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Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 529312, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/529312
Review Article

Cancer Epigenetics: New Therapies and New Challenges

1Department of Haematology, University Hospital of Ioannina, St. Niarchou Avenue, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2Computational Medicine Center, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
3Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK

Received 3 December 2012; Accepted 20 January 2013

Academic Editor: Evangelos Briasoulis

Copyright © 2013 Eleftheria Hatzimichael and Tim Crook. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cancer is nowadays considered to be both a genetic and an epigenetic disease. The most well studied epigenetic modification in humans is DNA methylation; however it becomes increasingly acknowledged that DNA methylation does not work alone, but rather is linked to other modifications, such as histone modifications. Epigenetic abnormalities are reversible and as a result novel therapies that work by reversing epigenetic effects are being increasingly explored. The biggest clinical impact of epigenetic modifying agents in neoplastic disorders thus far has been in haematological malignancies, and the efficacy of DNMT inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors in blood cancers clearly attests to the principle that therapeutic modification of the cancer cell epigenome can produce clinical benefit. This paper will discuss the most well studied epigenetic modifications and how these are linked to cancer, will give a brief overview of the clinical use of epigenetics as biomarkers, and will focus in more detail on epigenetic drugs and their use in solid and blood cancers.