Table 3: Main cardiovascular findings in diet-induced animal models of metabolic syndrome.

ModelsCardiovascular changes

Fructose overload(i) High blood pressure levels
(ii) High heart rate
(iii) Increased blood pressure variability
(iv) Increased sympathetic modulation to the
  vessels and heart
(v) Vascular oxidative stress
(vi) Changes in left ventricular morphometry
(vii) Diastolic dysfunction
(viii) Increased cardiac effort

Sucrose overload(i) High blood pressure levels
(ii) High heart rate
(iii) Diastolic function
(iv) Systolic dysfunction
(v) Alterations in myocardial structure due to
  reduction of calcium uptake in
  sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes

High fat diet(i) High blood pressure levels
(ii) Baroreceptor dysfunction that controls
  the renal sympathetic nerve activity

Cafeteria diet(i) High blood pressure levels
(ii) High heart rate
(iii) Impairment of the endothelium-derived
  hyperpolarization mechanism
(iv) Autonomic dysfunction