Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Investigation of Cd(II) Dinonyldithiophosphate: Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions Thu, 16 Apr 2015 12:56:04 +0000 Dinonyldithiophosphoric acid (HDDTP) was synthesised from the reaction of phosphorus pentasulphide and nonyl alcohol. Dinonyldithiophosphate complex of cadmium [Cd(DDTP)2] was prepared by mixing solutions of Cd(II) with HDDTP in ethanol at room temperature. The acid and its complex were characterised by elemental analysis and spectroscopy. The thermal behaviour of Cd(DNDTP)2 was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Removal of Cd(II) from aqueous media by HDDTP solution was also studied. The optimum conditions for removal of Cd(II) were investigated for effects of solvent, pH, contact time, concentration, and inorganic anions. Cd(II) was quantitatively removed from aqueous solutions at the pH range of , under the conditions that the stoichiometric ratio of HDDTP/Cd(II) ≥2/1. It can be stated that contact of the Cd(II) with HDDTP was sufficient for quantitative removing of cadmium from acidic aqueous solutions. Nermin Biricik, Hadice Budak Gümgüm, and Bahattin Gümgüm Copyright © 2015 Nermin Biricik et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of the Industrial Residues of Seven Fruits and Prospection of Their Potential Application as Food Supplements Tue, 14 Apr 2015 05:58:40 +0000 Seven residues from tropical fruit (acerola, cashew apple, guava, mango, papaya, pineapple, and sapota) processing were prospected for physicochemical parameters (pH, total soluble solids, water activity, reducing sugar, acidity, protein, moisture, ash, and lipids), functional compounds (total phenolic content, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and free radical scavenging activity—DPPH), fatty acid profile, and mineral content. Prospection of these industrial residues aimed its use as potential sources for food supplementation. Acerola residue was found to be a valuable source of anthocyanins, phenolics, and vitamin C; cashew apple residue could be a source of unsaturated fatty acids; pineapple and papaya residues could be used, respectively, as manganese and phosphorous source. Soraya de Oliveira Sancho, Ana Raquel Araújo da Silva, Allan Nilson de Sousa Dantas, Ticiane Alencar Magalhães, Gisele Simone Lopes, Sueli Rodrigues, José Maria Correia da Costa, Fabiano André Narciso Fernandes, and Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos Silva Copyright © 2015 Soraya de Oliveira Sancho et al. All rights reserved. Micropollutants Identification Affecting the Nearby Environment from Highway Runoff: The Case Study of Cyprus Highway Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:49:08 +0000 Road/highway surfaces accumulate significant quantities of pollutants including nutrients, heavy metals, and polycyclic hydrocarbon aromatic (PHAs). Traffic characteristics (vehicle speed, traffic load, etc.), climate, long dry wet periods, and rainfall event intensity and duration are regarded as important factors in generating pollutants in high way runoff (HRO). Regarding rainfall control, most of the road is served by drainage ditches which collect the runoff and direct it to the nearest natural water courses. This paper focuses on the estimation of pollutant that is coming from two several highways (to the airport and to the biggest industrial area) in Cyprus. Overall, more than 100 different samples were collected and analysed over a period of two years. Several parameters were determined like PHA, COD, electronic conductivity (EC), total suspended solid (TSS), total dissolved solid (TDS), pH, fats and oils (FOG), T. Coliforms, NO3, NO2, NH4, SO4, Cl, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, and Zn. The results indicated that the first flush consists of major pollution due to the fact that all parameters are in high levels. As the rainfall continues the pollution decreases but the influence to the nearby areas of the runoff is high. Antonis A. Zorpas, Lampis A. Ilia, Irene Voukkali, and Vassilis Inglezakis Copyright © 2015 Antonis A. Zorpas et al. All rights reserved. Parametric Study of Time-Dependent Corrosion Product Activity due to 56Mn, 58Co, and 60Co in the Primary Coolant Circuit of a Typical Pressurized Water Reactor Mon, 06 Apr 2015 12:20:19 +0000 Results of a detailed study, based on the parametric analysis of activated corrosion products, in primary coolant of a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) are presented. The parameters influencing time dependent buildup of corrosion product activity (CPA) in primary coolant loop of PWR were identified. The computer program CPAIR was used to accommodate for time dependent corrosion rates. The behaviors of 56Mn, 58Co, and 60Co were studied over the reactor operational time. During the course of normal operation of reactor, the CPA is dominated by 56Mn, while 58Co and 60Co are the predominant radionuclides after reactor shutdown. Parametric study suggests that the total CPA is most sensitive to ion-exchanger removal rates. For a removal rate of 300 cm3-s−1, the specific activity due to 56Mn has the maximum value of 3.552 × 104 Bq-m−3 after 1,000 hours of reactor operation. This value decreases drastically to 8.325 × 103 Bq-m−3 at removal rate of 900 cm3-s−1. Additionally, CPA due to 56Mn, 58Co, and 60Co shows strong dependence on removal rates from the core material surfaces. Variations in the values of radionuclide removal rates from piping surface and radionuclide removal rate from deposition on pipes showed only very small effects on CPA buildup. Muhammad Rafique, Nasir M. Mirza, Sikander M. Mirza, Kimberlee J. Kearfott, Shahab A. Abbasi, and Syed F. Naeem Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Rafique et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity Studies of Ni(II) Complex with Pyridine as a Ligand Mon, 06 Apr 2015 08:33:49 +0000 We represent a metal complex which has been synthesized by the simple reaction with Ni(II) chloride and pyridine (as a lignd) affording a complex having the molecular formula [], characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, electronic, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra, magnetic susceptibility, and also aid of molar conductivity measurement. Conductivity measurement reveals nonelectrolytic nature of the complex. IR and 13C NMR spectra reveal the presence of cis- and trans-structure. On the basis of above analyses the square planar cis- and trans-structures are proposed for the prepared complex. Faridul Islam, Md. Amran Hossain, Nur Mostaq Shah, Hridika Talukder Barua, Md. Alamgir Kabir, Mohammad Jamshed Khan, and Romel Mullick Copyright © 2015 Faridul Islam et al. All rights reserved. Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro Antiplatelet Aggregation Activities of Ferulic Acid Derivatives Thu, 02 Apr 2015 16:18:44 +0000 In order to discover new compounds with antiplatelet aggregation activities, some ferulic acid (FA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. The in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activities of these compounds were assessed by turbidimetric test. The results showed that the target compound 7f had potent antiplatelet aggregation activity with its IC50 27.6 μmol/L, and 7f can be regarded as a novel potent antiplatelet aggregation candidate. Peng-Xuan Zhang, Hang Lin, Cheng Qu, Yu-Ping Tang, Nian-Guang Li, Jun Kai, Guanxiong Shang, Baoquan Li, Li Zhang, Hui Yan, Pei Liu, and Jin-Ao Duan Copyright © 2015 Peng-Xuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Hg from Real Polluted Sediments Using Enhanced-EK Decontamination: Verification of Experimental Methods and Batch-Test Preliminary Results Thu, 02 Apr 2015 14:30:43 +0000 The aim of the research is to apply a biosurfactant-enhanced-EK technology to marine sediment contaminated by high level of Hg. In this work, data from batch-tests using different novel biosurfactant agents were reported. In addition, a dedicated EK bench-scale apparatus was designed and carried out. Technical test was also performed to evaluate the optimal operating features of the EK bench-scale apparatus, assessing the influence of applied voltage and treatment time on the current intensity and electroosmotic flow. Batch experiments were conducted using two sugar esters as biosurfactants and EDTA salt at different concentrations. Results showed that the maximum extraction efficiency was observed for the biosurfactant Olimpicon GC (15%), for which the Hg extraction was shown to be 3.6-fold higher than for 0.2 M EDTA. From technical tests, the observed reduction of current intensity and electroosmotic flow with time highlights the necessity of using conditioning agents during the treatment. Data demonstrates also the good working features of the experimental apparatus. Preliminary results show that EK treatment jointly with biosurfactants such as sugar esters could be a better choice for the remediation of Hg-polluted sediments. The results obtained are of scientific and practical interest and can be used for further researches. Danilo Malarbì, Pietro P. Falciglia, and Federico G. A. Vagliasindi Copyright © 2015 Danilo Malarbì et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Carbonylation of Aromatic Amines with CO Catalyzed by 1,3-Dialkylimidazole-2-selenone in Ionic Liquids Thu, 02 Apr 2015 10:09:52 +0000 1,3-Dialkylimidazole-2-selenone as a novel substituted selenium heterocyclic catalyst was used to catalyze oxidative carbonylation of aromatic amines with carbon monoxide in the presence of air to symmetrical ureas in up to 97% yield in ionic liquids. Fengshou Tian, Yahong Chen, Xiaofang Wang, Peng Li, and Shiwei Lu Copyright © 2015 Fengshou Tian et al. All rights reserved. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on the Phosphate Adsorption Removal by Dolomite Mineral Thu, 02 Apr 2015 10:03:07 +0000 The efficiency of dolomite to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions was investigated. The experimental results showed that the removal of phosphate by dolomite was rapid (the removal rate over 95% in 60 min) when the initial phosphate concentration is at the range of 10–50 mg/L. Several kinetic models including intraparticle diffusion model, pseudo-first-order model, Elovich model, and pseudo-second-order model were employed to evaluate the kinetics data of phosphate adsorption onto dolomite and pseudo-second-order model was recommended to describe the adsorption kinetics characteristics. Further analysis of the adsorption kinetics indicated that the phosphate removal process was mainly controlled by chemical bonding or chemisorption. Moreover, both Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to evaluate the experimental data. The results indicated that Langmuir isotherm was more suitable to describe the adsorption characteristics of dolomite. Maximum adsorption capacity of phosphate by dolomite was found to be 4.76 mg phosphorous/g dolomite. Thermodynamic studies showed that phosphate adsorption was exothermic. The study implies that dolomite is an excellent low cost material for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment process. Xiaoli Yuan, Wentang Xia, Juan An, Jianguo Yin, Xuejiao Zhou, and Wenqiang Yang Copyright © 2015 Xiaoli Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Acid Hydrolysis of Bromazepam Catalyzed by Micelles, Reverse Micelles, and Microemulsions Thu, 02 Apr 2015 06:16:44 +0000 Kinetics of the acid hydrolysis of bromazepam (Bz) has been investigated in micelles, reverse micelles, and microemulcions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) by spectrophotometric method. The rate of the acid hydrolysis of Bz was found to be enhanced both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CTAB in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order rate constant () shows an initial decrease for both low and high H+ concentrations. With further increase in [CTAB], at low [H+], the attains an almost constant value, while, at high [H+], the passes through a maximum and then decreases. The kinetic data for catalysis by micelles of CTAB was interpreted with the pseudophase ion exchange (PIE) model. In CTAB/cyclohexane/1-butanol/water microemulsions, as the water to surfactant ratio () increases, the physicochemical properties and droplet sizes of microemulsions significantly change and distinct changes in reaction environment can be marked. The rate of the hydrolysis reaction exhibits excellent correlation with the physicochemical properties and droplet sizes of the microemulsions and reverse micelles of CTAB. At [H+] = 0.001 M, in reverse micelles and microemulsions of CTAB, the of the acid hydrolysis of Bz decreases sharply followed by a slight increase with increasing . Ferdousi Begum, M. Yousuf A. Mollah, M. Muhibur Rahman, and Md. Abu Bin Hasan Susan Copyright © 2015 Ferdousi Begum et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Aluminum Tripolyphosphate on the Protective Behavior of an Acrylic Water-Based Paint Applied to Rusty Steels Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:45:41 +0000 The protective performance, in conditions of total immersion, of an acrylic water-based paint applied to rusty steel, has been studied using electrochemical techniques. There was no rust, blister, crack, or flake that occurred on coating after 500 h immersion. The data obtained have enabled the protective mechanism to be proposed. The specific pigments utilized in the formulation of the paint studied can release phosphates to form a protective layer on metal substrate, which can impede the access of aggressive species to substrate surface. The coatings performed electrochemical activity in the beginning of immersion; then the layer formed and resistance of coating increased. Dongdong Song, Jin Gao, Lin Shen, Hongxia Wan, and Xiaogang Li Copyright © 2015 Dongdong Song et al. All rights reserved. Solving Reaction-Diffusion and Advection Problems with Richardson Extrapolation Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:07:18 +0000 Richardson extrapolation is a simple but powerful computational tool to enhance the accuracy of time integration methods. In the past years a few theoretical and partly practical works have been presented on this method. Detailed numerical applications of this method, however, are rarely found in the literature. Therefore, it is worth investigating whether this promising technique lives up to the expectations also in practice. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of the Richardson method in one-dimensional numerical (reaction-diffusion) problems. Tamás Mona, István Lagzi, and Ágnes Havasi Copyright © 2015 Tamás Mona et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:46:18 +0000 To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB )as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays) and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and bulk density (BD) of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC), water holding capacity (WHC), and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate. H.-L. Yu, W. Gu, J. Tao, J.-Y. Huang, and H.-S. Lin Copyright © 2015 H.-L. Yu et al. All rights reserved. Natural Enrichment of Trace Elements in Surface Horizons of Calcareous Soils (La Mancha, Spain) Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:25:23 +0000 The study of five soil profiles developed on carbonatic sediments of Tertiary Miocene origin has been carried out. The topography of the area was basically flat and the traditional uses of the soils are the cultivation of dry cereals and grapevine. The geochemical characterization of the aforementioned profiles involves a study of the contents of major and trace elements among other pedologic aspects (texture, pH, organic matter, etc.). The results of this study also indicate a superficial enrichment of trace elements due to the leaching of Ca and moderate biological and anthropic activity. We can consider strontium, Sr, as the trace element that characterizes these limy soils (435 mg/kg average content in total soil and 708 mg/kg in the original rock). These contents are similar to the average value in Castilla-La Mancha of 380 mg/kg and are higher than the average in world soils of about 200 mg/kg. High levels of dangerous or pollutant elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, or Ni) were not detected. The majority of trace element anomalies are related to calcareous material and the leaching of calcium carbonate (Ca), while the influence of the anthropogenic factor is secondary. Soil quality does not indicate toxicity although surficial enrichment suggests a weak threat from consuming crops. Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra, Jose A. Amorós Ortíz-Villajos, Caridad Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Francisco J. García Navarro, Rolando Ruedas Luna, and Raimundo Jiménez Ballesta Copyright © 2015 Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:18:54 +0000 This study presents the fabrication of high-quality activated carbon (AC) from discarded coconut shells. The effects of experimental parameters such as activation temperature and activation time on the basic characteristics of AC, including charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, total pore volume, and iodine adsorption, are investigated. The results indicate that as the activation temperature and activation time increase, the charcoal yield of the AC decreases. In contrast, iodine adsorption, ash content, pH value, and total pore volume increase with activation temperature. The AC sample activated at 1000°C for 120 min had the highest BET specific surface area and total pore volume and thus the best CO2 adsorption performance. This sample was compared with 30-mesh commercial AC. The results reveal that coconut-based AC has better instantaneous adsorption capabilities. Pei-Hsing Huang, Hao-Hsiang Cheng, and Sheau-Horng Lin Copyright © 2015 Pei-Hsing Huang et al. All rights reserved. The HPLC Fingerprint and Isovanillin Content of Benincasa hispida Seeds Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:32:06 +0000 The Benincasa hispida seed is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, there is still a lack of medicinal quality control of B. hispida seeds. The seeds may contain isovanillin, but this finding remains to be confirmed and quantified. The current study aimed to confirm the existence of isovanillin and then preliminarily establish medicinal quality standards for B. hispida seeds. Fourteen batches of unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds were purchased from 7 different producers in China. Semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to isolate and purify the isovanillin from B. hispida seeds. Its chemical structure was elucidated by UV, 1H-NMR, IR spectroscopy, and GC-MS. The B. hispida seed fingerprint and isovanillin determination were performed on an HPLC instrument. Data obtained from the unilateral and bilateral specimens were analyzed with a similarity evaluation system. The HPLC fingerprint showed 19 characteristic peaks with high similarity between the unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds. The isovanillin content among the fourteen batches ranged from 13.46 to 46.80 μg/g. The results of this study may provide a preliminary reference for the quality control of B. hispida seeds. Jing Liu, Pinglin Li, Qi Wang, Bin Li, and Guoqiang Li Copyright © 2015 Jing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:51:54 +0000 Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp.), followed by eugenol (2.23 mM). On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), refractivity index (RI), and molar volume (MV) were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity. Romina P. Pizzolitto, Carla L. Barberis, José S. Dambolena, Jimena M. Herrera, María P. Zunino, Carina E. Magnoli, Héctor R. Rubinstein, Julio A. Zygadlo, and Ana M. Dalcero Copyright © 2015 Romina P. Pizzolitto et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Na2Ti3O7/Titanium Peroxide Composites and Their Adsorption Property on Cationic Dyes Mon, 30 Mar 2015 09:39:32 +0000 Na2Ti3O7/titanium peroxide composites (TN-TP) were successfully prepared with the reaction of Ti foils, NaOH, and H2O2 at 60°C for 24 h in water bath. The Na2Ti3O7 appeared as nanorods in composites. Water bath temperature, water bath time, and the concentration of H2O2 and NaOH were crucial. The reaction mechanism was proposed. TN-TP was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). TN-TP was a mesoporous material and exhibited stronger adsorption capability for neutral red (NR), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), and crystal violet (CV) than pure Na2Ti3O7 and pure titanium peroxide, and the saturated adsorption capacities were 490.21, 386.13, 322.81, and 292.74 mg/g at 25°C, respectively. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model could well describe the adsorption kinetic and isotherm of cationic dyes studied. The results of this work are of great significance for environmental applications of TN-TP as a promising adsorbent material for dyeing water purification. Meixia Zhao, Jiguo Huang, Xueting Guo, Haitao Chen, Hai Zhao, Lili Dong, and Xing-juan Liu Copyright © 2015 Meixia Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Semiarid Environment on Some Nutritional and Antinutritional Attributes of Calendula (Calendula officinalis) Sun, 29 Mar 2015 14:29:55 +0000 Stressful environments have been shown to affect the metabolism in some plants. In the present study, we assessed whether semiarid environment (saline and saline alkaline soil) could affect the nutritional (total proteins, phenolics and riboflavin contents, and catalase activity) and antinutritional (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents) properties differently in different plant parts (leaves, flowers, and roots) of calendula. Although salinity decreased plant biomass, it did not affect total protein and phenolics contents in the calendula. All plant parts were rich in riboflavin contents. However, plants grown under saline-alkali soil had relatively more riboflavin contents in the flowers. Salinity increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in the flowers and roots, whereas saline-alkali soil did not affect it. Plants exposed to both saline and saline-alkali soil had greater catalase activity in the flowers and leaves. Plants exposed to salinity had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the flowers compared with nonsaline and saline-alkali conditions. Nonetheless, the possibility of safely using different parts of calendula as nutraceutical was in the order flower > root > leaf. Overall, the results suggested that plant can be grown in mild saline-alkali (EC ≤ 7; pH = 8.5) soils without affecting its nutraceutical properties. Muhammad Iqbal, Iqbal Hussain, Asma Habib, Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, and Rizwan Rasheed Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Iqbal et al. All rights reserved. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:39:21 +0000 Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole. Pankaj Kumar Arora, Ashutosh Sharma, and Hanhong Bae Copyright © 2015 Pankaj Kumar Arora et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Copolymeric Resveratrol Conjugates Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:38:23 +0000 Resveratrol (RSV), naturally found in plants, is known to have health benefits and has been proposed as a potential anticancer and cardioprotective drug. However, due to its molecular structure, it undergoes rapid metabolism in the body resulting in low bioavailability. Novel polymeric methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) RSV conjugates with varying PCL chain lengths have been synthesised and formulated into micelles and/or nanoparticles for preliminary in vitro stability studies. RSV conjugated with mPEG2000-PCL9500 was found to have improved solubility and stability of RSV as compared to RSV alone. The length of the PCL chain was found to affect the micelle formation, hence the stability in physiological buffers and rat plasma. Yan-Jing Ng, Heather A. E. Benson, David H. Brown, and Yan Chen Copyright © 2015 Yan-Jing Ng et al. All rights reserved. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests Sun, 29 Mar 2015 09:37:08 +0000 Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 , with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment. Morteza Mohsenipour, Shamsuddin Shahid, and Kumars Ebrahimi Copyright © 2015 Morteza Mohsenipour et al. All rights reserved. Polyphenolic Profile of Maize Seedlings Treated with 24-Epibrassinolide Sun, 29 Mar 2015 08:52:44 +0000 High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with image analysis and pattern recognition methods were used for fingerprinting of phenolic compounds present in seedlings of two maize genotypes ZP 434 (new generation hybrid, drought tolerant) and ZP 704 (older generation hybrid, drought sensitive) treated with different concentrations of 24-epibrassinolide. This is the first report of TLC chromatographic profile of phenolics’ mixtures in maize seed extracts influenced by brassinosteroid phytohormones. Nine samples of shoot of seedlings for the whole concentration range of phytohormones (5.2 × 10−7–5.2 × 10−15 M), one sample of root of seedlings treated with 5.2 × 10−15 M 24-epibrassinolide, and the control samples of nontreated seedlings, for both genotypes, were analyzed. Phenolic profiles of root extracts indicate the absence of more polar compounds such as phenolic acids and glycosides present in shoot of seedlings. Also, hormones applied in higher concentrations have an inhibiting effect on the content of phenolics in ZP 434. Application of chemometric methods enables characterization of particular genotype of maize according to its phenolic profile. Hadi Waisi, Aleksandra Kosović, Đurđa Krstić, Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica, Bogdan Nikolić, Vesna Dragičević, and Jelena Trifković Copyright © 2015 Hadi Waisi et al. All rights reserved. Ionic Conductance, Thermal and Morphological Behavior of PEO-Graphene Oxide-Salts Composites Sun, 29 Mar 2015 08:21:42 +0000 Thin films composites of poly(ethylene oxide)-graphene oxide were fabricated with and without lithium salts by solvent cast method. The ionic conductivity of these composites was studied at various concentrations of salt polymer-GO complexes and at different temperatures. The effects of temperature and graphene oxide concentration were measured from Arrhenius conductance plots. It is shown that the addition of salts in pure PEO increases conductance many times. The graphene oxide addition has enhanced the conductance approximately 1000 times as compared to that of pure PEO. The activation energies were determined for all the systems which gave higher values for pure PEO and the value decreased with the addition of LiClO4 and LiCl salts and further decreases with the addition of graphene oxide. The composite has also lowered the activation energy values which mean that incorporation of GO in PEO has decreased crystallinity and the amorphous region has increased the local mobility of polymer chains resulting in lower activation energies. SEM analysis shows uniform distribution of GO in polymer matrix. The thermal stability studies reveal that incorporation of GO has somewhat enhanced the thermal stability of the films. Mohammad Saleem Khan and Abdul Shakoor Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Saleem Khan and Abdul Shakoor. All rights reserved. Binding Mode Investigation of Polyphenols from Scrophularia Targeting Human Aldose Reductase Using Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulations Sun, 29 Mar 2015 08:04:49 +0000 Aldose reductase (ALR2), a vital enzyme involved in polyol pathway, has befitted as a novel drug target in antidiabetes drug discovery process. In the present study, the binding mode and pharmacokinetic properties of potential polyphenolic compounds with reported aldose reductase inhibitory activity from the genus Scrophularia have been investigated. The human ALR2 enzyme (PDB ID: 2FZD) acted as the receptor in the current study. Among the compounds investigated, acacetin, a methoxy flavonoid, displayed the stable binding to the active site of ALR2 with least binding energy value. Molecular interaction analysis revealed that acacetin interrupts the proton donation mechanism, necessary for the catalytic activity of ALR2, by forming H-bond with Tyr48 (proton donor). In addition, acacetin also possessed favorable ADME properties and complies with Lipinski’s rule of 5 representing the possible drug-like nature compared to other polyphenols. Interestingly, the biological activity predictions also ranked acacetin with higher probability score for aldose reductase inhibition activity. Moreover, the molecular dynamics simulation of ALR2-acacetin complex was validated for the stability of ligand binding and the refined complex was used for generation of receptor-ligand pharmacophore model. Thus, the molecular insights of receptor-ligand interactions gained from the present study can be utilized for the development of novel aldose reductase inhibitors from Scrophularia. Abinaya Manivannan, Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Yoo Gyeong Park, Sugunadevi Sakkiah, and Byoung Ryong Jeong Copyright © 2015 Abinaya Manivannan et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk Sun, 29 Mar 2015 07:46:56 +0000 This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution. Fabjola Bilo, Marco Lodolo, Laura Borgese, Alberto Bosio, Laura Benassi, Laura Eleonora Depero, and Elza Bontempi Copyright © 2015 Fabjola Bilo et al. All rights reserved. Traceability of PDO Olive Oil “Terra di Bari” Using High Resolution Melting Sun, 29 Mar 2015 06:38:48 +0000 The aim of the research was to verify the applicability of microsatellite (SSR) markers in High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis for the identification of the olive cultivars used in the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil. A panel of nine cultivars, widespread in Apulia region, was tested with seventeen SSR primer pairs and the PCR products were at first analysed with a Genetic Analyzer automatic sequencer. An identification key was obtained for the nine cultivars, which showed an unambiguous discrimination among the varieties constituting the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil: Cima di Bitonto, Coratina, and Ogliarola. Subsequently, an SSR based method was set up with the DCA18 marker, coupled with HRM analysis for the distinction of the Terra di Bari olive oil from non-Terra di Bari olive oil using different mixtures. Thus, this analysis enabled the distinction and identification of the PDO mixtures. Hence, this assay provided a flexible, cost-effective, and closed-tube microsatellite genotyping method, well suited to varietal identification and authentication analysis in olive oil. Cinzia Montemurro, Monica Marilena Miazzi, Antonella Pasqualone, Valentina Fanelli, Wilma Sabetta, and Valentina di Rienzo Copyright © 2015 Cinzia Montemurro et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Usefulness of SPE Cartridges for the Determination of β-Blockers and β-Agonists (Basic Drugs) in Environmental Aqueous Samples Thu, 26 Mar 2015 14:19:39 +0000 Even though the methodology used for the determination of β-blockers and β-agonists in environmental samples is based mainly on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, the available literature data on the applied SPE procedures is rather sparse. In this paper such comparison is presented. Moreover, the usefulness of the eight SPE cartridges for the determination of five β-blockers (acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol) and two β-agonists (salbutamol and terbutaline) in environmental aqueous samples using GC techniques is tested. Among them, three (the trifunction sorbent Strata Screen C, the copolymers LiChrolut EN, and the functionalized copolymer Isolute ENV+) were used for the first time for this purpose. It was confirmed that polystyrene-divinylbenzene-N-vinylpyrrolidone copolymers (PS-DVB-VP, Strata-X, and Oasis HLB cartridges) have a better potential than a cation-exchange sorbent for the extraction of the target drugs from environmental water samples. However, it should be stressed out that the direct application of the tested SPE conditions for the analysis of real environmental water samples is not possible, and such parameters, like volume of loading sample, appropriate solvents for washing and elution steps, and so forth, must be optimized again in order to achieve satisfactory recovery values for the target compounds. Magda Caban, Piotr Stepnowski, Marek Kwiatkowski, Joanna Maszkowska, Marta Wagil, and Jolanta Kumirska Copyright © 2015 Magda Caban et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Antitumor Activity of a Keggin Vanadium-Substituted Polyoxomolybdate and Its ctDNA Binding Properties Thu, 26 Mar 2015 13:58:17 +0000 A Keggin vanadium-substituted polyoxomolybdate, K5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2), has been synthesized and it’s antitumor effect against Hela cells was investigated. The calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) binding ability of PMo10V2 was also evaluated by UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra. The identity and high purity of PMo10V2 was confirmed by elemental analysis and IR analysis. And the antitumor activity test of PMo10V2 was carried out on Hela cancer cells line by MTT assay. The results of MTT assay show that PMo10V2 significantly reduced the viability of Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against Hela cells at an IC50 of 800 μg/mL, which is more effective than the positive control, 5-Fu . The results of the UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra indicated the groove or outside stacking binding between PMo10V2 and ctDNA. These results show that the antitumor activity of PMo10V2 may be caused by the interactions between DNA and PMo10V2. Wen Qi, Ying Qin, Yanfei Qi, Li Guo, and Juan Li Copyright © 2015 Wen Qi et al. All rights reserved. Oleophobic Modification of Hollow Glass Microspheres and Its Effect on the Foaming Capacity and Stability of Foam Extinguishing Agent Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:24:49 +0000 We utilized tridecafluorooctyltriethoxysilane (F8261) for the surface modification of hollow glass microspheres (HGM). We then measured the contact angles and the residing time of oil droplets on the HGM surface under different conditions and investigated the effects of the modifier concentration, reaction time and reaction temperature, and other factors on the outcomes of the modification reaction. We also compared the effects of HGM on the expansion ratio and 25% drainage time of protein foam liquid before and after the modification treatment and investigated the effects of HGM surface oleophobic modification on the foaming capacity and stability of foam extinguishing agent. The results showed that when the F8261 concentration was 1.0%, the temperature was 60°C, and the ultrasound treatment time was 2.0 h, the contact angle was up to 132.5°, the oleophobic property of HGM could be significantly enhanced, and the foaming capacity and the oil surface stability were significantly improved by the oleophobic modification. Baohua Tang and Zhaoliang Wu Copyright © 2015 Baohua Tang and Zhaoliang Wu. All rights reserved.