Journal of Diabetes Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats Mon, 05 Oct 2015 07:45:27 +0000 We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed), exercised control (C-Ex), sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed), and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: ; C-Ex: ; DM-Sed: ; DM-Ex:  mm; DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex). Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats. C. Gimenes, R. Gimenes, C. M. Rosa, N. P. Xavier, D. H. S. Campos, A. A. H. Fernandes, M. D. M. Cezar, G. N. Guirado, A. C. Cicogna, A. H. R. Takamoto, M. P. Okoshi, and K. Okoshi Copyright © 2015 C. Gimenes et al. All rights reserved. The Protective Effect of Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Risk Allele rs7903146 against Elevated Fasting Plasma Triglyceride in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis Sun, 04 Oct 2015 06:36:09 +0000 Background. The results from published studies regarding association of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) variant rs7903146 with dyslipidemia have been conflicting and inconclusive. Methods. We carried out a meta-analysis that aimed to investigate the association of the rs7903146 variant with plasma lipid levels using electronic database and published studies. Data was extracted by a standard algorithm. Dominant, recessive, homozygote, and heterozygote comparison models were utilized. Results. 24 studies incorporating 52,785 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the minor allele (T) was associated with lower risk for hypertriglyceridemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes (dominant model: SMD = −0.04, 95% CI (−0.08, 0.00), P = 0.048, = 0.47; recessive model: SMD = −0.10, 95% CI (−0.18, −0.02), P = 0.01, = 0.56). No association was found between minor (T) allele and plasma TC, LDL-c, or HDL-c levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome (MetS) and no association was found between minor (T) allele and plasma TG levels in nondiabetic subjects. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis indicated the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and low plasma triglyceride (TG) level in subjects with type 2 diabetes. No association was found between rs7903146 variant and plasma lipids in nondiabetic subjects. Shuxia Wang, Kangxing Song, Roshni Srivastava, Mohsen Fathzadeh, Na Li, and Arya Mani Copyright © 2015 Shuxia Wang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Glucose Concentration on Propofol Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts Mon, 28 Sep 2015 11:49:33 +0000 The anesthetic propofol confers cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, its cardioprotection on patients is inconsistent. Similarly, the beneficial effect of tight glycemic control during cardiac surgery in patients has recently been questioned. We postulated that low glucose (LG) may promote ROS formation through enhancing fatty acid (FA) oxidation and unmask propofol cardioprotection during IRI. Rat hearts were isolated and randomly assigned to be perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution with glucose at 5.5 mM (LG) or 8 mM (G) in the absence or presence of propofol (5 μg/mL) or propofol plus trimetazidine (TMZ). Hearts were subjected to 35 minutes of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size (IS) and cardiac CK-MB were significantly higher in LG than in G group (P < 0.05), associated with reduced left ventricular developed pressure and increases in postischemic cardiac contracture. Cardiac 15-F2t-isoprostane was higher, accompanied with higher cardiac lipid transporter CD36 protein expression in LG. Propofol reduced IS, improved cardiac function, and reduced CD36 in G but not in LG. TMZ facilitated propofol cardioprotection in LG. Therefore, isolated heart with low glucose lost sensitivity to propofol treatment through enhancing FA oxidation and TMZ supplementation restored the sensitivity to propofol. Xinhua Yao, Yalan Li, Mingzhe Tao, Shuang Wang, Liangqing Zhang, Jiefu Lin, Zhengyuan Xia, and Hui-min Liu Copyright © 2015 Xinhua Yao et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “The Effect of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on the Pancreas and Macroangiopathy in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Rats” Sun, 27 Sep 2015 06:48:01 +0000 Hitesh Verma and Rajeev Garg Copyright © 2015 Hitesh Verma and Rajeev Garg. All rights reserved. Comment on “Topically Applied Connective Tissue Growth Factor/CCN2 Improves Diabetic Preclinical Cutaneous Wound Healing: Potential Role for CTGF in Human Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing” Sun, 20 Sep 2015 11:32:24 +0000 A recent paper in this journal, presented a novel method by topical application of growth factors in stimulating diabetic cutaneous wound healing that caught our attention. We believe that the experimental method in the article is efficient and creative, but it also has some controversies and shortcomings to be discussed. We noted that the authors used “Tegaderm” as a semiocclusive dressing film and stated that it exerted a “splinting effect” on the wound margins and controlled contraction. Indeed, the “Tegaderm” itself can serve as a dressing film to isolate the wound bed with outside environments while the “splinting effect” is mainly achieved by adding silicone splints around the wound. Considering the unique properties of silicone splints and “Tegaderm,” our experimental group propose an alternative method named “combined-suturing” technique that is not only suturing the silicone splints but also securing the “Tegaderm” around the wound. The specific reasons and operative procedures are explained in detail in this letter. Hongling Li, Cong Cao, Ai Huang, and Yi Man Copyright © 2015 Hongling Li et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Renal Protective Effect of Sirtuin 1” Sun, 20 Sep 2015 11:13:13 +0000 Kultigin Turkmen Copyright © 2015 Kultigin Turkmen. All rights reserved. Association of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Gene Polymorphisms in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Malaysians Mon, 14 Sep 2015 07:49:10 +0000 Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex polygenic disorder characterized by impaired insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and dysregulation of lipid and protein metabolism with environmental and genetic factors. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene polymorphisms are reported as the one of the genetic risk factors for T2DM in various populations with conflicting results. This study was conducted based on PCR-HRM to determine the frequency of ABCA1 gene by rs2230806 (R219K), rs1800977 (C69T), and rs9282541 (R230C) polymorphisms Malaysian subjects. Methods. A total of 164 T2DM and 165 controls were recruited and their genotypes for ABCA1 gene polymorphisms were determined based on the real time high resolution melting analysis. Results. There was a significant difference between the subjects in terms of age, BMI, FPG, HbA1c, HDL, LDL, and TG . There was a significant association between HOM of R219K , among Malaysian subjects; moreover, allele frequency revealed the significant difference in A allele of R219K . But, there was no significant difference in genotypic and allelic frequencies of C69T and R230C polymorphism. Conclusion. R219K polymorphism of ABCA1 gene can be considered as a genetic risk factor for T2DM subjects among Malaysians. Polin Haghvirdizadeh, Vasudevan Ramachandran, Ali Etemad, Farzad Heidari, Nooshin Ghodsian, Norzian Bin Ismail, and Patimah Ismail Copyright © 2015 Polin Haghvirdizadeh et al. All rights reserved. KCNJ11: Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus Sun, 13 Sep 2015 13:20:36 +0000 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major worldwide health problem and its prevalence has been rapidly increasing in the last century. It is caused by defects in insulin secretion or insulin action or both, leading to hyperglycemia. Of the various types of DM, type 2 occurs most frequently. Multiple genes and their interactions are involved in the insulin secretion pathway. Insulin secretion is mediated through the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel in pancreatic beta cells. This channel is a heteromeric protein, composed of four inward-rectifier potassium ion channel (Kir6.2) tetramers, which form the pore of the KATP channel, as well as sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunits surrounding the pore. Kir6.2 is encoded by the potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11) gene, a member of the potassium channel genes. Numerous studies have reported the involvement of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the KCNJ11 gene and their interactions in the susceptibility to DM. This review discusses the current evidence for the contribution of common KCNJ11 genetic variants to the development of DM. Future studies should concentrate on understanding the exact role played by these risk variants in the development of DM. Polin Haghvirdizadeh, Zahurin Mohamed, Nor Azizan Abdullah, Pantea Haghvirdizadeh, Monir Sadat Haerian, and Batoul Sadat Haerian Copyright © 2015 Polin Haghvirdizadeh et al. All rights reserved. Diabetic Nephropathy Induced by Increased Ace Gene Dosage Is Associated with High Renal Levels of Angiotensin (1–7) and Bradykinin Wed, 09 Sep 2015 07:10:24 +0000 Population studies have shown an association between diabetic nephropathy (DN) and insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene (ACE in humans, Ace in mice). The aim was to evaluate the modulation of Ace copies number and diabetes mellitus (DM) on renal RAS and correlate it with indicators of kidney function. Increased number of copies of the Ace gene, associated with DM, induces renal dysfunction. The susceptibility to the development of DN in 3 copies of animals is associated with an imbalance in activity of RAS enzymes leading to increased synthesis of Ang II and Ang-(1–7). Increased concentration of renal Ang-(1–7) appears to potentiate the deleterious effects triggered by Ang II on kidney structure and function. Results also show increased bradykinin concentration in 3 copies diabetic group. Taken together, results indicate that the deleterious effects described in 3 copies diabetic group are, at least in part, due to a combination of factors not usually described in the literature. Thus, the data presented here show up innovative and contribute to understanding the complex mechanisms involved in the development of DN, in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this complication. Nádia Bertoncello, Roseli Peres Moreira, Danielle Yuri Arita, Danielle S. Aragão, Ingrid Kazue Mizuno Watanabe, Patricia S. Dantas, Ralmony Santos, Rodolfo Mattar-Rosa, Rodrigo Yokota, Tatiana Sousa Cunha, and Dulce Elena Casarini Copyright © 2015 Nádia Bertoncello et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence, Clinical Correlates, and Use of Glucose-Lowering Drugs among Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Sun, 06 Sep 2015 11:13:49 +0000 Prevalence, clinical correlates, and use of glucose-lowering drugs were comprehensively evaluated among 863 nursing home older patients with diabetes (mean age 82.9 ± 2.1 years): functional dependence and cognitive impairment were present in 84.1% and 68% of patients, respectively, and 66.3% of patients had 2–4 comorbidities. HbA1c values < 7.0% were documented in 54.9% of diabetic; significantly lower HbA1c levels were observed in demented patients than in nondemented subjects. Documented hypoglycemic episodes were reported for 57 patients (6.6%), without significant association with age, functional dependence, cognitive impairment, or HbA1c levels. About one-fifth of older long-term facilities residents have diabetes, with concomitant poor health conditions and high prevalence of cognitive impairment and functional dependence. Roughly three-fourths of these older and frail diabetic patients have HbA1c values lower than optimal, suggesting a potential for hypoglycemic harm especially among patients with severe cognitive impairment. Mario Bo, Stefano Gallo, Mauro Zanocchi, Paola Maina, Luisa Balcet, Martina Bonetto, Lorenzo Marchese, Annalisa Mastrapasqua, and Nicoletta Aimonino Ricauda Copyright © 2015 Mario Bo et al. All rights reserved. Potential Renoprotective Agents through Inhibiting CTGF/CCN2 in Diabetic Nephropathy Wed, 02 Sep 2015 12:58:04 +0000 Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The development and progression of DN might involve multiple factors. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, originally known as CTGF) is the one which plays a pivotal role. Therefore, increasing attention is being paid to CCN2 as a potential therapeutic target for DN. Up to date, there are also many drugs or agents which have been shown for their protective effects against DN via different mechanisms. In this review, we only focus on the potential renoprotective therapeutic agents which can specifically abolish CCN2 expression or nonspecifically inhibit CCN2 expression for retarding the development and progression of DN. Songyan Wang, Bing Li, Chunguang Li, Wenpeng Cui, and Lining Miao Copyright © 2015 Songyan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Ceramide De Novo Synthesis Ameliorates Diet Induced Skeletal Muscles Insulin Resistance Tue, 25 Aug 2015 13:35:28 +0000 Nowadays wrong nutritional habits and lack of physical activity give a rich soil for the development of insulin resistance and obesity. Many researches indicate lipids, especially the one from the sphingolipids class, as the group of molecules heavily implicated in the progress of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recently, scientists have focused their scrutiny on myriocin, a potent chemical compound that inhibits ceramide (i.e., central hub of sphingolipids signaling pathway) de novo synthesis. In the present research we evaluated the effects of myriocin application on type 2 diabetes mellitus in three different types of skeletal muscles: (1) slow-oxidative (red gastrocnemius), (2) oxidative-glycolytic (soleus), and (3) glycolytic (white gastrocnemius). For these reasons the animals were randomly divided into four groups: “control” (C), “myriocin” (M), “high fat diet” (HFD), “high fat diet” (HFD), and “high fat diet + myriocin” (HFD + M). Our in vivo study demonstrated that ceramide synthesis inhibition reduces intramuscular ceramide, its precursor sphinganine, and its derivatives sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate concentrations. Moreover, FFA and TG contents were also decreased after myriocin treatment. Thus, myriocin presents potential therapeutic perspectives with respect to the treatment of insulin resistance and its serious consequences in obese patients. Krzysztof Kurek, Agnieszka Mikłosz, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk, Adrian Chabowski, Jan Górski, and Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska Copyright © 2015 Krzysztof Kurek et al. All rights reserved. Urinary Angiotensinogen Could Be a Prognostic Marker of Renoprotective Effects of Alogliptin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Tue, 25 Aug 2015 13:28:27 +0000 Background. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the renoprotective effects of alogliptin and (2) to establish urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) as a prognostic marker of renoprotective effects of alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. In 43 patients with T2D (18 women, years), 25 mg/day of alogliptin was added to the traditional hypoglycemic agents and/or nondrug treatments. Urinary concentrations of albumin (Alb) and AGT, normalized by urinary concentrations of creatinine (Cr) (UAlbCR and UAGTCR, respectively), were measured before and after the 12-week alogliptin treatment. Results. Alogliptin treatment tended to decrease UAlbCR ( versus  mg/g Cr, ). Based on % change in UAlbCR, patients were divided into two groups, responders () and nonresponders (), and a logistic analysis of UAGTCR before treatment showed cutoff value of 20.8 µg/g Cr. When all patients were redivided into two groups, those with higher values of UAGTCR before the treatment (Group H, ) and those with lower values (Group L), Group H showed significantly decreased UAlbCR in response to alogliptin ( versus , ). Conclusion. Urinary AGT could be a prognostic marker of renoprotective effects of alogliptin in patients with T2D. Tomoko Mizushige, Hiroyuki Kobori, Yoko Nishijima, Yuichiro Yano, Koji Sakata, Manabu Hayakawa, and Akira Nishiyama Copyright © 2015 Tomoko Mizushige et al. All rights reserved. Increased Oxidation as an Additional Mechanism Underlying Reduced Clot Permeability and Impaired Fibrinolysis in Type 2 Diabetes Tue, 18 Aug 2015 12:56:39 +0000 Aims. We sought to investigate whether enhanced oxidation contributes to unfavorable fibrin clot properties in patients with diabetes. Methods. We assessed plasma fibrin clot permeation (, a measure of the pore size in fibrin networks) and clot lysis time induced by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (CLT) in 163 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients (92 men and 71 women) aged 65 ± 8.8 years with a mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 6.8%. We also measured oxidative stress markers, including nitrotyrosine, the soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and advanced glycation end products (AGE). Results. There were inverse correlations between and nitrotyrosine, sRAGE, 8-iso-PGF2α, and oxLDL. CLT showed a positive correlation with oxLDL and nitrotyrosine but not with other oxidation markers. All these associations remained significant for after adjustment for fibrinogen, disease duration, and HbA1c (all ), while oxLDL was the only independent predictor of CLT. Conclusions. Our study shows that enhanced oxidative stress adversely affects plasma fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetic patients, regardless of disease duration and glycemia control. Anna Lados-Krupa, Malgorzata Konieczynska, Artur Chmiel, and Anetta Undas Copyright © 2015 Anna Lados-Krupa et al. All rights reserved. Psoriasis and Diabetes: A Multicenter Study in 222078 Type 2 Diabetes Patients Reveals High Levels of Depression Tue, 18 Aug 2015 05:59:57 +0000 Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between psoriasis and disease outcome in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. 222078 T2D patients (≥10 years old) from the prospective, multicenter diabetes patient registry were analyzed. Specific search items were used to identify psoriasis patients. Multiple regression models were fitted and adjusted for demographic confounder. Results. 232 T2D patients had comorbid psoriasis. After adjusting psoriasis patients revealed a higher BMI (31.8 [31.0; 32.6] versus 30.6 [30.5; 30.6] kg/m2, ) and HbA1c (64.8 [62.1; 67.6] versus 59.0 [58.9; 59.1] mmol/mol, ). Insulin was used more frequently (62.3 [55.7; 68.5] versus 50.9 [50.7; 51.1] %, ), only OAD/GLP-1 was similar, and nonpharmacological treatment was less common (13.3 [9.5; 18.3] versus 21.9 [21.7; 22.1] %, ). Severe hypoglycemia (0.31 [0.238; 0.399] versus 0.06 [0.057; 0.060] events per patient-year, ), hypertension (86.1 [81.1; 90.0] versus 68.0 [67.8; 68.2] %, ), and thyroid disease (14.0 [10.1; 19.2] versus 4.6 [4.5; 4.7] %, ) were more prevalent. Depression occurred more often (10.5 [7.1; 15.2] versus 2.8 [2.7; 2.8] %, ). Conclusions. Clinical diabetes characteristics in psoriasis T2D patients were clearly worse compared to patients without psoriasis. Comorbid conditions and depression were more prevalent, and more intensive diabetes therapy was required. Anke Schwandt, Dominik Bergis, Albrecht Dapp, Stefan Ebner, Peter M. Jehle, Stefan Köppen, Alexander Risse, Stefan Zimny, and Reinhard W. Holl Copyright © 2015 Anke Schwandt et al. All rights reserved. Effects of E2HSA, a Long-Acting Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Glycemic Control and Beta Cell Function in Spontaneous Diabetic db/db Mice Mon, 17 Aug 2015 14:09:50 +0000 Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists such as exendin-4 have been widely used but their short half-life limits their therapeutic value. The recombinant protein, E2HSA, is a novel, long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist generated by the fusion of exendin-4 with human serum albumin. In mouse pancreatic NIT-1 cells, E2HSA activated GLP-1 receptor with similar efficacy as exendin-4. After single-dose administration in ICR mice, E2HSA showed prolonged glucose lowering effects which lasted up to four days and extended inhibition on gastric emptying for at least 72 hours. Chronic E2HSA treatment in db/db mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, reduced elevated nonfasting and fasting plasma glucose levels, and also decreased HbA1c levels. E2HSA also increased insulin secretion and decreased body weight and appetite. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2HSA increased -cell area, improved islet morphology, and reduced β-cell apoptosis. In accordance with the promotion of β-cell function and survival, E2HSA upregulated genes such as Irs2, Pdx-1, Nkx6.1, and MafA and downregulated the expression levels of FoxO1 and proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In conclusion, with prolonged glucose lowering effects and promoting -cell function and survival, the fusion protein, E2HSA, is a promising new therapeutic for once weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes. Shaocong Hou, Caina Li, Yi Huan, Shuainan Liu, Quan Liu, Sujuan Sun, Qian Jiang, Chunming Jia, and Zhufang Shen Copyright © 2015 Shaocong Hou et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Evacuation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Is a Cause of Diabetes: Results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey” Thu, 13 Aug 2015 12:09:33 +0000 Hiroaki Satoh, Tetsuya Ohira, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Akira Sakai, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Akira Ohtsuru, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Atsushi Takahashi, Gen Kobashi, Kotaro Ozasa, Seiji Yasumura, Shunichi Yamashita, Kenji Kamiya, and Masafumi Abe Copyright © 2015 Hiroaki Satoh et al. All rights reserved. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet Ameliorates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet Fed and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Wed, 12 Aug 2015 06:57:05 +0000 Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) is a Chinese traditional medicine that has been shown to protect podocytes from injury and reduce the proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TGT on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into normal control rats (NC group), diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group), and diabetic rats treated with TGT (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 8 weeks. The results showed that 24 h proteinuria and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) in diabetic rats were decreased by TGT treatment without affecting blood glucose. Masson’s trichrome stains showed that apparent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in DM group, which was ameliorated by TGT treatment. The expression of -SMA was significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cadherin in TGT-treated rats, but not in untreated DM rats. Further studies showed that TGT administration markedly reduced expression of TLR4, NF-B, IL-1, and MCP-1 in TGT-treated diabetic rats. These results showed that TGT could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the mechanism which may be at least partly associated with the amelioration of EMT through suppression of the TLR4/NF-B pathway. Ze-jun Ma, Xiao-na Zhang, Li Li, Wei Yang, Shan-shan Wang, Xin Guo, Pei Sun, and Li-ming Chen Copyright © 2015 Ze-jun Ma et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Probiotic Soymilk Fortified with Omega-3 on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, Haematological and Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Parameters in Streptozotocin Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats Tue, 11 Aug 2015 11:27:38 +0000 Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic soymilk fortified with omega-3 in diabetic rats. Methods. Soymilk (SM), fermented soymilk (FSM), and fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 (FSM + omega-3) were prepared. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups of 13 animals per group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 15 min after the intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide (NA). Normal control (NC) and diabetic control (DC) rats received 1 mL/day of distilled water and three groups of diabetic rats were given 1 mL/day of SM, FSM, and FSM + omega-3 products by oral gavage for 28 days. Results. Three products significantly () reduced blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations compared to the DC group, with the maximum reduction seen in the FSM + omega-3 group. Body weight, red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) also significantly increased in the FSM + omega-3 group. In the FSM + omega-3 group, MDA level compared with the SM and FSM groups and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations compared with the DC and FSM groups were significantly lower (). Conclusion. Fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 may be beneficial in diabetes. Mohsen Mohammadi Sartang, Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi, Nader Tanideh, and Abbas Rezaian Zadeh Copyright © 2015 Mohsen Mohammadi Sartang et al. All rights reserved. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents Tue, 11 Aug 2015 08:28:20 +0000 We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, ). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6–59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5–13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. Aida Jiménez-Corona, Antonio Ávila-Hermosillo, Robert G. Nelson, and Guadalupe Ramírez-López Copyright © 2015 Aida Jiménez-Corona et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation from Serum Creatinine and Cystatin C in HNF1A-MODY and Other Types of Diabetes Mon, 10 Aug 2015 13:06:03 +0000 Introduction. We previously showed that in HNF1A-MODY the cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimate is higher than the creatinine-based estimate. Currently, we aimed to replicate this finding and verify its clinical significance. Methods. The study included 72 patients with HNF1A-MODY, 72 with GCK-MODY, 53 with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), 70 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and 65 controls. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were measured. GFR was calculated from creatinine and cystatin C using the CKD-EPI creatinine equation (eGRF-cr) and CKD-EPI cystatin C equation (eGFR-cys), respectively. Results. Cystatin C levels were lower () in the control ( mg/L), HNF1A (), and GCK ( mg/L) groups in comparison to those with either T1DM ( mg/L) or T2DM ( mg/L). Moreover, eGFR-cys was higher than eGRF-cr in HNF1A-MODY, GCK-MODY, and the controls (; ; ). This corresponded to 8.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, 9.7 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 16.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 of difference. Additionally, T1DM patients had higher eGFR-cr than eGFR-cys (11.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; ); no difference occurred in T2DM (). Conclusions. We confirmed that eGFR-cys values in HNF1A-MODY patients are higher compared to eGFR-cr. Some other differences were also described in diabetic groups. However, none of them appears to be clinically relevant. Magdalena Szopa, Maria Kapusta, Bartlomiej Matejko, Tomasz Klupa, Teresa Koblik, Beata Kiec-Wilk, Maciej Borowiec, and Maciej T. Malecki Copyright © 2015 Magdalena Szopa et al. All rights reserved. Polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera Improve Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic Rats Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:40:38 +0000 This study investigated the effects of polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP) on glucose metabolism in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM). PEP (0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically to rats for four weeks. After treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (INS) levels were measured, and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. The morphopathological changes in the pancreas were observed. Serum samples were collected to measure the oxidant-antioxidant status. The mRNA expression levels of glucokinase (GCK) and insulin receptor (InsR) in liver tissue and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) and adiponectin (APN) in adipose tissue were determined. Compared with the model group, the FBG and INS levels were lower, the ISI was higher, and the number of islet β-cells was significantly increased in all the PEP groups. In the medium- and high-dose PEP groups, MDA levels decreased, and the enzymatic activities of SOD and GSH-Px increased. The mRNA expression of InsR and GCK increased in all the PEP groups; APN mRNA expression increased in the high-dose PEP group, and GLUT-4 mRNA expression increased in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that PEP is a potential therapeutic agent that can be utilized to treat DM. Wenting Lin, Wenxiang Wang, Dongdong Liao, Damiao Chen, Pingping Zhu, Guoxi Cai, and Aoyagi Kiyoshi Copyright © 2015 Wenting Lin et al. All rights reserved. Can the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Be Delayed by a Group-Based Lifestyle Intervention in Women with Prediabetes following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)? Findings from a Randomized Control Mixed Methods Trial Mon, 10 Aug 2015 09:29:56 +0000 Objective. To evaluate a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention programme for women with prediabetes following gestational diabetes (GDM). Design. A two-group, mixed methods randomized controlled trial in which 50 women with a history of GDM and abnormal glucose tolerance postpartum were randomly assigned to intervention () or wait control () and postintervention qualitative interviews with participants. Main Outcome Measures. Modifiable biochemical, anthropometric, behavioural, and psychosocial risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome variable was the change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) from study entry to one-year follow-up. Results. At one-year follow-up, the intervention group showed significant improvements over the wait control group on stress, diet self-efficacy, and quality of life. There was no evidence of an effect of the intervention on measures of biochemistry or anthropometry; the effect on one health behaviour, diet adherence, was close to significance. Conclusions. Prevention programmes must tackle the barriers to participation faced by this population; home-based interventions should be investigated. Strategies for promoting long-term health self-management need to be developed and tested. Angela O’Dea, Marie Tierney, Brian E. McGuire, John Newell, Liam G. Glynn, Irene Gibson, Eoin Noctor, Andrii Danyliv, Susan B. Connolly, and Fidelma P. Dunne Copyright © 2015 Angela O’Dea et al. All rights reserved. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults Thu, 06 Aug 2015 13:16:22 +0000 Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. Wichai Aekplakorn, Valla Tantayotai, Sakawduan Numsangkul, Wilarwan Sripho, Nutchanat Tatsato, Tuanjai Burapasiriwat, Rachada Pipatsart, Premsuree Sansom, Pranee Luckanajantachote, Pongpat Chawarokorn, Anek Thanonghan, Watchira Lakhamkaew, Aungsumalin Mungkung, Rungnapa Boonkean, Chanidsa Chantapoon, Mayuree Kungsri, Kasetsak Luanseng, and Kornsinun Chaiyajit Copyright © 2015 Wichai Aekplakorn et al. All rights reserved. Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies Thu, 06 Aug 2015 12:11:17 +0000 The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body. On the other hand, the pancreas may be affected by devastating diseases, such as pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), and diabetes mellitus (DM), which generally results in a wide metabolic imbalance. The causes for the development and progression of these diseases are still controversial; therefore it is essential to better understand the underlying mechanisms which compromise the pancreatic homeostasis. The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis. Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the present review, we discuss recent findings on the behavior and functions played by the microbiota in major pancreatic diseases and provide further insights into its potential roles in the maintenance of pancreatic steady-state activities. Camila Leal-Lopes, Fernando J. Velloso, Julia C. Campopiano, Mari C. Sogayar, and Ricardo G. Correa Copyright © 2015 Camila Leal-Lopes et al. All rights reserved. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Thu, 06 Aug 2015 11:21:43 +0000 Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D) and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres. Samira Tajbakhsh, Kamelya Aliakbari, Damian J. Hussey, Karen M. Lower, Anthony J. Donato, and Elke M. Sokoya Copyright © 2015 Samira Tajbakhsh et al. All rights reserved. Moderate Intensity Training Impact on the Inflammatory Status and Glycemic Profiles in NOD Mice Wed, 05 Aug 2015 10:22:02 +0000 The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse represents a well-established experimental model analogous to human type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) as it is characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Experiments were designed to investigate the impact of moderate-intensity training on T1D immunomodulation and inflammation. Under a chronic exercise regime, NOD mice were trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks (12 m/min for 30 min, 5 d/wk) while age-matched, control animals were left untrained. Prior to and upon completion of the training period, fed plasma glucose and immunological soluble factors were monitored. Both groups showed deteriorated glycemic profiles throughout the study although trained mice tended to be more compensated than controls after 10 weeks of training. An exercise-induced weight loss was detected in the trained mice with respect to the controls from week 6. After 12 weeks, IL-6 and MIP-1β were decreased in the trained animals compared to their baseline values and versus controls, although not significantly. Morphometric analysis of pancreata revealed the presence of larger infiltrates along with decreased α-cells areas in the control mice compared to trained mice. Exercise may exert positive immunomodulation of systemic functions with respect to both T1D and inflammation, but only in a stringent therapeutic window. Roberto Codella, Giacomo Lanzoni, Alessia Zoso, Andrea Caumo, Anna Montesano, Ileana M. Terruzzi, Camillo Ricordi, Livio Luzi, and Luca Inverardi Copyright © 2015 Roberto Codella et al. All rights reserved. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading Tue, 04 Aug 2015 12:43:28 +0000 Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; ) or to ALA withdrawal () for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group () and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with Identifier: NCT02439879. Hector Garcia-Alcala, Celia Isabel Santos Vichido, Silverio Islas Macedo, Christelle Nathalie Genestier-Tamborero, Marissa Minutti-Palacios, Omara Hirales Tamez, Carlos García, and Dan Ziegler Copyright © 2015 Hector Garcia-Alcala et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Melatonin on the Proliferative and Apoptotic Responses of the Prostate under Normal and Hyperglycemic Conditions Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:12:35 +0000 The antitumor properties of melatonin (MLT) are known for prostate cancer cells. This study investigated whether MLT affects prostate maturation and interferes with tissue injuries induced by diabetes. MLT was administered to Wistar rats from 5 weeks of age in the drinking water (10 μg/kg b.w.), and diabetes was induced at the 13th week by streptozotocin (4.5 mg/100g b.w., i.p.). The animals were euthanized in the 14th and 21st weeks. MLT reduced the immunostained cells for androgen receptor (AR) by 10% in younger rats. Diabetes decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. MLT treatment impeded apoptosis and augmented proliferation and PCNA content in prostate following long-term diabetes due to restoration of testosterone levels and expression of melatonin receptor type 1B. The effect of MLT (500 µM, 5 mM, and 10 mM) on androgen-dependent (22Rv1) and androgen-independent (PC3) cancer cells and human prostate epithelial cells (PNTA1) under normal and hyperglycemic conditions (HG, 450 mg/dL) was analyzed. Contrary to PNTA1 and 22Rv1 cells, MLT improved the proliferation of PC3 cells in hyperglycemic medium. The combined data indicated that MLT had proliferative and antiapoptotic effects in prostate cells subjected to HG levels and it seems to involve specific MLT pathways rather than AR. Marina G. Gobbo, Nishtman Dizeyi, Per-Anders Abrahamsson, Per-Anders Bertilsson, Viviane Sanches Masitéli, Eloisa Zanin Pytlowanciv, Sebastião R. Taboga, and Rejane M. Góes Copyright © 2015 Marina G. Gobbo et al. All rights reserved. Cross Talk between Lipid Metabolism and Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy Wed, 29 Jul 2015 07:12:59 +0000 Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between metabolic and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods. 208 adult patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were categorized into (1) mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) without clinically significant macular edema (CSME), (2) NPDR with CSME, (3) proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) without CSME, and (4) PDR with CSME. Variable serum metabolic markers were assessed using immunoassays. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed. Results. Diabetes duration and hypertension are the most significant risk factors for DR. Serum Apo-B and Apo-B/Apo-A ratio were the most significant metabolic risk factors for PDR and CSME. For every 0.1 g/L increase in Apo-B concentration, the risk of PDR and CSME increased by about 1.20 times. We also found that 10 pg/mL increase in serum TNF-α was associated with approximately 2-fold risk of PDR/CSME while an increase by 100 pg/mL in serum VEGF concentration correlated with CSME. Conclusions. In conclusion, it seems that there is a link between metabolic and inflammatory markers. Apo-B/Apo-A ratio should be evaluated as a reliable risk factor for PDR and CSME, while the role of increased systemic TNF-α and VEGF should be explored in CSME. Roxanne Crosby-Nwaobi, Irini Chatziralli, Theodoros Sergentanis, Tracy Dew, Angus Forbes, and Sobha Sivaprasad Copyright © 2015 Roxanne Crosby-Nwaobi et al. All rights reserved.