel Mendoza-Rangel et al. All rights reserved. Biotransformation of Indole to 3-Methylindole by Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus Strain MA Tue, 23 Jun 2015 12:42:18 +0000 An indole-biotransforming strain MA was identified as Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It transforms indole completely from the broth culture in the presence of an additional carbon source (i.e., sodium succinate). Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry identified indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-acetic acid, and 3-methylindole as transformation products. Tryptophan-2-monooxygenase activity was detected in the crude extracts of indole-induced cells of strain MA, which confirms the formation of indole-3-acetamide from tryptophan in the degradation pathway of indole. On the basis of identified metabolites and enzyme assay, we have proposed a new transformation pathway for indole degradation. Indole was first transformed to indole-3-acetamide via tryptophan. Indole-3-acetamide was then transformed to indole-3-acetic acid that was decarboxylated to 3-methylindole. This is the first report of a 3-methylindole synthesis via the degradation pathway of indole. Pankaj Kumar Arora, Kartik Dhar, Rafael Alejandro Veloz García, and Ashutosh Sharma Copyright © 2015 Pankaj Kumar Arora et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge Mon, 22 Jun 2015 11:35:35 +0000 There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform. Rita Bhatta, Rachhya Kayastha, Deepak P. Subedi, and Rajendra Joshi Copyright © 2015 Rita Bhatta et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Some New Thiazole Derivatives and Their Biological Activity Evaluation Mon, 22 Jun 2015 07:10:39 +0000 New 2-(4-arylpiperazine-1-yl)-N-[4-(2-(4-substituted phenyl)thiazol-4-yl)phenyl]acetamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial and anticholinesterase activities. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the compounds were found weak contrary to expectations. It is unlikely that antifungal activity of the compounds was found significant, especially against Candida parapsilosis. Leyla Yurttaş, Yusuf Özkay, Hülya Karaca Gençer, and Ulviye Acar Copyright © 2015 Leyla Yurttaş et al. All rights reserved. Integrated Analysis of Permeability Reduction Caused by Polymer Retention for Better Understanding Polymer Transport Sun, 21 Jun 2015 07:47:37 +0000 Polymer retention is one of the most important factors to govern polymer propagation through porous media, determining whether successful or not. The focus of previous studies has been limited to polymer concentration loss caused by the retention; not only change in polymer concentration, but also reduction in reservoir permeability is the main issue for theoretical transport study. Due to the lack of accuracy of Langmuir isotherm describing the polymer retention mechanisms, this study proposes a new type of matching interpretation method to correlate the permeability reduction factors from experiments to permeability. In order to solve the problem of poorly matching results between estimation and observation, use of nonadsorptive constant conditionally selected in matching process was made. Based on the threshold permeability reduction factors, approximate critical permeability can be calculated to which nonadsorptive constant would be applied. Results showed significant improvements in the estimation of permeability reduction for both low and high permeability cores. In addition, effects of permeability reduction on polymer transport in field scale were analyzed using the proposed matching model. Thus, not only does this interpretation method help to evaluate prediction for accurate flow behavior, but also unwanted risk can be evaluated. ByungIn Choi, Jinsuk Choi, and Kun Sang Lee Copyright © 2015 ByungIn Choi et al. All rights reserved. Aging Mechanisms of Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles Sun, 21 Jun 2015 06:51:03 +0000 Electrode material aging leads to a decrease in capacity and/or a rise in resistance of the whole cell and thus can dramatically affect the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the aging phenomena are extremely complicated to describe due to the coupling of various factors. In this review, we give an interpretation of capacity/power fading of electrode-oriented aging mechanisms under cycling and various storage conditions for metallic oxide-based cathodes and carbon-based anodes. For the cathode of lithium-ion batteries, the mechanical stress and strain resulting from the lithium ions insertion and extraction predominantly lead to structural disordering. Another important aging mechanism is the metal dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition on the anode. For the anode, the main aging mechanisms are the loss of recyclable lithium ions caused by the formation and increasing growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and the mechanical fatigue caused by the diffusion-induced stress on the carbon anode particles. Additionally, electrode aging largely depends on the electrochemical behaviour under cycling and storage conditions and results from both structural/morphological changes and side reactions aggravated by decomposition products and protic impurities in the electrolyte. Cheng Lin, Aihua Tang, Hao Mu, Wenwei Wang, and Chun Wang Copyright © 2015 Cheng Lin et al. All rights reserved. Significance of Theoretical Decomposition Enthalpies for Predicting Thermal Hazards Thu, 18 Jun 2015 11:37:50 +0000 Much effort is currently put into the development of models for predicting decomposition enthalpies measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As an alternative to the purely empirical schemes reported so far, this work relies on theoretical values obtained on the basis of simple assumptions. For nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) studied in sealed sample cells, our approach proves clearly superior to previous ones. In contrast, it correlates poorly with data measured in pin-hole sample cells. Progress might be obtained through a combination of the present approach with the usual Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) methodologies. This work emphasizes the significance of the theoretical decomposition enthalpy as a fundamental descriptor for the prediction of DSC values. In fact, the theoretical value provides a valuable criterion to characterize thermal hazards, as a complement to experimental decomposition temperatures. Didier Mathieu Copyright © 2015 Didier Mathieu. All rights reserved. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis Tue, 16 Jun 2015 08:00:32 +0000 Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples. Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić, Maja Benković, and Ingrid Bauman Copyright © 2015 Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić et al. All rights reserved.