Journal of Dental Surgery http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Caries Distribution, Prevalence, and Treatment Needs among 12–15-Year-Old Secondary School Students in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/483760/ Objective. There is a change in the trends and distribution of dental caries in established and nonestablished market economies. The aim of this study was to describe caries distribution, prevalence, and treatment needs among school children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. The study was a cross-sectional survey of students between the ages of 12 and 15 years. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and clinical oral examination. Analysis of data was done using statistical package for social science version 20.0. Association between variables was tested using chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance. Results. The study population consisted of 195 school children of mean age years. The prevalence of dental caries was 15.4% (). The mean DMFT score for the entire group was . Dental caries occurred more significantly () on the mandible (66.7%) than on the maxilla (33.3%) and was significantly () more prevalent on the first molars (66.7%) than on the second molars (26.6%). Conclusion. The number of untreated dental caries was high and the restorative index was low among the students. The overall caries prevalence and mean DMFT were low even when compared to other studies in similar populations in Nigeria. Omoigberai Bashiru Braimoh, Ayamma Udo Umanah, and Nzube Anthony Ilochonwu Copyright © 2014 Omoigberai Bashiru Braimoh et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Gelam Honey (Melaleuca cajuputi) on Alveolar Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Mon, 10 Nov 2014 06:51:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/907970/ Gelam honey has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in animal model. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Gelam honey (Melaleuca cajuputi) on alveolar bone level in experimental periodontitis. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study and randomly divided into four groups: ligated saline (LS), ligated honey (LH), nonligated saline (NLS), and nonligated honey (NLH). Fifteen days after supplementation with Gelam honey (3 g/kg), the rats were sacrificed and alveolar bone level was determined by radiography and histomorphometry. The number of osteoclasts was also calculated for all groups. Both radiographic and histomorphometric analyses showed that alveolar bone resorption was severely induced around the ligated molar in the LS and LH groups. There was no significant difference in alveolar bone level between the LS and LH groups. However, there was a nonsignificant reduction of osteoclast number by 15.2% in LH group compared to LS group. In the NLH group, there was less alveolar bone resorption and the number of osteoclasts was reduced by 13.2% compared to NLS group. In conclusion, systemically supplemented Gelam honey was shown to have the potential of reducing osteoclast activity in the experimental periodontitis rats, even though the effect on alveolar bone level was not well demonstrated and it warrants further research. N. Hamzah, S. A. Aziz, A. R. Fauzi, Y. A. Mohd Yusof, M. Razali, N. Ibrahim, and B. Baharin Copyright © 2014 N. Hamzah et al. All rights reserved. Maxillofacial Fractures: Etiology, Pattern of Presentation, and Treatment in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria Thu, 06 Nov 2014 09:48:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/850814/ Objective. To retrospectively analyze the pattern of presentation and modalities of management of maxillofacial fractures in our center. Methods. The medical records of all the patients who sustained maxillofacial fractures presenting to a major referral hospital in Niger Delta region of Nigeria were retrieved and reviewed. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Results. Eighty-six patients presented with 135 maxillofacial fractures during the period under review. A male to female ration of 3 : 1 was recorded and patients in their third decade of life were mostly affected (46.5%). Road traffic accident (RTA) was the commonest etiology accounting for 46.5% whereas assault was second (19.8%). The mandible was the most frequently fractured bone (59.3%) followed by the zygoma (18.5%). The main stay of treatment was closed reduction with IMF (40.4%). Conclusion. Treatment modalities for maxillofacial fractures in our center have not witnessed any significant changes. Effort should be made to ensure the availability of miniplates to ensure adequate treatment for all categories of our patients. S. E. Udeabor, B. O. Akinbami, K. S. Yarhere, and A. E. Obiechina Copyright © 2014 S. E. Udeabor et al. All rights reserved. Variables Affecting the Accuracy of Implant Master Casts: An In Vitro Pilot Study Wed, 14 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/273079/ Impression and master cast accuracy have been identified as being the major determinants of superstructure fit in implant-supported restorations. The goal of this in vitro investigation was to determine the effects of different transfer components, impression materials, disinfection, storage time, and stone type on master cast accuracy. Following impression making from a reference model with two internal-hex bone-level implants and master cast fabrication (eight experimental groups; n = 5), a bar-type measurement device equipped with a strain gauge was fixed on all master casts while strain development was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed applying ANOVA and paired t-tests with the level of significance set at α = 0.05. The transfer components with plastic sleeves caused maximum misfit strain which was significantly greater as compared to click (P = 0.02) and open tray transfer components (P = 0.00). No significant effect on master cast accuracy was recorded for the parameters impression material, impression disinfection, and storage of impressions or casts. Lower strain development was observed in casts poured in type 3 stone as compared to casts poured in type 4 stone (P = 0.01). For the bone-level implant system considered here, the great levels of accuracy could be achieved using pick-up impressions with either click or open tray impression components. Matthias Karl and Victor Palarie Copyright © 2014 Matthias Karl and Victor Palarie. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Bone Level Alterations at Implants with Inner-Cone Connection and Platform Switching Sun, 23 Feb 2014 08:35:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/685803/ Purpose. This retrospective cohort study evaluated factors for peri-implant bone level changes (ΔIBL) associated with an implant type with inner-cone implant-abutment connection, rough neck surface, and platform switching (AT). Materials and Methods. All AT placed at the Department of Prosthodontics of the University of Bern between January 2004 and December 2005 were included in this study. All implants were examined by single radiographs using the parallel technique taken at surgery (T0) and obtained at least 6 months after surgery (T1). Possible influencing factors were analysed first using t-test (normal distribution) or the nonparametric Wilcoxon test (not normal distribution), and then a mixed model q variance analysis was performed. Results. 43 patients were treated with 109 implants. Five implants in 2 patients failed (survival rate: 95.4%). Mean ΔIBL in group 1 (T1: 6–12 months after surgery) was  mm and  mm in group 2 (T1: >12 months after surgery) (). Greater implant insertion depth in diameter 3.5 mm implants might be associated with increased ΔIBL (). In the anterior region, the bone alteration was more pronounced (). Conclusions. ΔIBL values indicated that the implant system used in this study fulfilled implant success criteria. Renzo Bassetti, Simone Reischel, Sükran Öztürk, Mario Bassetti, Regina Mericske-Stern, and Norbert Enkling Copyright © 2014 Renzo Bassetti et al. All rights reserved. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein: A Biological Marker for Oral Precancer and Cancer Sun, 09 Feb 2014 14:13:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/158709/ Background. The aim of the present paper was to study the expression and overexpression of EGFR in oral leukoplakia and cancer and at the same time assess the expression of EGFR in various histological grades of oral leukoplakia and OSCC in the Indian subcontinent. Methods. The study was conducted with routine H&E and IHC staining on 40 archival tissues. Results. Positive EGFR staining was present in all the cases 100% (30/30) out of which 7 (46.7%) cases of OSCC showed >75% EGFR expression and 8 (53.3%) cases of oral leukoplakia showed 25% EGFR expression. A statistically significant correlation was found in OSCC, OL and controls. Conclusions. EGFR may represent a promising target for novel molecular cancer therapies. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential of dysplastic tissues. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy. Ashish Mahendra, Balasundari Shreedhar, Mala Kamboj, Arun Singh, Abhishek Singh, Ashutosh Agrawal, Sachin Kumar, and Arpita Kabiraj Copyright © 2014 Ashish Mahendra et al. All rights reserved. Aloe vera: An Ancient Herb for Modern Dentistry—A Literature Review Tue, 21 Jan 2014 12:41:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/210463/ Objectives. To review composition, actions, and clinical applications of Aloe vera plant in dentistry and to establish its effectiveness as an invaluable adjunct in the treatment of dental diseases. Method. A manual and electronic literature (MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar) search was performed up to July 2013 for in vitro and in vivo studies and research presenting clinical, microbiological, immunological, and patient-centered data to validate the efficacy of Aloe vera gel in dentistry. A total of 38 titles, abstracts, and full-text studies were selected and reviewed. Aloe vera has various medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and antitumor which accelerates wound healing and helps in treating various lesions in oral cavity. Benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves. Conclusion. The pharmacological attributes of Aloe vera have been revalidated in modern sciences through various in vivo and in vitro studies. The herb has immense potential as a dental therapeutic. Even though Aloe vera is a promising herb with various clinical applications in medicine and dentistry, more clinical research needs to be undertaken especially to validate and explain the action of acemannan hydrogel in accelerating the healing of aphthous ulcers and to validate the efficacy of Aloe gel on plaque and gingivitis, so that it can be established in the field of dentistry. Arbaz Sajjad and Samia Subhani Sajjad Copyright © 2014 Arbaz Sajjad and Samia Subhani Sajjad. All rights reserved.