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Figure 7: Increased inflammation in mice.Macrophage infiltration was evaluated by CD68 immunohistochemistry. KK-a/a (a) and KK-a/a + Unx (b) mice had scattered CD68+ macrophages in the interstitium (white arrows) and rare CD68+ cells in the glomeruli. (c) and + Unx (d) mice showed increased CD68+ macrophage infiltration in the interstitium (white arrows) and occasional CD68+ cells in glomeruli (inset, black arrows). Scale bars represent 50 μm. Semiquantitative scoring of CD68+ cells revealed a modest increase in positively stained cells within glomeruli of relative to the KK-a/a controls (e), additionally a statistically significant increase in interstitial CD68+ macrophages in both groups, with a slight enhancement in the + Unx group (f). Horizontal bars indicate group median score and asterisk represents P value <0.001. (g) Gene expression was assayed by qRT-PCR using total kidney RNA from 26 week old mice , uninephrectomized , and control KK-a/a animals. qRT-PCR revealed increased expression of IL-6, MCP-1, CD68, and CD44 were significantly upregulated in versus KK-a/a ( ). Uninephrectomy further exacerbated IL-6, MCP-1, and CD68 mRNA upregulation versus ( ).