Table 3: Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression ( ).

Model 1 (all)Model 2 (physical)Model 3 (emotional)
Level-1Level-2Level-1Level-2Level-1Level-2
β (OR)β (OR)β (OR)β (OR)β (OR)β (OR)

Fixed effects
Individual-level variables
 Race (1: white).037 (1.038).032 (1.033).015 (1.015).012 (1.013).044 (1.045).038 (1.038)
 Sex (1: male)−.396 (.673)−.399 (.671).776 (2.172).773 (2.167)−.435 (.647)−.438 (.645)
 Age−.169 (.845)−.158 (.853)−.250 (.778)−.240 (.787)−.158 (.854)−.147 (.863)
 Parental support−.070 (.933)−.071 (.931)−.077 (.925)−.078 (.925)−.071 (.932)−.072 (.930)
 Peer support−.168 (.845)−.167 (.846)−.147 (.864)−.146 (.864)−.168 (.845)−.167 (.846)
 School Pressure.124 (1.132).124 (1.132).059 (1.061).059 (1.061).126 (1.135).126 (1.134)
School-level variables
 Security climate.008 (.992).016 (1.016).013 (.987)
 Safe Passage (1: yes).047 (.954).008 (.992).053 (.949)
 Gang prevention (1: yes)−.184 (.831).213 (.808)−.202 (.817)
 Bullying prevention (1: yes).212 (1.236).255 (1.290).215 (1.240)
Constant5.315 (203.399)5.176 (177.037)3.561 (35.195)3.287 (26.773)5.121 (167.440)5.007 (149.340)

Goodness of fit
AIC8154.4208155.0494850.9864855.7188164.8678163.984
BIC8208.5298242.9764905.1644943.7568218.9398251.852
−2 log likelihood8138.4208129.0494834.9864829.7188148.8678137.984

(1) Bolded coefficients denote P < 0.05.
(2) Null model (equivalent to a one-way ANOVA with schools as a random effect) for each dependent variable that is not reported.