Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Cryptosporidium Removal from Runoff by Active Carbon Filter with Coal Gangue Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:14:44 +0000 Transport of Cryptosporidium in runoff will contaminate the surrounding water body. Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and inactive Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts removal using an active carbon (AC) filter with/without coal gangue from the runoff was evaluated. Chemical composition of coal gangue was determined, and its performance as a water treatment material was tested. Results showed SiO2 was the dominant chemical component of coal gangue. Removal was only 20% for microspheres and 24% for oocysts by AC filtration alone. The removal for both was increased to more than 98% by addition of coal gangue powder to the filter. Furthermore, gangue reuse turned commercially worthless material to a water treatment material as well helping prevent gangue from occupying agriculture/industry land. Ping Lu, Tao Yuan, and Baojun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Ping Lu et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Pregnancy on the Levels of Parabens and Bisphenol A: Data from NHANES 2005–2010 Wed, 29 Jun 2016 08:02:36 +0000 Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between the levels of bisphenol A and selected parabens and pregnancy status among females 20–44 years old with adjustments made for factors that may affect the levels of these chemicals. Pregnancy did not affect the levels of bisphenol A, ethyl paraben, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben, but the pregnancy was found to be associated with increased levels of butyl paraben. Also, the levels of bisphenol A and butyl, ethyl, and methyl parabens increased as pregnancy progressed from the first trimester to the third trimester. The increasing levels of bisphenol A and parabens during pregnancy are of concern and need further clinical explanation. Ram B. Jain Copyright © 2016 Ram B. Jain. All rights reserved. Effects of Extruded Soy Protein on the Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread Wed, 29 Jun 2016 07:24:31 +0000 Five different extruded soy protein isolates (ESPIs) were obtained by extrusion and denoted by IVD1, IVD2, IVD3, IVD4, and IVD5. Then the SDS-PAGE results showed that the subunits of SPI decreased after extrusion, especially the subunits of 90.8, 32.8, and 31.3 kDa, whereas no isopeptide bond was formed. Although SPI improved both the development time (DT) and stability (S) of dough, ESPIs increased S but the DT decreased from 4.3 min to 1.8–2.0 min. Texture profile analysis (TPA) results showed that the hardness and chewiness of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) decreased in the order wheat flour+IVD2 (WF+IVD2), WF+SPI, WF+IVD4, WF+IVD1, WF+IVD3, WF, and WF+IVD5. As regards color, the total color decreased except for the WF+IVD1 (56.22); its positive and negative trends of and were invariant with the SPI or ESPIs mixture, whereas showed a positive trend. The sensory score increased from 82.7 to 83.4 with 3% of SPI addition and up to 87.8 when the substitution was IVD1. Therefore, SPI treated by extrusion may significantly improve the quality of CSB. Zhenya Du, Fusheng Chen, Kunlun Liu, Shaojuan Lai, Lifen Zhang, Guanhao Bu, Xueli Gao, and Shaobo Liu Copyright © 2016 Zhenya Du et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid Tue, 28 Jun 2016 05:53:39 +0000 Coordination compounds of aspartic acid were synthesized in basic and acidic media, with metal ligand M : L stoichiometric ratio 1 : 2. The complexes were characterized using infrared, electronic and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was determined against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The results obtained indicated that the availability of donor atoms used for coordination was a function of the pH of the solution in which the reaction was carried out. This resulted in varying geometrical structures for the complexes. The compounds exhibited a broad spectrum of activity and in some cases better activity than the standard. T. O. Aiyelabola, D. A. Isabirye, E. O. Akinkunmi, O. A. Ogunkunle, and I. A. O. Ojo Copyright © 2016 T. O. Aiyelabola et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Methanol on Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Cationic Surfactants at 298.15 to 323.15 K Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:26:57 +0000 Viscosity measurements have been made to the solutions of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 volume fractions of methanol in methanol-water mixed solvent media at 298.15, 308.15, 318.15, and 323.25 K. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) values have been determined. From relative viscosity for surfactant solutions, related viscosity B coefficients are calculated and the values are interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions. Sujit Kumar Shah, Sujeet Kumar Chatterjee, and Ajaya Bhattarai Copyright © 2016 Sujit Kumar Shah et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Reactive Orange 16 Dye from Aqueous Solution by Using Modified Kenaf Core Fiber Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:40:06 +0000 Evaluated removal of reactive orange 16 (RO16) dye from aqueous solution was studied in batch mode by using kenaf core fiber as low-cost adsorbents. In this attempt, kenaf core fiber with size 0.25–1 mm was treated by using (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CHMAC) as quaternization agent. Then effective parameters include adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time and initial dye concentration on adsorption by modified kenaf core fiber was investigated. In addition, isotherms and kinetics adsorption studies were estimated for determination of the equilibrium adsorption capacity and reactions dynamics, respectively. Results showed that the best dose of MKCF was 0.1 g/100 mL, the maximum removal of RO16 was 97.25 at 30°C, pH = 6.5, and agitation speed was 150 rpm. The results also showed that the equilibrium data were represented by Freundlich isotherm with correlation coefficients , and the kinetic study followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients for  mg/L. Furthermore, the maximum adsorption capacity was 416.86 mg/g. Adsorption through kenaf was found to be very effective for the removal of the RO16 dye. Maytham Kadhim Obaid, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, and Intidhar Jabir Idan Copyright © 2016 Maytham Kadhim Obaid et al. All rights reserved. Macerals of Shengli Lignite in Inner Mongolia of China and Their Combustion Reactivity Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:25:36 +0000 The macerals, including fusinitic coal containing 72.20% inertinite and xyloid coal containing 91.43% huminite, were separated from Shengli lignite using an optical microscope, and their combustion reactivity was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Several combustion parameters, including ignition and burnout indices, were analyzed, and the combustion kinetics of the samples were calculated by regression. Fusinitic coal presented a porous structure, while xyloid coal presented a compact structure. The specific surface area of fusinitic coal was 2.5 times larger than that of xyloid coal, and the light-off temperature of the former was higher than that of the latter. However, the overall combustion reactivity of fusinitic coal was better than that of xyloid coal. The combustion processes of fusinitic and xyloid coals can be accurately described by both the homogeneous model and the shrinking core model. The features of xyloid coal agree with the shrinking core model when its conversion rate is 10%–90%. The activation energy of fusinitic coal during combustion can be divided into three phases, with the middle phase featuring the highest energy. The activation energy of xyloid coal is lower than that of fusinitic coal in the light-off phase, which may explain the low light-off temperature of this coal. Ying Yue Teng, Yu Zhe Liu, Quan Sheng Liu, and Chang Qing Li Copyright © 2016 Ying Yue Teng et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Astrazon Black AFDL Dye Adsorption onto Vietnamese Diatomite Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:04:41 +0000 In the present paper, the adsorption of Astrazon Black AFDL dye onto Vietnamese diatomite has been demonstrated. The diatomite was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The results show that diatomite mainly constituted centric type frustules characterized by pores as discs or as cylindrical shapes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of dye onto Vietnam diatomite were investigated. The experimental data were fitted well to both Freundlich and Langmuir in the initial concentration range of 400–1400 mg L−1. The average value of maximum adsorption capacity, , calculated from Freundlich equation is statistically similar to the average value of maximum monolayer adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation. The thermodynamic parameters evaluated from the temperature dependent on adsorption isotherms in the range of 303–343 K show that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The Webber and pseudo-first/second-order kinetic models were used to analyze the mechanism of adsorption. The piecewise linear regression and Akaike’s Information Criterion were used to analyze experimental data. The results show that the dye adsorption onto diatomite was film diffusion controlled and the goodness of fit of experimental data for kinetics modes was dependent on the initial concentration. Bui Hai Dang Son, Vo Quang Mai, Dang Xuan Du, Nguyen Hai Phong, and Dinh Quang Khieu Copyright © 2016 Bui Hai Dang Son et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:53:29 +0000 To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation () between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value ( μg/g DW). The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination. Yuanxin Guo, Yunhui Zhu, Chunxu Chen, and Xiaoman Chen Copyright © 2016 Yuanxin Guo et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Mechanism of Rock Stress Sensitivity Using a Random Pore Network Simulation Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:13:16 +0000 Studies of rock stress sensitivity are mainly focused on experimental and data processing methods, and the mechanism cannot be adequately explained using specific pore shape models. This study, based on a random pore network simulation, explains the rock stress sensitivity mechanism for the first time. Based on the network model theory, the hydraulic conductivity equation, the dimensionless radius equation, and the effective stress equation for partially saturated rock are used to generate a three-dimensional random pore network model based on the QT platform. The simulation results show that the influence of the effective stress on the dimensionless radius becomes more significant as the aspect ratio decreases, and the relationship between dimensionless radius and effective stress can be effectively interpreted through different combinations of pore shapes. Moreover, the mechanism behind permeability stress sensitivity can be explained by establishing the relationship between permeability and effective stress. Qi Chen, Quanwen Liu, and Zhengwu Tao Copyright © 2016 Qi Chen et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells Mon, 20 Jun 2016 11:40:33 +0000 For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs), we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2. Yaxian Pei, Xiaoping Zou, Xiaolei Qi, Gongqing Teng, Qi Li, Dongdong Guo, and Shuangxiong Zeng Copyright © 2016 Yaxian Pei et al. All rights reserved. Design Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel N-Nitro Acid Amide Derivatives as Lead Compounds of Herbicide Mon, 20 Jun 2016 06:58:27 +0000 A series of N-nitro acid amide derivatives compounds were synthesized based on the active site of target acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC: enzyme. All the structures of newly prepared compounds were thoroughly characterized by satisfied IR and 1H NMR spectra. The IC50 values against AHAS enzyme and EC50 values for herbicidal activity against Amaranthus mangostanus L. and Sorghum sudanense of all synthesized target compounds were determined. The compounds II-10, II-21, and II-22 with IC50 values of 7.09 mg/L, 9.07 mg/L, and 9.11 mg/L and the compounds II-8 and II-22 with EC50 values of 9.87 mg/L and 19.88 mg/L against root of Amaranthus mangostanus L. and Sorghum sudanense were illustrated, respectively. Meanwhile, the possible reasons for the lower activity of compounds were analyzed by molecular docking prediction. Xiaojuan Qi, Wenjie Tang, Shan Gao, Min Gao, Changshui Chen, and Qingye Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xiaojuan Qi et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Modified with Polystyrene and Poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl Methacrylate) as Adsorbents for the Solid Phase Extraction of Organophosphorus Pesticides Mon, 20 Jun 2016 06:37:31 +0000 Novel hybrid TiO2 particles were developed and assessed as an adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of organophosphorus pesticides (fensulfothion, parathion methyl, coumaphos, and diazinon) from spiked water. The sol-gel method was used to synthesize TiO2 particles, which were coated with free-radical polystyrene (PS) and poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PClHPMA) polymers. Particle structures were determined via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm that the polymers were successfully anchored to the TiO2 particles. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to determine organic and inorganic matter in TiO2-PS and TiO2-PClHPMA particles showing results of 20 : 80 wt/wt% and 23 : 77 wt/wt%, respectively. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction test were conducted to determine the morphology and semielemental composition of the particles showing amorphous characteristics. By observing the contact angle, particles coated with PClHPMA were determined to be more hydrophilic than TiO2-PS particles. The pore size distributions obtained from the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms were 0.150 and 0.168 cm3g−1. The specific surface area (BET) was 239.9 m2g−1 for TiO2-PS and 225.7 m2g−1 for TiO2-PClHPMA. The synthesized particles showed relatively high yields of adsorption in SPE. The pesticide recoveries obtained by high performance liquid chromatography ranged from 6 to 26% for TiO2-PClHPMA and 44 to 92% for TiO2-PS. Enrique Alejo-Molina, A. Rafael Vilchis-Néstor, David Muñoz-Rodríguez, and Cristian Carrera-Figueiras Copyright © 2016 Enrique Alejo-Molina et al. All rights reserved. Texture Profile Analysis of Sliced Cheese in relation to Chemical Composition and Storage Temperature Mon, 20 Jun 2016 06:32:27 +0000 The quantitative relationships among chemical composition, storage temperature, and texture of cheese were not fully understood. In this study, the effects of composition and temperature on textural properties of eight common varieties of sliced cheese were examined. The textural properties of sliced cheeses, including firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and resilience, were measured by texture profile analysis after storage at 4 and 25°C for 4 h. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to describe the quantitative relationships of textural properties (dependent variables) to chemical composition and storage temperature (independent variables) of sliced cheeses. Results showed that protein, fat, moisture, and sodium chloride contents as well as storage temperature significantly affected the texture of sliced cheeses (). In particular, fat in the dry matter and moisture in the nonfat substances were negatively correlated with firmness of sliced cheeses (). As storage temperature rose from 4 to 25°C, the average values of firmness, chewiness, and resilience substantially declined by 42%, 45%, and 17%, respectively (). This study provided reference data for adjusting chemical composition and storage temperature of common cheese products to obtain favorable texture for Chinese consumers, which thereby facilitated the localization of cheese industry in Chinese market. Yuanrong Zheng, Zhenmin Liu, and Beihong Mo Copyright © 2016 Yuanrong Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Transient Nicotine Load Shock on the Performance of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 Bioaugmented Sequencing Batch Reactors Sun, 19 Jun 2016 06:50:24 +0000 Bioaugmentation with degrading bacteria can improve the treatment of nicotine-containing tobacco industrial wastewater effectively. However, the transient and extremely high feeding of pollutants may compromise the effectiveness of the bioaugmented reactors. The effect of transient nicotine shock loads on the performance of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 bioaugmented SBRs were studied. The results showed that, under 500–2500 mg/L of transient nicotine shocks, all the reactors still could realize 100% of nicotine degradation in 4 days of recovery, while the key nicotine degradation enzyme HSP hydroxylase increased in expression. Though the dramatic increase of activities of ROS, MDA, SOD, and CAT suggested that transient nicotine shock loads could induce oxidative stress on microorganisms in activated sludge, a decrease to control level demonstrated that most of the microorganisms could resist 500–1500 mg/L of transient nicotine shock under the protection from strain HF-1. After 8 cycles of recovery, high ROS level and low TOC removal in high transient shock reactors implied that 2000–2500 mg/L of transient nicotine shock was out of its recovery of strain HF-1 bioaugmented system. This study enriched our understanding on highly efficient nicotine-degrading strain bioaugmented system, which would be beneficial to tobacco waste or wastewater treatment in engineering. Dong-sheng Shen, Li-jia Wang, Hong-zhen He, and Mei-zhen Wang Copyright © 2016 Dong-sheng Shen et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Adsorption of Orange II Using Cationic Surfactant Modified Biochar Pyrolyzed from Cornstalk Wed, 15 Jun 2016 06:34:36 +0000 As dissolution of raw biomass is serious when used as an adsorbent, the cheap biochar pyrolyzed from biomass might be a good matrix. Raw cornstalk biochar was intentionally modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to prepare the composite adsorbent designed for the removal of negatively charged pollutants. After modification, the removal efficiency for anionic dye Orange II (ORII) increased from 46.9% of the virgin cornstalk biochar to 99.7% of the CTAB-modified cornstalk biochar. The uptake of ORII proved to be favorable under acidic conditions but unfavorable under alkaline conditions. By nonlinear simulation, the Elovich model was the best to describe the adsorption kinetics. For linear simulation of the kinetic data, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the experimental points better than the pseudo-first-order model. Kinetic analysis indicated that the ORII adsorption process on the CTAB-modified cornstalk biochar might be chemical adsorption accompanied by ion exchange. At 298 K, the maximal adsorption capacity of the modified biochar is 26.9 mg/g by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of ORII increased with a rise in the reaction temperature. The enthalpy and entropy of the adsorption process are calculated to be 38.45 KJ mol−1 and 185.0 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. The negative values of at 288, 298, and 308 K were −14.92, −16.50, and −18.62 KJ mol−1, respectively. The above thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Xiao Mi, Guoting Li, Weiyong Zhu, and Lili Liu Copyright © 2016 Xiao Mi et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Modifications of Cassava Peel as Adsorbent Material for Metals Ions from Wastewater Tue, 14 Jun 2016 08:15:18 +0000 Residues from the processing of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz), or cassava peels, are evaluated as chemically modified adsorbents with H2O2, H2SO4, and NaOH, in the removal of metal ions Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) from contaminated water. Modified adsorbents were chemically characterized for their chemical composition and (point of zero charge), while adsorption tests determined the best conditions of pH, adsorbent mass, and contact time between adsorbent and adsorbate in the process of removal of the metal ions. Isotherms obtained from the preliminary results were linearized by Langmuir’s and Freudlich’s models. The thermodynamic parameters, such as , , and , were also evaluated. The modifying solutions proposed were effective in the modification of adsorbents and resulted in high capacity sorption materials. Equilibrium time between adsorbent and adsorbate for the solutions contaminated with metals is about 40 minutes. The Langmuir model adjusted to most results, indicating monolayers adsorption of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III). The values obtained for Langmuir show a higher adsorption capacity caused by chemical modifications, with values such as 19.54 mg Cd(II) per g of M. NaOH, 42.46 mg of Pb(II) per g of M. NaOH, and 43.97 mg of Cr(III) per g of M H2O2. Results showed that modified cassava peels are excellent adsorbent, renewable, high availability, and low-cost materials and a feasible alternative in the removal of metals in industries. Daniel Schwantes, Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr., Gustavo Ferreira Coelho, Marcelo Angelo Campagnolo, Douglas Cardoso Dragunski, César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, Alisson Junior Miola, and Eduardo Ariel Völz Leismann Copyright © 2016 Daniel Schwantes et al. All rights reserved. Extraction of Sodium Picrate by 3m-Crown-m Ethers and Their Monobenzo Derivatives (m = 5, 6) into Benzene: Estimation of Their Equilibrium-Potential Differences at the Less-Polar Diluent/Water Interface by an Extraction Method Mon, 13 Jun 2016 11:33:34 +0000 Individual distribution constants () of picrate ion (Pic−) and extraction constants () of NaPic by some crown ethers (L) into benzene (Bz) at 25°C were calculated from data reported previously. These constants were defined as and , respectively. Here, the subscript “o” denotes an organic (o) phase and practically o = Bz. 15-Crown-5 ether (15C5), 18-crown-6 one (18C6), and their monobenzo (B) derivatives (B15C5 and B18C6) were selected as L. Interfacial equilibrium-potential differences () at extraction were estimated at 298 K. A plot of versus for the four L extraction systems gave a straight line with slope = 84 V−1. This slope was compared with those, reported before, of the dichloromethane (DCM), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), and nitrobenzene (NB) extraction systems. The slopes of the regression lines were in the order NB < DCM ≤ DCE < Bz. Also, the individual distribution constants of the complex ion and an ion-pair complex () into Bz phase were calculated from the above extraction data. At least, a comparison between these values suggests that Bz molecules mainly interact with moiety of . Yoshihiro Kudo, Tsubasa Nakamori, and Chiya Numako Copyright © 2016 Yoshihiro Kudo et al. All rights reserved. Filter Paper Inspired Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials with High Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Methylene Orange Wed, 08 Jun 2016 06:13:13 +0000 Nanometer-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized through sol-gel method with natural cellulose substance (commercial filter paper) as template. The structure of zinc oxide nanomaterial was characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption and XRD. The morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. The results show that the hexagonal wurtzite phase is actually the only crystal phase in the sample and the product faithfully inherits the hierarchical morphology and the complex network structure of the original filter paper, which is composed of many randomly intersecting zinc oxide microfibers and nanosheets with lots of close stacked particles adsorbed on the surface. Moreover, these zinc oxide nanomaterials possess abundant mesoporous structure with an average pore diameter of ca. 21 nm and a wide pore size distribution (3–30 nm). Due to the strong absorption ability in the UV range, the zinc oxide nanomaterial prepared by this method displays significantly high photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange. In a short period of 20 minutes, the zinc oxide nanomaterial has degraded about 50% of the original MO, and the MO dye is fully degraded after UV irradiation for 80 minutes. Huang Liu, Yanhua Zhang, Hongtao Yang, Wei Xiao, and Lanlan Sun Copyright © 2016 Huang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Study on Soil Mobility of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides Tue, 31 May 2016 13:47:07 +0000 Movement of two neonicotinoid insecticide active ingredients, clothianidin (CLO) and thiamethoxam (TMX), was investigated in different soil types (sand, clay, or loam) and in pumice. Elution profiles were determined to explore differences in binding capacity. Soil characterized by high organic matter content retained the ingredients, whereas high clay content resulted in long release of compounds. Decrease in concentration was strongly influenced by soil types: both CLO and TMX were retained in loam and clay soils and showed ready elution through sandy soil and pumice. Elution capability of the active ingredients in sandy soil correlated with their water solubility, indicating approximately 30% higher rapidity for TMX than for CLO. Soil organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients () determined were in good agreement with literature values with somewhat lower value for CLO in sandy soil and substantially higher values for TMX in clay soil. High mobility of these neonicotinoid active ingredients in given soil types urges stronger precautionary approach taken during their application. Mária Mörtl, Orsolya Kereki, Béla Darvas, Szandra Klátyik, Ágnes Vehovszky, János Győri, and András Székács Copyright © 2016 Mária Mörtl et al. All rights reserved. Biosorption of Acid Dye in Single and Multidye Systems onto Sawdust of Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Tree Sun, 29 May 2016 12:27:33 +0000 Properties of raw sawdust of Parkia biglobosa, as a biosorbent for the removal of Acid Blue 161 dye in single, binary, and ternary dye systems with Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue dyes in aqueous solution, were investigated. The sawdust was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and pH point of zero charge. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the equilibrium characteristics, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the sorption processes. The data obtained were subjected to various isotherm and kinetics equations. The results showed that the adsorption processes were described by different isotherm models depending on the composition of the system; they were all spontaneous ( ranges from −0.72 to −5.36 kJ/mol) and endothermic (range of is 11.37–26.31 kJ/mol) and with increased randomness with values of 55.55 and 98.78 J·mol/K for single and ternary systems, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetics model gave better fit for all the sorption systems studied irrespective of the differences in composition, with the initial and overall rate constants higher for the mixtures than for the single system (6.76 g·mg−1min−1). The presence of Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue had a synergetic effect on the maximum monolayer capacity of the adsorbent for Acid Blue 161 dye. Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa, Khadijat Ayanpeju Abdulsalam, Francois Wewers, and Mary Adelaide Oladipo Copyright © 2016 Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Storage Stability of Diisopropylfluorophosphate Thu, 26 May 2016 14:06:31 +0000 Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor commonly used in toxicological studies as an organophosphorus nerve agent surrogate. However, LD50 values for DFP in the same species can differ widely even within the same laboratory, possibly due to the use of degraded DFP. The objectives here were to identify an efficient synthesis route for high purity DFP and assess the storage stability of both the in-house synthesized and commercial source of DFP at the manufacturer-recommended storage temperature of 4°C, as well as −10°C and −80°C. After 393 days, the commercial DFP stored at 4°C experienced significant degradation, while only minor degradation was observed at −10°C and none was observed at −80°C. DFP prepared using the newly identified synthesis route was significantly more stable, exhibiting only minor degradation at 4°C and none at −10°C or −80°C. The major degradation product was the monoacid derivative diisopropylphosphate, formed via hydrolysis of DFP. It was also found that storing DFP in glass containers may accelerate the degradation process by generating water in situ as hydrolytically generated hydrofluoric acid attacks the silica in the glass. Based on the results here, it is recommended that DFP be stored at or below −10°C, preferably in air-tight, nonglass containers. Derik R. Heiss, Donald W. Zehnder II, David A. Jett, Gennady E. Platoff Jr., David T. Yeung, and Bobby N. Brewer Copyright © 2016 Derik R. Heiss et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Chloridobis(dimethylglyoximato)4-(2-ferrocenylvinyl)pyridinecobalt(III): A New Heterobinuclear Cobaloxime Wed, 25 May 2016 10:34:23 +0000 The synthesis of a new heterobinuclear cobaloxime with 4-(2-ferrocenylvinyl)pyridine, fcvpy, is reported. The complex [CoCl(dmgH)2(fcvpy)], where dmgH2 is dimethylglyoxime and dmgH is dimethylglyoximato, has been characterized by 1H-NMR, UV-Vis, cyclic voltammetry, and elemental analysis. The cyclic voltammogram of this complex shows a fc/fc+ reversible wave at +0.58 V versus Ag/AgCl, one irreversible wave, = −0.54 V versus Ag/AgCl, assigned to the reduction of Co(III) to Co(II), and two quasireversible processes at −1.02 V and −1.10 V versus Ag/AgCl associated with the reduction of Co(II). The complex showed ferrocene-ligand charge transfer bands at 334 nm and 505 nm. TDDFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations support this assignation. Sebastián Pizarro, Guillermo Saá, Francisco Gajardo, and Alvaro Delgadillo Copyright © 2016 Sebastián Pizarro et al. All rights reserved. Surface Modification Chemistries of Materials Used in Diagnostic Platforms with Biomolecules Wed, 25 May 2016 08:36:31 +0000 Biomolecules including DNA, protein, and enzymes are of prime importance in biomedical field. There are several reports on the technologies for the detection of these biomolecules on various diagnostic platforms. It is important to note that the performance of the biosensor is highly dependent on the substrate material used and its meticulous modification for particular applications. Therefore, it is critical to understand the principles of a biosensor to identify the correct substrate material and its surface modification chemistry. The imperative surface modification for the attachment of biomolecules without losing their bioactivity is a key to sensitive detection. Therefore, finding of a modification method which gives minimum damage to the surface as well as biomolecule is highly inevitable. Different surface modification technologies are invented according to the type of a substrate used. Surface modification techniques of the materials used as platforms in the fabrication of biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Mukesh Digambar Sonawane and Satish Balasaheb Nimse Copyright © 2016 Mukesh Digambar Sonawane and Satish Balasaheb Nimse. All rights reserved. REE Geochemistry of Euphrates River, Turkey Mon, 23 May 2016 13:17:56 +0000 The study area is located on the Euphrates River at 38°41°32.48′′N–38°14′24.10′′N latitude and 39°56′4.59′′E–39°8°13.41′′E longitude. The Euphrates is the longest river in Western Asia. The lithological units observed from the bottom to the top are Permo-Triassic Keban Metamorphites, Late Cretaceous Kömürhan Ophiolites, Upper Cretaceous Elazığ Magmatic Complex, Middle Eocene Maden Complex and Kırkgeçit Formation, Upper Pliocene and Lower Eocene Seske Formation and Upper Miocene, Pliocene Karabakır and Çaybağı Formations, Palu Formation, and Holocene Euphrates River sediments. The geochemical studies show that 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions in the Euphrates River bank sediments are 0.7053, 0.7048, and 0.7057 and 0.512654, 0.512836, and 0.512775, respectively. These values indicate mixing of both carbonate-rich shallow marine sediment and felsic-mafic rocks from Elazığ Magmatic Complex into the stream sediments. The positive values (0.35, 3.9, and 2.7) are higher downstream in the studied sediments due to weathering of the mafic volcanic rocks. The chondrite, NAS, and UCC normalized patterns show that the REE compositions of the Euphrates River sediments are higher than chondrite composition but close to NAS and UCC. The river sediments in the tectonic zone and the weathered granodioritic rocks of the Elazığ Magmatic complex affect upstream water compositions. Leyla Kalender and Gamze Aytimur Copyright © 2016 Leyla Kalender and Gamze Aytimur. All rights reserved. Physicochemical and Nutritional Characterization of Starch Isolated from Colocasia antiquorum Cultivated in Oaxaca, Mexico Mon, 23 May 2016 09:26:29 +0000 The physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of Colocasia antiquorum (taro coconut or Chinese taro) starch cultivated in Oaxaca, Mexico, were determined. The granules of Colocasia antiquorum presented a truncated ellipsoidal shape. The chemical composition analysis showed levels of moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, and NFE in a dry base of 10.29, 0.18, 2.0, 0.05, 0.01, and 97.76, respectively, as well as amylose and amylopectin contents of 13.05 and 86.95%, respectively. Gelatinization temperatures, onset (), peak (), and final (), were 72.86, 82.91, and 93.05°C, respectively. Solubility, swelling power (SP), and water absorption capacity (WAC) correlate directly with increments in temperature. Transmittance value (% T) for taro coconut was 0.3% and its apparent viscosity ranged from 100 to 150 cp. The nutritional characterization of Colocasia antiquorum’s starch amounted to 97.88% of total starch (TS), while available (AS) and resistant starch (RS) were 93.47 and 3.70%, respectively. Colocasia antiquorum, grown in Oaxaca, Mexico, is an unconventional source of starch with added value due to its potential use as an ingredient in the development of new products or as a substitute for conventional starch sources in industrial processes. Karina Ríos-Ríos, Edith González-Mondragón, Maira Segura-Campos, Mariela Ramírez-Jiménez, Jesús López-Luna, Irma López-Martínez, and David Betancur-Ancona Copyright © 2016 Karina Ríos-Ríos et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Nanomaterials Based on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Overcoming Challenges in Current Cancer Treatments Tue, 17 May 2016 14:19:02 +0000 The current approaches used for the treatment of cancer face some clinical limitations such as induction of severe side effects, multidrug resistance (MDR), and low specificity toward metastatic cancer cells. Hybrid nanomaterials hold a great potential to overcome all these challenges. Among hybrid nanoparticles, those based on mesoporous silica and iron oxide nanoparticles (MSNs and IONPs) have gained a privileged place in the biomedical field because of their outstanding properties. There are many studies demonstrating their effectiveness as drug delivery systems, nanoheaters, and imaging contrast agents. This review summarizes the advances related to the utilization of IONPs and MSNs for reducing side effects, overcoming MDR, and inhibiting metastasis. Furthermore, we give a future perspective of the clinical application of these technologies. Merlis P. Alvarez-Berríos, Naisha Sosa-Cintron, Mariel Rodriguez-Lugo, Ridhima Juneja, and Juan L. Vivero-Escoto Copyright © 2016 Merlis P. Alvarez-Berríos et al. All rights reserved. Sulfur Speciation in the Surface Sediments of Lakes from Different Regions, China: Characterization by S K-Edge XANES Spectroscopy Mon, 16 May 2016 06:23:24 +0000 X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy affords the opportunity to determine redox status for element S in the aquatic ecosystems. However, there have been relatively few studies of S XANES spectroscopy in the terrestrial aquatic ecosystems. In this study, XANES technology was used to examine changes in S speciation in the sediments collected from Taihu Lake, Qinghai Lake, Dianchi Lake, Caohai Lake, and Hongfeng Lake located in distinct geological background areas of China. The results showed that sedimentary S in Qinghai Lake has a high proportion of sulfate averaged 88.9% due to physical weathering of watershed rocks, while deposited S in Taihu Lake has a high fraction of intermediate S (36.5%), which may be the response of the agricultural nonpoint source pollution in drainage basin. The three lakes located in Southwest China have similar composition characteristics of S species, indicating similar S sources including chemical weathering of carbonate and atmospheric deposition. 60–90% of S compounds in the surface sediments were in the form of sulfate and FeS. In deeper layers, the ratio of FeS2 and the intermediate S significantly increased, suggesting rapid processes of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation with the increasing depths. Wang Jingfu, Chen Jingan, Dai Zhihui, Yang Haiquan, and Ma Chenyan Copyright © 2016 Wang Jingfu et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Some Polysubstituted Nicotinonitriles and Derived Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines as In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Candidates Sun, 15 May 2016 08:01:11 +0000 The synthesis of polysubstituted pyridines, in addition to some derived pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring systems supported with chemotherapeutically active functionalities, is described. They were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic effects against three different human tumor cell lines (human colon carcinoma HT29, hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2, and Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma MCF7). Nine compounds displayed variable cytotoxic potential, among which alkylthio analogs 33, 34, and 37 emerged as the most active members, being almost twice as active as doxorubicin against the colon carcinoma HT29 cell line. In addition, the same three analogs showed a clear differential cytotoxic profile as they exhibited a marginal inhibitory effect on the growth of the normal nontransformed human foreskin fibroblast Hs27 cell line. Meanwhile, nineteen compounds were able to exhibit significant antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, together with moderate antifungal activities. The pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2(1H)-thione 30 together with its alkylthio derivatives 33 and 34 stemmed as the most active antimicrobial members being equipotent to ampicillin against S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa, together with a noticeable antifungal activity against C. albicans. Compounds 33 and 34 could be considered as a promising template for possible dual antimicrobial-anticancer candidates. Hassan M. Faidallah, Sherif A. F. Rostom, and Khalid A. Khan Copyright © 2016 Hassan M. Faidallah et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Cefoperazone Sodium in Presence of Related Impurities by Improved Classical Least Squares Chemometric Methods: A Comparative Study Wed, 11 May 2016 14:29:56 +0000 A comparative study is established among 4 chemometric models depending on classical least squares (CLS) approach, namely, spectral residual augmented CLS (SRACLS), net analyte processing CLS (NAP-CLS), orthogonal signal correction CLS (OSC-CLS), and direct orthogonal signal correction CLS (DOSC-CLS). The comparison is expressed through analysis of a case study dataset of UV spectral data of Cefoperazone Sodium (CEF) and its two related impurities: in pure powder form and in pharmaceutical dosage form. Four-level three-factor experimental design was established for optimum analysis. The adopted experimental design gave rise to a training set consisting of 16 mixtures (containing different ratios of interfering species). To test the prediction power of the suggested models, an independent test set consisting of 9 mixtures was used. The presented results show the ability of the proposed models to quantify CEF in presence of two related impurities with high accuracy and selectivity (, , , and for SRACLS, NAP-CLS, OSC-CLS, and DOSC-CLS, resp.). Dosage form analysis results were compared statistically to a published HPLC methodology showing insignificant difference in terms of precision and accuracy, indicating the suggested models reliability and their suitability for quality control analysis of drug product. Compared to other models, OSC-CLS and DOSC-CLS models gave more accurate results with lower prediction error for test set samples. Ibrahim A. Naguib and Hany W. Darwish Copyright © 2016 Ibrahim A. Naguib and Hany W. Darwish. All rights reserved.