- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Journal of Engineering

Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 317296, 6 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/317296

## Third Order Universal Filter Using Single Operational Transresistance Amplifier

Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, India

Received 4 September 2012; Revised 4 December 2012; Accepted 12 December 2012

Academic Editor: Paolo Colantonio

Copyright © 2013 Mourina Ghosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

This paper proposes a multi-input single-output (MISO) third order voltage mode (VM) universal filter using only one operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA). The proposed circuit realizes low-pass, high-pass, all-pass, band-pass, and notch responses from the same topology. The PSPICE Simulation results using 0.5 *μ*m CMOS technology agree well with the theoretical design.

#### 1. Introduction

Operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) has emerged as an alternate current mode analog building block [1, 2] since it inherits all the advantages offered by other current mode building blocks such as current conveyor (CC) [3–6], operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) [7], current differencing buffered amplifier (CDBA) [8], differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC) [9]. The input terminals of OTRA are internally grounded, thereby eliminating parasitic capacitances at the input. OTRA has the advantages of a high slew rate and wide bandwidth. It is a high-gain current input voltage output device. Some analog filters using OTRA have been reported in [10–16] and references cited there in. It is well known that higher order analog filters using different kinds of active elements are of considerable interest, as they may be used for some special applications where sharp cut off is desirable and at the same time also useful to implement digital filters. Higher order filters can be obtained by various methods such as cascading lower order filter or state variable method or signal flow graph. Although OTRA based third order filters are reported in the literature [17–19], they all involve more that one OTRA.

In this work an attempt is made to propose a third order voltage mode (VM) universal filter employing single OTRA as an active element. All of the five filters, namely lowpass (LPF), highpass (HPF), allpass (APF), bandpass (BPF), notch (NF), can be obtained from the same topology.

#### 2. Circuit Description

The circuit symbol of an OTRA is illustrated in Figure 1. The characteristic equations of this element can be described as
A CMOS-based OTRA using 0.5 *μ*m CMOS technology is given in Figure 2 [2].

A generalized th order filter topology using single OTRA is shown in Figure 3 [20]. The routine analysis gives a voltage transfer function as The proposed third order universal filter is obtained from Figure 3, if one considers , , , and splits the terminal into three parts and terminal into two parts as shown in Figure 4.

The routine analysis gives output voltage as where

If , then (4) modifies as The specialization of (4), as shown in Tables 1 and 2, results the transfer function of low-pass filter (LPF), all-pass filter (APF), band-pass filter (BPF), and notch filter (NF) functions. Similarly high-pass (HPF) transfer function is obtained from (4) if .

The natural frequency and quality factor of the proposed circuit for LPF, APF, BPF, NF can be obtained as and for HPF as The sensitivity of with respect to passive elements may be expressed as It shows that the proposed circuit offers low sensitivity.

#### 3. Effect of Nonidealities of OTRA

In this section the effect of finite transresistance gain on the output of the filter circuit is considered and for high frequency applications a passive compensation is employed in the same line as of reference [10, 11]. Ideally the transresistance gain is assumed to approach infinity. However, practically is a frequency dependent finite value. Considering the single pole model for the transresistance gain, can be expressed as where is the pole frequency and is DC transresistance gain. In the case of high frequency application the transresistance gain reduces to where Taking this effect into account the voltage transfer function (2) modifies to where is the uncompensated error term. In the case of high frequency applications, passive compensation method may be employed to account for error introduced in (2) which is given in (11). Inspection of circuit of Figure 4 and denominator of (11) indicates that error term may be realized by connecting a capacitor in parallel to or for passive compensation. In other words the value of may be decreased by to absorb the nonideality effect and thus achieving self-compensation. There is another nonideality due to parasitic resistances and capacitances. Since the input nodes in an OTRA are inherently grounded, the effect of parasites are negligible.

#### 4. Simulation Results

The performance of the proposed universal filter is evaluated with CMOS implementation of OTRA as shown in Figure 2 [2], with DC power supply voltages and bias voltage . The simulations are performed using PSPICE based on 0.5 *μ*m MOSIS (AGILENT) CMOS technology parameters. Aspect ratios used for different transistors are same as [2].

The designed values of resistances and capacitances to obtain multifunction filter output for a cutoff frequency of and quality factor of is shown in Table 3. The simulated frequency responses for gain of LPF, HPF, and BPF are shown in Figures 5, 6, and 7, respectively. It is observed that the simulated values closely agree with the theoretical results. Figures 8 and 9 show the frequency responses for both gain and phase for APF and NF, respectively. It is observed that there is deviation of simulated gain at higher frequency for notch filter (NF). To judge the quality of the output, total harmonic distortion is obtained for low-pass, high-pass, and band-pass filter as shown in Figure 10. It is evident that the output distortion is very low and within 0.2% up to 2 volts. Hence it may be claimed that the output is of very good quality and dynamic range is high.

#### 5. Conclusion

An OTRA based universal third order voltage mode filter is presented. Although a number of passive components matching is required, the proposed circuit offers the following advantageous features: (i) use of single OTRA, (ii) it has low output impedance, hence suitable for cascading, (iii) can implement all the five filter function such as lowpass, highpass, bandpass, allpass, and notch from same topology, (iv) moreover all the capacitors are grounded or virtually grounded, so suitable for monolithic IC implementation, and (v) effect of finite transresistance gain can be reduced by self-compensation method, hence no additional elements needed.

#### References

- J. J. Chen, H. W. Tsao, and C. C. Chen, “Operational transresistance amplifier using CMOS technology,”
*Electronics Letters*, vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 2087–2088, 1992. View at Scopus - H. Mostafa and A. M. Soliman, “A modified CMOS realization of the operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA),”
*Frequenz*, vol. 60, no. 3-4, pp. 70–76, 2006. View at Scopus - J. W. Horng, “High-input impedance voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter using three plus-type CCIIs,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II*, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 996–997, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. W. Horng, “High-order current-mode and transimpedance-mode universal filters with multiple-inputs and two-outputs using MOCCIIs,”
*Radioengineering*, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 537–543, 2009. View at Scopus - N. Pandey, S. K. Paul, and S. B. Jain, “A new electronically tunable current mode universal filter using MO-CCCII,”
*Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing*, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 171–178, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - W. Tangsrirat and W. Surakampontorn, “Electronically tunable current-mode universal filter employing only plus-type current-controlled conveyors and grounded capacitors,”
*Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing*, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 701–713, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - R. Šotner, J. Petržela, and J. Slezák, “Current-controlled current-mode universal biquad employing multi-output transconductors,”
*Radioengineering*, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 285–294, 2009. View at Scopus - A. U. Keskin and E. Hancioglu, “Current mode multifunction filter using two CDBAs,”
*International Journal of Electronics and Communications*, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 495–498, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - S. Minaei and E. Yuce, “All-grounded passive elements voltage-mode DVCC-based universal filters,”
*Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing*, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 295–309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. N. Salama and A. M. Soliman, “CMOS operational transresistance amplifier for analog signal processing,”
*Microelectronics Journal*, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 235–245, 1999. View at Scopus - K. N. Salama and A. M. Soliman, “Universal filters using Operational Transresistance Amplifiers,”
*International Journal of Electronics and Communication*, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 1999. View at Scopus - K. N. Salama and A. M. Soliman, “Active RC applications of the operational transresistance amplifier,”
*Frequenz*, vol. 54, no. 7-8, pp. 171–176, 2000. View at Scopus - C. Cakir, U. Cam, and O. Cicekoglu, “Novel allpass filter configuration employing single OTRA,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II*, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 122–125, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - A. Gokcen, S. Kilinc, and U. Cam, “Fully integrated universal biquads using operational transresistance amplifiers with MOS-C realization,”
*Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences*, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 363–372, 2011. - U. Cam, F. Kacar, O. Cicekoglu, H. Kuntman, and A. Kuntman, “Novel grounded parallel immittance simulator topologies employing single OTRA,”
*International Journal of Electronics and Communications*, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 287–290, 2003. - S. Kilinç and U. Çam, “Cascadable allpass and notch filters employing single operational transresistance amplifier,”
*Computers and Electrical Engineering*, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 391–401, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Y. S. Hwang, J. J. Chen, and W. T. Lee, “High-order linear transformation MOSFET-C filters using operational transresistance amplifiers,” in
*Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '05)*, pp. 3275–3278, May 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. J. Chen, H. W. Tsao, S. I. Liu, and W. Chiu, “Parasitic-capacitance-insensitive current-mode filters using operational transresistance amplifiers,”
*IEE Proceedings: Circuits, Devices and Systems*, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 186–192, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Y. S. Hwang, D. S. Wu, J. J. Chen, C. C. Shih, and W. S. Chou, “Realization of high-order OTRA-MOSFET-C active filters,”
*Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing*, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 281–291, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - C. Acar and H. Sedef, “Realization of nth-order current transfer function using current-differencing buffered amplifiers,”
*International Journal of Electronics*, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 277–283, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus