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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 786943, 16 pages
Research Article

Processor Energy Characterization for Compiler-Assisted Software Energy Reduction

13rd Floor Institute of System LSI Design Industry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 3-8-33 Momochihama, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0001, Japan
2Department of Communications and Computer Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshidahonmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

Received 15 July 2011; Revised 12 October 2011; Accepted 15 November 2011

Academic Editor: Ayse Kivilcim Coskun

Copyright © 2012 Lovic Gauthier and Tohru Ishihara. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Energy consumption is a fundamental barrier in taking full advantage of today and future semiconductor manufacturing technologies. The paper presents our recent research activities and results on characterizing and reducing the energy consumption in embedded systems. Firstly, a technique for characterizing the energy consumption of embedded processors during an application execution is presented. The technique trains a per-processor linear approximation model for fitting it to the energy consumption of the processor obtained by postlayout simulation. Secondly, based on the energy model mentioned above, the paper shows techniques for reducing the energy consumption by optimally mapping program code, stack frames, and data items to the scratch-pad memory (SPM) of the processor memory space.