Journal of Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Tidal Hydrodynamics in the Lower Columbia River Estuary through Depth Averaged Adaptive Hydraulics Modeling Tue, 11 Feb 2014 10:05:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/416914/ The adaptive hydraulics (AdH) numerical code was applied to study tidal propagation in the Lower Columbia River (LCR) estuary. The results demonstrate the readiness of this AdH model towards the further study of hydrodynamics in the LCR. The AdH model accurately replicated behavior of the tide as it propagated upstream into the LCR system. Results show that the MSf tidal component and the M4 overtidal component are generated in the middle LCR and contain a substantial amount of tidal energy. An analysis was performed to determine the causes of MSf tide amplification, and it was found that approximately 80% of the amplification occurs due to nonlinear interaction between the M2 and the S2 tidal components. Gaurav Savant and Tate O. McAlpin Copyright © 2014 Gaurav Savant and Tate O. McAlpin. All rights reserved. Motion Objects Segmentation and Shadow Suppressing without Background Learning Thu, 23 Jan 2014 15:51:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/615198/ An approach to segmenting motion objects and suppressing shadows without background learning has been developed. Since wavelet transformation indicates the position of sharper variation, it is adopted to extract the information contents with the most meaningful features based on two successive video frames only. According to the fact that the saturation component is lower in the region of shadow and is independent of the brightness, HSV color space is selected to extract foreground motion region and suppress shadow instead of other color models. A local adaptive thresholding approach is proposed to extract initial binary motion masks based on the results of the wavelet transformation. A foreground reclassification is developed to get an optimal segmentation by fusion of mode filtering, connectivity analysis, and spatial-temporal correlation. Comparative studies with some investigated methods have indicated the superior performance of the proposal in extracting motion objects and suppressing shadows from cluttered contents with dynamic scene variation and crowded environments. Y.-P. Guan Copyright © 2014 Y.-P. Guan. All rights reserved. Decentralized Scheduling Algorithm for DAG Based Tasks on P2P Grid Wed, 22 Jan 2014 13:04:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/202843/ Complex problems consisting of interdependent subtasks are represented by a direct acyclic graph (DAG). Subtasks of this DAG are scheduled by the scheduler on various grid resources. Scheduling algorithms for grid strive to optimize the schedule. Nowadays a lot of grid resources are attached by P2P approach. Grid systems and P2P model both are newfangled distributed computing approaches. Combining P2P model and grid systems we get P2P grid systems. P2P grid systems require fully decentralized scheduling algorithm, which can schedule interreliant subtasks among nonuniform computational resources. Absence of central scheduler caused the need for decentralized scheduling algorithm. In this paper we have proposed scheduling algorithm which not only is fruitful in optimizing schedule but also does so in fully decentralized fashion. Hence, this unconventional approach suits well for P2P grid systems. Moreover, this algorithm takes accurate scheduling decisions depending on both computation cost and communication cost associated with DAG’s subtasks. Piyush Chauhan and Nitin Copyright © 2014 Piyush Chauhan and Nitin. All rights reserved. Performance Evaluation of New Joint EDF-RM Scheduling Algorithm for Real Time Distributed System Wed, 22 Jan 2014 13:02:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/485361/ In Real Time System, the achievement of deadline is the main target of every scheduling algorithm. Earliest Deadline First (EDF), Rate Monotonic (RM), and least Laxity First are some renowned algorithms that work well in their own context. As we know, there is a very common problem Domino's effect in EDF that is generated due to overloading condition (EDF is not working well in overloading situation). Similarly, performance of RM is degraded in underloading condition. We can say that both algorithms are complements of each other. Deadline missing in both events happens because of their utilization bounding strategy. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a new scheduling algorithm that carries through the drawback of both existing algorithms. Joint EDF-RM scheduling algorithm is implemented in global scheduler that permits task migration mechanism in between processors in the system. In order to check the improved behavior of proposed algorithm we perform simulation. Results are achieved and evaluated in terms of Success Ratio (SR), Average CPU Utilization (ECU), Failure Ratio (FR), and Maximum Tardiness parameters. In the end, the results are compared with the existing (EDF, RM, and D_R_EDF) algorithms. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm performs better during overloading condition as well in underloading condition. Rashmi Sharma and Nitin Copyright © 2014 Rashmi Sharma and Nitin. All rights reserved. Fault Tolerant PLBGSA: Precedence Level Based Genetic Scheduling Algorithm for P2P Grid Wed, 18 Dec 2013 16:03:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/749132/ Due to monetary limitation, small organizations cannot afford high end supercomputers to solve highly complex tasks. P2P (peer to peer) grid computing is being used nowadays to break complex task into subtasks in order to solve them on different grid resources. Workflows are used to represent these complex tasks. Finishing such complex task in a P2P grid requires scheduling subtasks of workflow in an optimized manner. Several factors play their part in scheduling decisions. The genetic algorithm is very useful in scheduling DAG (directed acyclic graph) based task. Benefit of a genetic algorithm is that it takes into consideration multiple criteria while scheduling. In this paper, we have proposed a precedence level based genetic algorithm (PLBGSA), which yields schedules for workflows in a decentralized fashion. PLBGSA is compared with existing genetic algorithm based scheduling techniques. Fault tolerance is a desirable trait of a P2P grid scheduling algorithm due to the untrustworthy nature of grid resources. PLBGSA handles faults efficiently. Piyush Chauhan and Nitin Copyright © 2013 Piyush Chauhan and Nitin. All rights reserved. Printed Persian Subword Recognition Using Wavelet Packet Descriptors Tue, 12 Nov 2013 15:29:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/465469/ In this paper, we present a new approach to offline OCR (optical character recognition) for printed Persian subwords using wavelet packet transform. The proposed algorithm is used to extract font invariant and size invariant features from 87804 subwords of 4 fonts and 3 sizes. The feature vectors are compressed using PCA. The obtained feature vectors yield a pictorial dictionary for which an entry is the mean of each group that consists of the same subword with 4 fonts in 3 sizes. The sets of these features are congregated by combining them with the dot features for the recognition of printed Persian subwords. To evaluate the feature extraction results, this algorithm was tested on a set of 2000 subwords in printed Persian text documents. An encouraging recognition rate of 97.9% is got at subword level recognition. Samira Nasrollahi and Afshin Ebrahimi Copyright © 2013 Samira Nasrollahi and Afshin Ebrahimi. All rights reserved. The Importance of the Model Choice for Experimental Semivariogram Modeling and Its Consequence in Evaluation Process Mon, 07 Oct 2013 14:27:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/960105/ Geostatistics was created during the second half of 20th century by Georges Matheron, on the basis of Danie Krige’s and Herbert Sichel’s theories. The purpose of this new science was to achieve an optimal evaluation of mining ore bodies. The interest in geostatistical tools has grown, and nowadays its techniques are applied in many branches of engineering where data analysis, interpolation, and evaluation are necessary. This paper presents an overview of the geostatistics approach in data analysis and describes each operative step from experimental semivariogram calculation to kriging interpolation, focusing and underlining the experimental semivariogram modeling step. To help any data analysts during geostatistical analysis process, an innovative geostatistical software was created. This new software, named “Kriging Assistant” (KA) and developed within the Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies University of Cagliari, is able, with a marginal support of the user, to produce 2D and 3D grids and contour maps of sampled data. A comparison between kriging results obtained by KA and two of the most common data analysis softwares (Golden Software Surfer and ESRI Geostatistical Analyst for ArcMap) is presented in this paper. Reported data showed that KA minimizes interpolation errors and, for this reason, provides better interpolation results. Alessandro Mazzella and Antonio Mazzella Copyright © 2013 Alessandro Mazzella and Antonio Mazzella. All rights reserved. Symbol Error Probability of DF Relay Selection over Arbitrary Nakagami- Fading Channels Thu, 03 Oct 2013 08:31:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/325045/ We present a new analytical expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio of dual-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relaying systems with relay selection when operating over Nakagami- fading channels. The derived MGF expression, which is valid for arbitrary values of the fading parameters of both hops, is subsequently utilized to evaluate the average symbol error probability (ASEP) of -ary phase shift keying modulation for the considered DF relaying scheme under various asymmetric fading conditions. It is shown that the MGF-based ASEP performance evaluation results are in excellent agreement with equivalent ones obtained by means of computer simulations, thus validating the correctness of the presented MGF expression. George C. Alexandropoulos, Paschalis C. Sofotasios, Khuong Ho-Van, and Steven Freear Copyright © 2013 George C. Alexandropoulos et al. All rights reserved. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:57:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/301265/ Combined (steam and CO2) reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O) stream to propane (fuel) ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process. K. Moon and Ganesh R. Kale Copyright © 2013 K. Moon and Ganesh R. Kale. All rights reserved. High Temperature Vacuum Annealing and Hydrogenation Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets Tue, 10 Sep 2013 10:07:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/638576/ Highly active defect sites on the edges of graphene automatically capture oxygen from air to form various oxygen groups. A two-step procedure to remove various oxygen functional groups from the defect sites of exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) has been developed to reduce the atomic oxygen concentration from 9.5% to 4.8%. This two-step approach involves high temperature vacuum annealing followed by hydrogenation to protect the reduced edge carbon atoms from recombining with the atmospheric oxygen. The reduced GNPs exhibit decreased surface resistance and graphitic potential-dependent capacitance characteristics compared to the complex potential-dependent capacitance characteristics exhibited by the unreduced GNPs as a result of the removal of the oxygen functional groups present primarily at the edges. These reduced GNPs also exhibit high electrochemical cyclic stability for electrochemical energy storage applications. Xiaobing Li, Sanjib Biswas, and Lawrence T. Drzal Copyright © 2013 Xiaobing Li et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Matrix Failure in Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Tue, 27 Aug 2013 10:52:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/973026/ Recent development has enabled fibre and matrix failure in a fibre reinforced composite material to be predicted separately. Matrix yield/failure prediction is based on a Von Mises strain and first strain invariant criteria. Alternative matrix failure criteria for enhanced prediction accuracy are discussed in this paper. The proposed failure envelope formed with basic failure criteria intersects with uniaxial compression, pure shear and uniaxial tensile test data points smoothly. For failure of typical neat resin, significant improvement of prediction accuracy compared with measured material data is demonstrated. For a unit cell with a fibre and surrounding matrix with typical material properties, a FEM analysis indicates a significant improvement in prediction accuracy in the pure shear load case and a marginal improvement in the biaxial tensile load case. This paper also provided a preliminary discussion about the issues when material nonlinearity of the matrix material is involved. J. Wang and W. K. Chiu Copyright © 2013 J. Wang and W. K. Chiu. All rights reserved. A Very Compact AES-SPIHT Selective Encryption Computer Architecture Design with Improved S-Box Wed, 31 Jul 2013 14:02:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/785126/ The “S-box” algorithm is a key component in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) due to its nonlinear property. Various implementation approaches have been researched and discussed meeting stringent application goals (such as low power, high throughput, low area), but the ultimate goal for many researchers is to find a compact and small hardware footprint for the S-box circuit. In this paper, we present our version of minimized S-box with two separate proposals and improvements in the overall gate count. The compact S-box is adopted with a compact and optimum processor architecture specifically tailored for the AES, namely, the compact instruction set architecture (CISA). To further justify and strengthen the purpose of the compact crypto-processor’s application, we have also presented a selective encryption architecture (SEA) which incorporates the CISA as a part of the encryption core, accompanied by the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm as a complete selective encryption system. Jia Hao Kong, Li-Minn Ang, and Kah Phooi Seng Copyright © 2013 Jia Hao Kong et al. All rights reserved. Biosorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Ficus benghalensis L. Mon, 29 Jul 2013 09:30:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/167518/ Ficus benghalensis L., a plant-based material leaf powder, is used as an adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution using the biosorption technique. The effects of process parameters such as contact time, adsorbent size and dosage, initial lead ion concentration, and pH of the aqueous solution on bio-sorption of lead by Ficus benghalensis L. were studied using batch process. The Langmuir isotherm was more suitable for biosorption followed by Freundlich and Temkin isotherms with a maximum adsorption capacity of 28.63 mg/g of lead ion on the biomass of Ficus benghalensis L. leaves. Venkateswara Rao Surisetty, Janusz Kozinski, and L. Rao Nageswara Copyright © 2013 Venkateswara Rao Surisetty et al. All rights reserved. Planar Monopoles with Different Radiator Shapes for UWB Body-Centric Wireless Communications Thu, 18 Jul 2013 08:56:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/683428/ This paper presents a study on the performances of a group of planar monopoles using radiators of different shapes, such as triangle, rectangle, square, annual ring, circle, horizontal ellipse, vertical ellipse, pentagon, and hexagon, for ultra-wideband (UWB) body-centric wireless communications. The planar monopoles have the radiators with microstrip-fed line printed on one side of the substrate and a ground plane on the other side. Simulation studies show that, among these monopoles, the horizontal elliptical, vertical elliptical, and hexagonal monopoles have better overall performances in terms of bandwidth, gain, efficiency, and radiation pattern in free space. A solid-body phantom mimicking human tissue is used for studies of these three monopoles for body-centric communications. Simulated and measured results of these monopoles on the phantom show that the horizontal elliptical monopole achieves the widest impedance bandwidths, highest average peak gain and efficiency, least path loss, best fidelity, and good radiation pattern, making it a good candidate for UWB body-centric wireless communications. Y. Y. Sun, S. W. Cheung, and T. I. Yuk Copyright © 2013 Y. Y. Sun et al. All rights reserved. La Loaded TiO2 Encapsulated Zeolite Y Catalysts: Investigating the Characterization and Decolorization Process of Amaranth Dye Mon, 24 Jun 2013 17:44:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/407167/ Lanthanide ions loaded TiO2 encapsulated into Y zeolite catalysts were synthesized and used in sonocatalytic degradation of Amaranth dye in aqueous solution. The support zeolite Y was modified by different loading of Ti and La species using ion exchange method. The sonocatalytic reaction condition was carried out at 10 mg/L initial dye concentration, original pH, 1.5 g/L of catalyst loading with low ultrasonic frequency of 40 KHz. Different characterization techniques were used to reveal the physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts. Successful loading of TiO2 and La/TiO2 into zeolite Y was achieved. The framework of zeolite Y remained unchanged after the loading of TiO2. Titanium species was bound to the framework of zeolite through Ti–O–Si bonds through isomorphous substitution of Si in the zeolite. The ultrasonic degradation of Amaranth dye was enhanced by the TiO2 encapsulation with a maximum degradation efficiency of 50% after 120 min of reaction. However, the activity of the catalyst decreased after the loading of lanthanum. This decrease was attributed to the poor contact between the metal crystallites located on the external surface and the titanium encapsulated into cages of zeolite Y. Atheel Hassan Alwash, Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah, and Norli Ismail Copyright © 2013 Atheel Hassan Alwash et al. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Arylidene Acetophenones Mon, 24 Jun 2013 11:43:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/429785/ An efficient synthesis of arylidene acetophenones have been achieved by using the microwave heating in comparison to the conventional heating. In this work compound 1-phenyle-3-(4-droxyphenyle)-2-propen-1-one, 1-(4-chlorophenyle)-3-phenyle-2-propen-1-one, and 1-(4-chlorophenyle)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyle)-2-propen-1-one have been synthesized by the condensation reaction between aromatic aldehydes and substituted acetophenones under microwave irradiation. The compounds of aldehydes and acetophenones were used as benzaldehyde, parahydroxybenzaldehyde, acetophenone, and parachloroacetophenone. The result shows that the time taken for the reaction was reduced from the conventional 1-2 hours to 60–120 seconds. The yield of the compounds in the conventional heating was moderate while the highest yield of 90–98% was observed in MWI method. The structure of the compounds was characterized by their IR, 1H-NMR spectral data. Sheauly Khatun, M. Z. H. Khan, Khodeza Khatun, and M. A. Sattar Copyright © 2013 Sheauly Khatun et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Vessel for Coal-Water Slurry Based on the Taguchi Method Sun, 23 Jun 2013 11:02:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/719296/ Heat transfer in stirred vessels is important because process fluid temperature in the vessel is one of the most significant factors for controlling the outcome of process. In this study, the effects of some important design parameters for coal-water slurry in agitated vessel used in coal gasification such as stirrer speed, location of stirrer, D/d ratio, and coal-water ratio were investigated and optimized using the Taguchi method. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s orthogonal array with each trial performed under different levels of design parameter. Signal-to-noise (S/N) analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were carried out in order to determine the effects of process parameter and optimal factor’s level settings. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the Taguchi method achieved optimization of heat transfer coefficient in agitated vessel. C. M. Raguraman, A. Ragupathy, and L. Sivakumar Copyright © 2013 C. M. Raguraman et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Hybrid Model for Short-Term Load Forecasting Tue, 18 Jun 2013 12:06:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/760860/ The paper proposes a simple hybrid model to forecast the electrical load data based on the wavelet transform technique and double exponential smoothing. The historical noisy load series data is decomposed into deterministic and fluctuation components using suitable wavelet coefficient thresholds and wavelet reconstruction method. The variation characteristics of the resulting series are analyzed to arrive at reasonable thresholds that yield good denoising results. The constitutive series are then forecasted using appropriate exponential adaptive smoothing models. A case study performed on California energy market data demonstrates that the proposed method can offer high forecasting precision for very short-term forecasts, considering a time horizon of two weeks. Suseelatha Annamareddi, Sudheer Gopinathan, and Bharathi Dora Copyright © 2013 Suseelatha Annamareddi et al. All rights reserved. The Kansei Design Characteristics towards Learning Style Mon, 10 Jun 2013 19:16:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/584656/ The individuals possess unique ways of how they learn. Based on this perspective, each of individuals will approach the general learning experiences in a personal and individualized way related to his/her performance and behavior. This study is to analyze the characteristics of product design using Kansei Engineering approach towards the student learning style based on Felder and Soloman's theory. Using the 8 (eight) spectacles designs proposed comparing the emotional feeling towards design of product, the study involved 100 students who are using spectacles as the respondents. Focusing on the perception and input dimensions of the Felder-Soloman learning styles comprised in 22 questions and the Crane cognitive alert styles in 9 questions, the result of study shows that the students who are using spectacles are dominated by “the visual” type of Felder-Soloman learning styles. In addition, based on the using of Kansei Engineering, this study also found that the respondents tend to interpret the rimless design of spectacles as “fragile,” “unattractive,” “old-fashion” product, while the design with thicker frame as “durable,” “attractive,” cool,” “ergonomic” product. In this study, there are also the significant correlations proved against the preferences of product design based on quality affective (Kansei Engineering) using learning styles and cognitive alert styles. Haeryip Sihombing, M. Y. Yuhazri, S. H. Yahaya, and Fevi Syaifoelida Copyright © 2013 Haeryip Sihombing et al. All rights reserved. Gamma Splines and Wavelets Mon, 10 Jun 2013 18:01:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/625364/ In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG). Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment. Hannu Olkkonen and Juuso T. Olkkonen Copyright © 2013 Hannu Olkkonen and Juuso T. Olkkonen. All rights reserved. Dynamic Characters of Stiffened Composite Conoidal Shell Roofs with Cutouts: Design Aids and Selection Guidelines Wed, 05 Jun 2013 11:27:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/230120/ Dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite conoidal shells with cutout are analyzed in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. A finite element code is developed for the purpose by combining an eight-noded curved shell element with a three-noded curved beam element. The code is validated by solving benchmark problems available in the literature and comparing the results. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite conoids. The effects of these parametric variations on the fundamental frequencies and mode shapes are considered in details. The results furnished here may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite conoids with cutouts central or eccentric. Sarmila Sahoo Copyright © 2013 Sarmila Sahoo. All rights reserved. Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Polyphosphate as Dispersing Agents for Alumina Suspensions: Rheological Characterization Tue, 04 Jun 2013 12:13:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/930832/ In the present work, the influence of addition of some dispersing agents employed for maximizing the solid loading of alumina concentrated suspensions has been investigated. Two commercially available deflocculants were used: a sodium tripolyphosphate and a sodium polyphosphate. Rheological tests were carried out at 25°C under continuous flow conditions by using the rate-controlled coaxial cylinder viscometer Rotovisko-Haake 20, system M5-osc., measuring device SV2P with serrated surfaces. The application of rheological techniques permitted the evaluation of the efficiency and the optimum dosage of the dispersing agents employed upon the alumina slips examined, that is, the critical concentration at which the maximum reduction in viscosity is detected. L. Piani and A. Papo Copyright © 2013 L. Piani and A. Papo. All rights reserved. Analysis of Liquid Zone Control Valve Oscillation Problem in CANDU Reactors Mon, 03 Jun 2013 15:35:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/450161/ This paper looks at the existing challenges with steady-state Liquid Zone control at some CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) stations, where—contrary to expectations for equilibrium flow—Liquid Zone Control Valve oscillations have proven to be a chronic, unanticipated challenge. Currently, the exact causes of this behaviour are not fully understood, although it is confirmed that the Control Valve oscillations are not due to automatic power adjustment requests or zone level changes due to process leaks. This phenomenon was analysed based on a case study of one domestic nuclear power station to determine whether it could be attributed to inherent controller properties. Next, a proposal is made in an attempt to improve current performance with minimal changes to the existing system hardware and logic using conventional technologies. Finally, a proposal was made to consider Model Predictive Control-based technology to minimize the undesirable Control Valve oscillations at steady state based on the obtained simulation results and discussion of other available alternatives. Elnara Nasimi and Hossam A. Gabbar Copyright © 2013 Elnara Nasimi and Hossam A. Gabbar. All rights reserved. Extreme Velocity Fluctuations below Free Hydraulic Jumps Sun, 02 Jun 2013 13:26:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/678064/ The internal flow of hydraulic jump is essentially an unsteady flow subjected to macroturbulent random fluctuations, and it was not known enough. Then, for the fluctuating motion interpretation, the experimental research on the associated turbulence must be necessary. The author developed in the past extensive laboratory research for the instantaneous pressure field determination by means of pressure transducers and new introductory experiments on velocity fluctuations by means of the ADV technique. The experimental study of the instantaneous pressure field was based on the knowledge of several statistical parameters of amplitudes and frequencies as functions of the Froude number, but for this paper the maximum instantaneous negative of pressure amplitudes on the floor is considered, in order to estimate the extreme maximum positive velocities near the bottom. A useful relationship between turbulence intensity and the pressure fluctuation coefficient was proposed from ADV velocity fluctuation for low incident Froude numbers. By means of this relationship, the value (instantaneous positive semiamplitude with 0.1% of probability to be surpassed) can be considered for the determination of the turbulent extreme velocity near the bottom, under a free hydraulic jump stilling basin with incident Froude number . Raúl Antonio Lopardo Copyright © 2013 Raúl Antonio Lopardo. All rights reserved. Bio-Inspired Distributed Sensing Using a Self-Organizing Sensor Network Thu, 30 May 2013 15:03:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/959430/ Nature offers several examples of self-organizing systems that automatically adjust to changing conditions without adversely affecting the system goals. We propose a self-organizing sensor network that is inspired from real-life systems for sampling a region in an energy-efficient manner. Mobile nodes in our network execute certain rules by processing local information. These rules enable the nodes to divide the sampling task in a manner such that the nodes self-organize themselves to reduce the total power consumed and improve the accuracy with which the phenomena are sampled. The digital hormone-based model that encapsulates these rules, provides a theoretical framework for examining this class of systems. This model has been simulated and implemented on cricket motes. Our results indicate that the model is more effective than a conventional model with a fixed rate sampling. Indu Sreedevi, Shubham Mankhand, Santanu Chaudhury, and Asok Bhattacharyya Copyright © 2013 Indu Sreedevi et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication and Characterization of a High-Gain Yb-Er Codoped Phosphate Glass Optical Amplifier Tue, 28 May 2013 13:42:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/858341/ We present the fabrication and characterization of a short core pumped fiber amplifier made of Yb3+-Er3+ codoped phosphate glasses. The 27 mm long amplifier provides a maximum internal gain of 10.7 dB for a signal of −30 dBm at 1535 nm with a 479 mW pump power operating at 975.6 nm. This leads to a gain of 4.0 dB/cm, which compares favorably to other recent works. Gerardo Cristian Scarpignato, Daniel Milanese, Joris Lousteau, Nadia Giovanna Boetti, and Emanuele Mura Copyright © 2013 Gerardo Cristian Scarpignato et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Fuzzy RPID Controller for Multiarea AGC with IABC Optimization Mon, 20 May 2013 13:12:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/510572/ An Interactive Artificial Bee Colony (IABC) Optimization based fuzzy (IABCF) to tune optimal gains of a Robust Proportional Integral Derivative (RPID) controller is proposed for the solution of multiarea automatic generation control (AGC) simulation problem in a restructured power system. One of the important problems in the proposed method is the exact tuning of the RPID parameters for achieving the desired level of robust performance. The problem of robustly tuning of RPID based AGC design is formulated as an optimization problem according to the time domain-based objective function, which is solved by the IABC technique that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. The robustness and effectiveness of the proffered method are shown on a two and four areas deregulated power system with possible contracted scenarios under large load demand and area disturbances in comparison with the other methods through FD and ITAE performance indices. The evaluation results show that the proposed control strategy achieves good robust performance for worldwide experience of automatic generation control in restructured systems parameters and load changes in the presence of system nonlinearities. Javad Javidan and Ali Ghasemi Copyright © 2013 Javad Javidan and Ali Ghasemi. All rights reserved. Two Novel Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Full Adders Sun, 19 May 2013 14:20:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/561651/ Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an efficient technology to create computing devices. QCA is a suitable candidate for the next generation of digital systems. Full adders are the main member of computational systems because other operations can be implemented by adders. In this paper, two QCA full adders are introduced. The first one is implemented in one layer, and the second one is implemented in three layers. Five-input majority gate is used in both of them. These full adders are better than pervious designs in terms of area, delay, and complexity. Mahdie Qanbari and Reza Sabbaghi-Nadooshan Copyright © 2013 Mahdie Qanbari and Reza Sabbaghi-Nadooshan. All rights reserved. Object Shape Recognition Using Wavelet Descriptors Thu, 16 May 2013 14:18:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/435628/ The wavelet transform is a well-known signal analysis method in several engineering disciplines. In image processing and pattern recognition, the wavelet transform is used in many applications for image coding as well as feature extraction purposes. It can be used to describe a given object shape by wavelet descriptors (WD). Thus, it is used to recognize objects according to their contour shape by deriving a number of WD and comparing them with the WD of stored contour patterns. For our method, we use a periodical angle function derived from an extracted object contour. In order to apply the WD, the Mexican Hat can be used as the mother wavelet. In this paper, the method of object shape recognition using wavelet descriptors is described coherently and includes details relating to the method of applying the periodical angle function and the derivation of the formulas for the Haar as well as Mexican Hat wavelet descriptors. To evaluate the results of object recognition when using wavelet descriptors taking into account the dependence on the starting point, the paper describes a sufficient method for the comparison of wavelet descriptors using the minimum distance matrix. Adnan Abou Nabout Copyright © 2013 Adnan Abou Nabout. All rights reserved. Prospective Engineering Applications of Dynamic Transfer Processes Possessing the Self-Organized Fractal Interfaces Mon, 13 May 2013 11:33:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/310748/ General formulation of practically applicable fundamental approach for development of engineering applications in systems with dynamically appearing and disappearing fractal structures is proposed. The approach is illustrated on the low-temperature pyrolysis of butane/propane mixture being pumped via the liquid tin and bismuth alloy preserved at the temperature 200 ± 20°C in the U-shaped test glass. Other prospective engineering applications of the approach are proposed on the base of analysis of selected experiments described in literature. Aliaksandr Yurievich Alevanau, Olgerd Pavlovich Kuznechik, and Oleksandr Ivanovych Vyhoniailo Copyright © 2013 Aliaksandr Yurievich Alevanau et al. All rights reserved.