- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Composites
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 140127, 8 pages
Porosity Distribution in Composite Structures with Infrared Thermography
1Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), Via Maiorise, 81043 Capua, Italy
2Department of Industrial Engineering, Aerospace Section, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy
Received 14 January 2013; Revised 14 March 2013; Accepted 17 March 2013
Academic Editor: Harry Siu-lung Ku
Copyright © 2013 Cinzia Toscano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. A. Baker, S. Dutton, and D. Kelly, Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures, AIAA Education Series, 2nd edition, 2004.
- A. C. Loos and G. S. Springer, “Calculation of cure process variables during cure of graphite-epoxy composites,” in Composite Materials, Quality Assurance and Processing, C. E. Brownin, Ed., vol. 797 of ASTM STP, pp. 110–118, 1983.
- L. Liu, B. M. Zhang, D. F. Wang, and Z. J. Wu, “Effects of cure cycles on void content and mechanical properties of composite laminates,” Composite Structures, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 303–309, 2006.
- F. Y. C. Boey and S. W. Lye, “Void reduction in autoclave processing of thermoset composites: part 1: high pressure effects on void reduction,” Composites, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 261–265, 1992.
- E. A. Birt and R. A. Smith, “A review of NDE methods for porosity measurement in fibre-reinforced polymer composites,” Insight, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 681–686, 2004.
- J. Schuller and R. Oster, “Classification of porosity by ultrasonic in carbon fibre helicopter structures based on micro computed tomography,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Berlin, Germany, September 2006.
- J.-W. Park, D. J. Kim, K.-H. Im et al., “Ultrasonic influence of porosity level on CFRP Composite laminates using rayleigh probe waves,” Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 298–307, 2008.
- L. Lin, M. Luo, H. T. Tian, X. M. Li, and G. P. Guo, “Experimental investigation on porosity of carbon fibre-reinforced composite using ultrasonic attenuation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Shanghai, China, October 2008.
- I. M. Daniel, S. C. Wooh, and I. Komsky, “Quantitative porosity characterization of composite materials by means of ultrasonic attenuation measurements,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 1992.
- EN 2564. Carbon fibre laminates—Determination of the fibre-, resin- and void contents, 1998.
- G. Hendorfer, G. Mayr, G. Zauner, M. Haslhofer, and R. Pree, “Quantitative determination of porosity by active thermography,” vol. 26, pp. 702–708.
- J. Kastner, B. Plank, D. Salaberger, and J. Sekelja, “Defect and porosity determination of fibre reinforced polymers by X-ray computed tomography,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on NDT in Aerospace, Hamburg, Germany, November 2010.
- G. Mayr and G. Handorfer, “Porosity Determination by pulsed Thermography in reflection mode,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography, Quebec, Canada, July, 2010.
- J. Banhart, “Manufacture, characterisation and application of cellular metals and metal foams,” Progress in Materials Science, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 559–632, 2001.
- D. T. Queheillalt, D. J. Sypeck, and H. N. G. Wadley, “Ultrasonic characterization of cellular metal structures,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 323, no. 1-2, pp. 138–147, 2002.
- L. P. Lefebvre, A. Blouin, S. M. Rochon, and M. N. Bureau, “Elastic response of titanium foams during compression tests and using laser-ultrasonic probing,” Advanced Engineering Materials, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 841–846, 2006.
- G. M. Carlomagno, L. Carrino, M. Durante, S. Franchitti, and C. Meola, “Density evaluation in metal foams with lock-in thermography,” in Proceedings of the 10th A.I.TE.M. Conference Enhancing the Science of Manufacturing, pp. 1–10, 2011.
- C. Meola and G. M. Carlomagno, “Infrared thermography in non-destructive inspection: theory and practice,” in Recent Advances in Non Destructive Inspection, C. Meola, Ed., pp. 89–123, Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
- C. Meola and C. Toscano, “NonDestructive evaluation of carbon fiber reinforced polymers with ultrasonics and infrared thermography: an overview on historical steps and patents,” Recent Patents on Materials Science, vol. 5, pp. 48–67, 2012.
- C. Meola and G. M. Carlomagno, “Recent advances in the use of infrared thermography,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. R27–R58, 2004.
- C. Meola and G. M. Carlomagno, “Application of infrared thermography to adhesion science,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 589–632, 2006.
- G. M. Carlomagno and P. G. Berardi, “Unsteady thermotopography in non-Destructive Testing,” in III Infrared Information Exchange, C. Warren, Ed., pp. 33–40, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 1976.
- J. L. Beaudoin, E. Merienne, R. Danjoux, and M. Egee, “Numerical system for infrared scanners and application to the subsurface control of materials by photothermal radiometry,” in Proceedings of the Infrared Technology and Applications, vol. 590 of Proceeding of SPIE, pp. 287–292, November 1985.
- P. K. Kuo, Z. J. Feng, T. Ahmed, L. D. Favro, R. L. Thomas, and J. Hartikainen, “Parallel thermal wave imaging using a vector lockin video technique,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena, P. Hess and J. Pelzl, Eds., pp. 415–418, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1987.
- G Busse, D. Wu, and W. Karpen, “Thermal wave imaging with phase sensitive modulated thermography,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 71, pp. 3962–3965, 1992.
- A. Lehto, J. Jaarinen, T. Tiusanen, M. Jokinen, and M. Luukkala, “Magnitude and phase in thermal wave imaging,” Electronics Letters, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 364–365, 1981.
- C. A. Bennett Jr. and R. R. Patty, “Thermal wave interferometry: a potential application of the photoacoustic effect,” Applied Optics, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 1981.
- G. Busse, “Optoacustic phase angle measurement for probing a metal,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 35, pp. 759–760, 1979.
- R. L. Thomas, J. J. Pouch, Y. H. Wong, L. D. Favro, P. K. Kuo, and A. Rosencwaig, “Subsurface flaw detection in metals by photoacoustic microscopya,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 1152–1156, 1980.
- G. Busse, “Optoacoustic and photothermal material inspection techniques,” Applied Optics, vol. 21, pp. 107–110, 1982.
- C Toscano and C. Vitiello, “Study of the influence of the staking sequence on porosity formation in carbon fibre composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 122, no. 6, pp. 3583–3589, 2011.
- W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, and G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1679–1684, 1961.
- C. Toscano, C. Meola, M. C. Iorio, and G. M. Carlomagno, “Porosity and inclusion detection in CFRP by infrared thermography,” Advances in Optical Technologies, vol. 2012, Article ID 765953, 6 pages, 2012.