About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 562727, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/562727
Research Article

Development of Dorzolamide Loaded 6-O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Open Angle Glaucoma

Department of Pharmaceutics, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400098, India

Received 16 May 2013; Accepted 21 August 2013

Academic Editor: Philippe Maincent

Copyright © 2013 Ujwala Shinde et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chitosan (CS) is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and mucoadhesive natural polymer soluble in acidic pH only and can be irritating to the eye. Objective of the study was to synthesize water soluble 6-O-carboxymethyl (OCM-CS) derivative of CS, and to develop CS and OCM-CS nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ). CS was reacted with monochloroacetic acid (MCA) for OCM-CS synthesis and was characterized by FT-IR, DSC, and 13C NMR. CS and OCM-CS NPs were prepared by ionic gelation method. Ocular irritation potential were evaluated and therapeutic efficacy was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbits. Maximum yield was obtained when the ratio of water/isopropyl alcohol was 1/4 at 55°C. The FT-IR, DSC and 13C NMR confirmed the formation of an ether linkage between hydroxyl groups of CS and MCA. The particle size and zeta potential of optimised CSNPs was 250.3 ± 2.62 nm and +33.47 ± 0.723 mV, whereas those for OCM-CSNPs were 187.1 ± 2.72 nm and 30.87 ± 0.86 mV. The entrapment efficiency was significantly improved for OCM-CSNPs, compared to CSNPs. OCM-CSNPs had tailored drug release and improved bioavailability with reduction in pulse entry as compared to CSNPs. Hence, it can be concluded that DRZ loaded OCM-CSNPs would be better alternative option to available eye drops for glaucoma treatment.