About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 657103, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/657103
Review Article

The Influence of Autonomic Dysfunction Associated with Aging and Type 2 Diabetes on Daily Life Activities

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA

Received 5 August 2011; Revised 28 January 2012; Accepted 30 January 2012

Academic Editor: Nicola Montano

Copyright © 2012 Jerrold Petrofsky et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Makrantonaki, P. Schönknecht, A. M. Hossini et al., “Skin and brain age together: The role of hormones in the ageing process,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 801–813, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Makrantonaki and C. C. Zouboulis, “Dermatoendocrinology: Skin Aging,” Hautarzt, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 505–510, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. L. Kellogg, C. G. Crandall, Y. Liu, N. Charkoudian, and J. M. Johnson, “Nitric oxide and cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 824–829, 1998. View at Scopus
  4. C. Maloney-Hinds, J. S. Petrofsky, G. Zimmerman, and D. A. Hessinger, “The role of nitric oxide in skin blood flow increases due to vibration in healthy adults and adults with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. M. Hirai, S. W. Copp, K. S. Hageman, D. C. Poole, and T. I. Musch, “Aging alters the contribution of nitric oxide to regional muscle hemodynamic control at rest and during exercise in rats,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 989–998, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Petrofsky, E. Lohman, S. Lee et al., “Effects of contrast baths on skin blood flow on the dorsal and plantar foot in people with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls,” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 189–197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Farage, K. Miller, and H. Maibach, Eds., Influence of Race, Gender, Age and Diabetes on the Skin Circluation. Text Book of Ageing Skin, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
  8. S. L. Carroll, S. J. Byer, D. A. Dorsey, M. A. Watson, and R. E. Schmidt, “Ganglion-specific patterns of diabetes-modulated gene expression are established in prevertebral and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia prior to the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 1144–1154, 2004. View at Scopus
  9. R. E. Schmidt, D. A. Dorsey, L. N. Beaudet, and R. G. Peterson, “Analysis of the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) type 2 diabetic rat model suggests a neurotrophic role for insulin/IGF-I in diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2003. View at Scopus
  10. D. H. Damon, “Vascular-dependent effects of elevated glucose on postganglionic sympathetic neurons,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 300, no. 4, pp. H1386–H1392, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. M. Rizzo, P. Berselli, S. Zava et al., “Endogenous antioxidants and radical scavengers,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 698, pp. 52–67, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. D. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 44–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Valko, C. J. Rhodes, J. Moncol, M. Izakovic, and M. Mazur, “Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 1–40, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Samborski, D. Naskrȩt, A. Araszkiewicz, P. Niedźwiecki, D. Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, and B. Wierusz-Wysocka, “Assessment of skin autofluorescence as a marker of advanced glycation end product accumulation in type 1 diabetes,” Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 67–72, 2011.
  15. A. U. Ferrari, “Modifications of the cardiovascular system with aging,” American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 30–34, 2002. View at Scopus
  16. J. B. Buse, H. N. Ginsberg, G. L. Bakris et al., “Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in people with diabetes mellitus: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 114–126, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. M. Grundy, “Diabetes and coronary risk equivalency: What does it mean?” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 457–460, 2006. View at Scopus
  18. J. Petrofsky and S. Lee, “The effects of type 2 diabetes and aging on vascular endothelial and autonomic function,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. CR247–CR254, 2005.
  19. J. Petrofsky, S. Lee, and M. Cuneo, “Effects of aging and type 2 diabetes on resting and post occlusive hyperemia of the forearm; the impact of rosiglitazone,” BMC Endocrine Disorders, vol. 5, article no. 4, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. W. Trott, J. W. Seawright, M. J. Luttrell, and C. R. Woodman, “NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to age-related impairments of endothelium-dependent dilation in rat soleus feed arteries,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1171–1180, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. R. A. Harris, J. Pedersen-White, D.-H. Guo et al., “Vitamin D3 supplementation for 16 weeks improves flow-mediated dilation in overweight African-American adults,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 557–562, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. R. De Jongh, G. R. M. M. Haenen, G. A. Van Koeveringe, M. Dambros, J. G. R. De Mey, and P. E. V. Van Kerrebroeck, “Oxidative stress reduces the muscarinic receptor function in the urinary bladder,” Neurourology and Urodynamics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 302–308, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. M. Rosa, B. G. Restelatto, and V. Poyer, “Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1,” Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 541–542, 2011.
  24. N. L. Katsilambros, A. J. Boulton, N. Tentolouris, A. Kokkinos, and S. Liatis, “Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus and obesity: an update,” Experimental Diabetes Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 607309, 2 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. L. Van Nassauw, J. Bogers, E. Van Marck, and J. P. Timmermans, “Role of reactive nitrogen species in neuronal cell damage during intestinal schistosomiasis,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 303, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. S. Petrofsky, “The effect of type-2-diabetes-related vascular endothelial dysfunction on skin physiology and activities of daily living,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 657–667, 2011.
  27. A. A. Bulhak, P. O. Sjöquist, C. B. Xu, L. Edvinsson, and J. Pernow, “Protection against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury by PPAR-α activation is related to production of nitric oxide and endothelin-1,” Basic Research in Cardiology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 244–252, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Y. Oudit and Z. Kassiri, “Role of PI3 kinase gamma in excitation-contraction coupling and heart disease,” Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 295–304, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. A. Farage, K. W. Miller, and H. I. Maibach, Textbook of Aging Skin, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
  30. L. B. Rowell, “Reflex control of the cutaneous vasculature,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 154–166, 1977. View at Scopus
  31. L. B. Rowell, “Reflex control of the circulation during exercise,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. S25–S27, 1992. View at Scopus
  32. A. I. Vinik, R. Freeman, and T. Erbas, “Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy,” Seminars in Neurology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 365–372, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Alemzadeh, P. Palma-Sisto, E. A. Parton, and M. K. Holzum, “Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple dose of insulin regimen display similar patterns of blood glucose excursions in pediatric type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 587–596, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Dandona, K. Thusu, S. Cook et al., “Oxidative damage to DNA in diabetes mellitus,” Lancet, vol. 347, no. 8999, pp. 444–445, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Quagliaro, L. Piconi, R. Assaloni et al., “Intermittent high glucose enhances ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture: The distinct role of protein kinase C and mitochondrial superoxide production,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 259–267, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Azad, N. V. Emanuele, C. Abraira et al., “The effects of intensive glycemic control on neuropathy in the VA cooperative study on type II diabetes mellitus (VA CSDM),” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 13, no. 5-6, pp. 307–313, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. I. Vinik, R. E. Maser, B. D. Mitchell, and R. Freeman, “Diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1553–1579, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Pop-Busui, J. Lu, N. Lopes, and T. L. Z. Jones, “Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. J. Cameron, S. M. Donath, and P. A. Baghurst, “Measuring glycaemic variation,” Current Diabetes Reviews, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 17–26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Risso, F. Mercuri, L. Quagliaro, G. Damante, and A. Ceriello, “Intermittent high glucose enhances apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 281, no. 5, pp. E924–E930, 2001. View at Scopus
  41. F. Infusino, D. Pitocco, F. Zaccardi et al., “Low glucose blood levels are associated with abnormal cardiac sympatho-vagal balance in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 203–207, 2010. View at Scopus
  42. X. Y. Ye, Q. Tu, Z. Tong, Y. J. Weng, and Y. F. Wang, “Effects of glucose concentration fluctuation on function of cultured bovine arterial endothelial cells,” Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 264–267, 2010.
  43. J. Kostolanská, V. Jakuš, L. Barák, and A. Staníková, “Impact of long-term glycemic control on changes of lipid profile in children and adolescents with 1 type diabetes mellitus,” Vnitrni Lekarstvi, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 533–539, 2011.
  44. D. K. Singh, P. Winocour, and K. Farrington, “Oxidative stress in early diabetic nephropathy: fueling the fire,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 176–184, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. H. Lee, T. Palaia, and L. Ragolia, “Impaired insulin-mediated vasorelaxation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats is caused by impaired Akt phosphorylation,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 296, no. 2, pp. C327–C338, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. J. Woodman, D. A. Playford, and G. F. Watts, “Basal production of nitric oxide (NO) and non-NO vasodilators in the forearm microcirculation in Type 2 diabetes: Associations with blood pressure and HDL cholesterol,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. A. Potenza, S. Gagliardi, C. Nacci, M. R. Carratu, and M. Montagnani, “Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: From mechanisms to therapeutic targets,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 94–112, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. F. Giacco and M. Brownlee, “Oxidative stress and diabetic complications,” Circulation Research, vol. 107, no. 9, pp. 1058–1070, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. A. Bulhak, C. Jung, C. G. Östenson, J. O. Lundberg, P. O. Sjoquist, and J. Pernow, “PPAR-α activation protects the type 2 diabetic myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury: Involvement of the PI3-kinase/Akt and NO pathway,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 296, no. 3, pp. H719–H727, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Gogg, U. Smith, and P. A. Jansson, “Increased MAPK activation and impaired insulin signaling in subcutaneous microvascular endothelial cells in type 2 diabetes: The role of endothelin-1,” Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2238–2245, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. de Wit, M. Boettcher, and V. J. Schmidt, “Signaling across myoendothelial gap junctions—fact or fiction?” Cell Communication and Adhesion, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 231–245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. K. Gupta, J. Subramani, M. D. M. Leo et al., “Role of voltage-dependent potassium channels and myo-endothelial gap junctions in 4-aminopyridine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine relaxation in rat carotid artery,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 591, no. 1–3, pp. 171–176, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. R. Triggle, M. Hollenberg, T. J. Anderson et al., “The endothelium in health and disease—a target for therapeutic intervention,” Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 249–267, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. T. Sato, R. Haimovici, R. Kao, A. F. Li, and S. Roy, “Downregulation of connexin 43 expression by high glucose reduces gap junction activity in microvascular endothelial cells,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1565–1571, 2002. View at Scopus
  55. D. Lawson and J. S. Petrofsky, “A randomized control study on the effect of biphasic electrical stimulation in a warm room on skin blood flow and healing rates in chronic wounds of patients with and without diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. CR258–CR263, 2007.
  56. J. Petrofsky, S. Lee, and M. Cuneo, “Effects of aging and type 2 diabetes on resting and post occlusive hyperemia of the forearm; the impact of rosiglitazone,” BMC Endocrine Disorders, vol. 5, article no. 4, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. S. Petrofsky, N. Focil, M. Prowse et al., “Autonomic stress and balance–the impact of age and diabetes,” Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 475–481, 2010. View at Scopus
  58. J. Petrofsky, S. Lee, and M. Cuneo-Libarona, “The impact of rosiglitazone on heat tolerance in patients with Type 2 Diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. CR562–CR569, 2005.
  59. J. S. Petrofsky, S. Lee, C. Patterson, M. Cole, and B. Stewart, “Sweat production during global heating and during isometric exercise in people with diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. CR515–CR521, 2005.
  60. S. H. Horowitz, “Recent clinical advances in diabetic polyneuropathy,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 573–578, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. Sridhar, N. Haleagrahara, R. Bhat, A. B. Kulur, S. Avabratha, and P. Adhikary, “Increase in the heart rate variability with deep breathing in diabetic patients after 12-month exercise training,” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 107–113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. I. G. Obrosova, “Diabetic painful and insensate neuropathy: pathogenesis and potential treatments,” Neurotherapeutics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 638–647, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. J. Petrofsky, D. Paluso, D. Anderson et al., “The ability of different areas of the skin to absorb heat from a locally applied heat source: the impact of diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 365–372, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. J. Petrofsky, D. Paluso, D. Anderson et al., “The contribution of skin blood flow in warming the skin after the application of local heat; the duality of the Pennes heat equation,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 325–329, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. S. Petrofsky, D. Lawson, L. Berk, and H. Suh, “Enhanced healing of diabetic foot ulcers using local heat and electrical stimulation for 30 min three times per week,” Journal of Diabetes, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. I. Fredriksson, M. Larsson, F. H. Nyström, T. Länne, C. J. Östgren, and T. Strömberg, “Reduced arteriovenous shunting capacity after local heating and redistribution of baseline skin blood flow in type 2 diabetes assessed with velocity-resolved quantitative laser Doppler flowmetry,” Diabetes, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 1578–1584, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Noble, D. Voegeli, and G. F. Clough, “A comparison of cutaneous vascular responses to transient pressure loading in smokers and nonsmokers,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 283–288, 2003. View at Scopus
  68. Y. K. Jan, D. M. Brienza, M. J. Geyer, and P. Karg, “Wavelet-based spectrum analysis of sacral skin blood flow response to alternating pressure,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 137–145, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. S. Petrofsky, G. S. Bains, M. Prowse et al., “The influence of age and diabetes on the skin blood flow response to local pressure,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. CR325–CR331, 2009. View at Scopus
  70. G. Nakagami, Y. Sari, T. Nagase, S. Iizaka, Y. Ohta, and H. Sanada, “Evaluation of the usefulness of skin blood flow measurements by laser speckle flowgraphy in pressure-induced ischemic wounds in rats,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 351–354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. McLellan, J. S. Petrofsky, G. Bains, G. Zimmerman, M. Prowse, and S. Lee, “The effects of skin moisture and subcutaneous fat thickness on the ability of the skin to dissipate heat in young and old subjects, with and without diabetes, at three environmental room temperatures,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. McLellan, J. S. Petrofsky, G. Zimmerman, M. Prowse, G. Bains, and S. Lee, “Multiple stressors and the response of vascular endothelial cells: The effect of aging and diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 73–79, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Bharara, J. Schoess, A. Nouvong, and D. G. Armstrong, “Wound inflammatory index: a "proof of concept" study to assess wound healing trajectory,” Journal of diabetes science and technology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 773–779, 2010. View at Scopus
  74. J. S. Petrofsky, K. McLellan, M. Prowse, G. Bains, L. Berk, and S. Lee, “The effect of body fat, aging, and diabetes on vertical and shear pressure in and under a waist belt and its effect on skin blood flow,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. McLellan, J. S. Petrofsky, G. Zimmerman et al., “The influence of environmental temperature on the response of the skin to local pressure: the impact of aging and diabetes,” Diabetes technology & therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 791–798, 2009. View at Scopus
  76. D. Santos-García, M. Blanco, J. Serena, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, R. Leira, and J. Castillo, “Impaired brachial flow-mediated dilation is a predictor of a new-onset vascular event after stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. B. J. Wong, B. W. Wilkins, L. A. Holowatz, and C. T. Minson, “Nitric oxide synthase inhibition does not alter the reactive hyperemic response in the cutaneous circulation,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 504–510, 2003. View at Scopus
  78. D. L. Kellogg, Y. Liu, I. F. Kosiba, and D. O'Donnell, “Role of nitric oxide in the vascular effects of local warming of the skin in humans,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 1185–1190, 1999. View at Scopus
  79. C. T. Minson, L. T. Berry, and M. J. Joyner, “Nitric oxide and neurally mediated regulation of skin blood flow during local heating,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1619–1626, 2001. View at Scopus
  80. K. Sauerstein, M. Klede, M. Hilliges, and M. Schmelz, “Electrically evoked neuropeptide release and neurogenic inflammation differ between rat and human skin,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 529, no. 3, pp. 803–810, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. B. Namer, A. Bickel, H. Krämer, F. Birklein, and M. Schmelz, “Chemically and electrically induced sweating and flare reaction,” Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, vol. 114, no. 1-2, pp. 72–82, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. S. Petrofsky, A. M. Al-Malty, and M. Prowse, “Relationship between multiple stimuli and skin blood flow,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. CR399–CR405, 2008. View at Scopus
  83. H. H. Pennes, “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 93–122, 1948. View at Scopus
  84. A. A. H. S. Al-Janabi, “Potential activity of the purine compounds caffeine and aminophylline on bacteria,” Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 133–137, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. G. Y. Oudit, M. G. Trivieri, N. Khaper, P. P. Liu, and P. H. Backx, “Role of L-type Ca2+ channels in iron transport and iron-overload cardiomyopathy,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 349–364, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. L. Baylie and J. E. Brayden, “TRPV channels and vascular function,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 99–116, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. H. Watanabe, J. Vriens, S. H. Suh, C. D. Benham, G. Droogmans, and B. Nilius, “Heat-evoked activation of TRPV4 channels in a HEK293 cell expression system and in native mouse aorta endothelial cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 49, pp. 47044–47051, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Brunton, “Current face of acute otitis media: Microbiology and prevalence resulting from widespread use of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 118–123, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. Petrofsky, N. Goraksh, F. Alshammari et al., “The ability of the skin to absorb heat; the effect of repeated exposure and age,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. CR1–CR8, 2011.
  90. J. Petrofsky, S. Gunda, C. Raju et al., “Impact of hydrotherapy on skin blood flow: How much is due to moisture and how much is due to heat?” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 107–112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. Petrofsky, H. Lee, M. Trivedi et al., “The influence of aging and diabetes on heat transfer characteristics of the skin to a rapidly applied heat source,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1003–1010, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. Tagliabue, D. Terracina, H. Cena, G. Turconi, E. Lanzola, and C. Montomoli, “Coffee induced thermogenesis and skin temperature,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 537–541, 1994.
  93. L. Gattinoni, M. Bombino, P. Pelosi et al., “Lung structure and function in different stages of severe adult respiratory distress syndrome,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 271, no. 22, pp. 1772–1779, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. Menard, P. Squicciarini, A. Luini et al., “Immunodetection of bone marrow micrometastases in breast carcinoma patients and its correlation with primary tumour prognostic features,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1126–1129, 1994. View at Scopus
  95. J. Petrofsky, “A method of measuring the interaction between skin temperature and humidity on skin vascular endothelial function in people with diabetes,” Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, vol. 35, no. 6-7, pp. 330–337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. J. Petrofsky, F. Alshahmmari, J. Eun Yim et al., “The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin,” Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 262–274, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. J. S. Petrofsky, K. McLellan, G. S. Bains et al., “Skin heat dissipation: The influence of diabetes, skin thickness, and subcutaneous fat thickness,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 487–493, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. McLellan, J. S. Petrofsky, G. Bains, G. Zimmerman, M. Prowse, and S. Lee, “The effects of skin moisture and subcutaneous fat thickness on the ability of the skin to dissipate heat in young and old subjects, with and without diabetes, at three environmental room temperatures,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. Petrofsky, F. Alshahmmari, J. Eun Yim et al., “The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin,” Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 262–274, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. J. Petrofsky, D. Paluso, D. Anderson et al., “The ability of different areas of the skin to absorb heat from a locally applied heat source: the impact of diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 365–372, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. R. M. Jose, R. Vidyadharan, D. K. Roy, and M. Erdmann, “Hot water bottles and diabetic patients—a cautionary tale,” British Journal of General Practice, vol. 55, no. 512, pp. 222–223, 2005.
  102. M. Tagliabue, T. C. Casella, G. E. Zincone, R. Fumagalli, and E. Salvini, “CT and chest radiography in the evaluation of adult respiratory distress syndrome,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 230–234, 1994. View at Scopus
  103. H. Mayaudon, P. O. Miloche, and B. Bauduceau, “A new simple method for assessing sudomotor function: relevance in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 450–454, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. J. Petrofsky, E. Lohman III, S. Lee et al., “The influence of alterations in room temperature on skin blood flow during contrast baths in patients with diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. CR290–CR295, 2006.
  105. D. Morelli, E. Villa, E. Tagliabue et al., “Relevance of antibody valency in EGF receptor modulation,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 453–458, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. J. Petrofsky, E. Lohman III, S. Lee et al., “Effects of contrast baths on skin blood flow on the dorsal and plantar foot in people with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls,” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 189–197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. J. Petrofsky, E. Lohman, S. Lee et al., “The influence of alterations in room temperature on skin blood flow during contrast baths in patients with diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. CR290–CR295, 2006. View at Scopus
  108. R. K. Anderson and W. L. Kenney, “Effect of age on heat-activated sweat gland density and flow during exercise in dry heat,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 1089–1094, 1987. View at Scopus
  109. L. B. Rowell, “Cardiovascular aspects of human thermoregulation,” Circulation Research, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 367–379, 1983. View at Scopus
  110. W. L. Kenney and R. K. Anderson, “Responses of older and younger women to exercise in dry and humid heat without fluid replacement,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 155–160, 1988. View at Scopus
  111. Y. Inoue, “Longitudinal effects of age on heat-activated sweat gland density and output in healthy active older men,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol. 74, no. 1-2, pp. 72–77, 1996. View at Scopus
  112. C. G. Tankersley, J. Smolander, W. L. Kenney, and S. M. Fortney, “Sweating and skin blood flow during exercise: Effects of age and maximal oxygen uptake,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 236–242, 1991. View at Scopus
  113. M. L. Savio, C. Rossi, P. Fusi, S. Tagliabue, and M. L. Pacciarini, “Detection and identification of Leptospira interrogans serovars by PCR coupled with restriction endonuclease analysis of amplified DNA,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 935–941, 1994. View at Scopus
  114. M. Caputi, G. Casari, S. Guenzi et al., “A novel bipartite splicing enhancer modulates the differential processing of the human fibronectin EDA exon,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1018–1022, 1994. View at Scopus
  115. M. Anburajan, S. Sivanandam, S. Bidyarasmi, B. Venkatraman, M. Menaka, and B. Raj, “Changes of skin temperature of parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in type-2 diabetes mellitus Indian patients,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS '11), pp. 6254–6259, August-September 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. R. D. Hoeldtke, K. D. Bryner, and K. Vandyke, “Oxidative stress and autonomic nerve function in early type 1 diabetes,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. A. M. Vincent, J. W. Russell, P. Low, and E. L. Feldman, “Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 612–628, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. K. McLellan, J. S. Petrofsky, G. Zimmerman, M. Prowse, G. Bains, and S. Lee, “Multiple stressors and the response of vascular endothelial cells: The effect of aging and diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 73–79, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. J. C. Philips, M. Marchand, and A. J. Scheen, “Squatting, a posture test for studying cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 489–496, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. J.-C. Philips and A. J. Scheen, “Squatting test: a posture to study and counteract cardiovascular abnormalities associated with autonomic dysfunction,” Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, vol. 162, no. 1-2, pp. 3–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. B. P. Grubb and D. Kosinski, “Tilt table testing: Concepts and limitations,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 781–787, 1997. View at Scopus
  122. J. S. Petrofsky, C. Besonis, D. Rivera, E. Schwab, and S. Lee, “Impairment in orthostatic tolerance during heat exposure in individuals with Type I and Type II diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. CR153–CR159, 2005.
  123. D. M. Keller, D. A. Low, S. L. Davis, J. Hastings, and C. G. Crandall, “Skin surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance following prolonged head-down bed rest,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 1592–1597, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. A. Fedorowski, L. Stavenow, B. Hedblad, G. Berglund, P. M. Nilsson, and O. Melander, “Orthostatic hypotension predicts all-cause mortality and coronary events in middle-aged individuals (The Malmo Preventive Project),” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. C. Murrell, J. D. Cotter, K. George et al., “Influence of age on syncope following prolonged exercise: Differential responses but similar orthostatic intolerance,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 587, no. 24, pp. 5959–5969, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. R. E. Maser, B. D. Mitchell, A. I. Vinik, and R. Freeman, “The association between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and mortality in individuals with diabetes a meta-analysis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1895–1901, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. Z. Q. Lin, et al., “Prevalence and clinical characteristics of orthostatic hypotension in the elderly and retired population,” Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 457–662, 2011.
  128. K. M. Madden, C. K. Lockhart, T. F. Potter, D. J. Cuff, and G. S. Meneilly, “Short-term aerobic exercise reduces nitroglycerin-induced orthostatic intolerance in older adults with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 666–671, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. J. S. Petrofsky, N. Focil, M. Prowse et al., “Autonomic stress and balance—the impact of age and diabetes,” Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 475–481, 2010. View at Scopus
  130. D. Nunan, G. R. H. Sandercock, and D. A. Brodie, “A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1407–1417, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. D. Nunan, D. G. Jakovljevic, G. Donovan, L. D. Singleton, G. R. H. Sandercock, and D. A. Brodie, “Resting autonomic modulations and the heart rate response to exercise,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 213–221, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J. Petrofsky, S. Lee, M. Cuneo-Libarona, and P. Apodaca, “The effect of rosiglitazone on orthostatic tolerance during heat exposure in individuals with type II diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 377–386, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. J. S. Petrofsky, C. Besonis, D. Rivera, E. Schwab, and S. Lee, “Impairment in orthostatic tolerance during heat exposure in individuals with Type I and Type II diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. CR153–CR159, 2005. View at Scopus
  134. V. Campanucci, A. Krishnaswamy, and E. Cooper, “Diabetes depresses synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia by inactivating nAChRs through a conserved intracellular cysteine residue,” Neuron, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 827–834, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. J. C. Philips, M. Marchand, and A. J. Scheen, “Pulse pressure and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy according to duration of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 442–451, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. G. F. DiBona, “Central angiotensin modulation of baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the rat: influence of dietary sodium,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 285–289, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  137. J. Cui, M. Shibasaki, D. A. Low, D. M. Keller, S. L. Davis, and C. G. Crandall, “Muscle sympathetic responses during orthostasis in heat-stressed individuals,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 381–387, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  138. J. Tagliabue, “A church-state issue in Italy: doctors' role in birth control,” The New York Times, p. A8, 1994. View at Scopus
  139. C. H. Song, J. S. Petrofsky, S. W. Lee, K. J. Lee, and J. E. Yim, “Effects of an exercise program on balance and trunk proprioception in older adults with diabetic neuropathies,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 803–811, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. J. S. Petrofsky, B. Stewart, C. Patterson, M. Cole, A. Al Malty, and S. Lee, “Cardiovascular responses and endurance during isometric exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes compared to control subjects,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. CR470–CR477, 2005.
  141. J. S. Petrofsky and S. Lee, “The impact of rosiglitazone on cardiovascular responses and endurance during isometric exercise in patients with Type 2 Diabetes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. CR21–CR26, 2006. View at Scopus
  142. J. S. Petrofsky and M. Laymon, “The effect of ageing in spinal cord injured humans on the blood pressure and heart rate responses during fatiguing isometric exercise,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 479–486, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. J. Petrofsky, M. Prowse, W. Remigio et al., “The use of an isometric handgrip test to show autonomic damage in people with diabetes,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 361–368, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. J. S. Petrofsky, R. L. Burse, and A. R. Lind, “Comparison of physiological responses of women and men to isometric exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 863–868, 1975. View at Scopus
  145. J. S. Petrofsky, M. Cuneo, S. Lee, E. Johnson, and E. Lohman, “Correlation between gait and balance in people with and without Type 2 diabetes in normal and subdued light,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. CR273–CR281, 2006. View at Scopus
  146. J. S. Petrofsky, “Thermoregulatory stress during rest and exercise in heat in patients with a spinal cord injury,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 503–507, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. J. S. Petrofsky and M. Laymon, “Pulmonary Function in people with spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurological and Orthopaedic Medicine and Surgery, vol. 22, pp. 16–21, 2002.
  148. J. S. Petrofsky, M. Cuneo, S. Lee, E. Johnson, and E. Lohman, “Correlation between gait and balance in people with and without Type 2 diabetes in normal and subdued light,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. CR273–CR281, 2006.
  149. J. S. Petrofsky, S. Lee, and M. L. Cuneo, “Gait characteristics in patients with type 2 diabetes; improvement after administration of rosiglitazone,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. PI43–PI51, 2005. View at Scopus