Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Comprehensive Taxonomy and Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 Attacks Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:42:21 +0000 The IEEE 802.15.4 standard has been established as the dominant enabling technology for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With the proliferation of security-sensitive applications involving WSNs, WSN security has become a topic of great significance. In comparison with traditional wired and wireless networks, WSNs possess additional vulnerabilities which present opportunities for attackers to launch novel and more complicated attacks against such networks. For this reason, a thorough investigation of attacks against WSNs is required. This paper provides a single unified survey that dissects all IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC layer attacks known to date. While the majority of existing references investigate the motive and behavior of each attack separately, this survey classifies the attacks according to clear metrics within the paper and addresses the interrelationships and differences between the attacks following their classification. The authors’ opinions and comments regarding the placement of the attacks within the defined classifications are also provided. A comparative analysis between the classified attacks is then performed with respect to a set of defined evaluation criteria. The first half of this paper addresses attacks on the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY layer, whereas the second half of the paper addresses IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer attacks. Yasmin M. Amin and Amr T. Abdel-Hamid Copyright © 2016 Yasmin M. Amin and Amr T. Abdel-Hamid. All rights reserved. Compressive Imaging of Moving Object Based on Linear Array Sensor Thu, 14 Jul 2016 16:06:41 +0000 Using the characteristics of a moving object, this paper presents a compressive imaging method for moving objects based on a linear array sensor. The method uses a higher sampling frequency and a traditional algorithm to recover the image through a column-by-column process. During the compressive sampling stage, the output values of the linear array sensor are multiplied by a coefficient that is a measurement matrix element, and then the measurement value can be acquired by adding all the multiplication values together. During the reconstruction stage, the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is used to recover the original image when all the measurement values are obtained. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the proposed compressive imaging method not only effectively captures the information required from the moving object for image reconstruction but also achieves direct separation of the moving object from a static scene. Changjun Zha, Yao Li, Jinyao Gui, Huimin Duan, and Tailong Xu Copyright © 2016 Changjun Zha et al. All rights reserved. The Comparison of Distributed P2P Trust Models Based on Quantitative Parameters in the File Downloading Scenarios Wed, 13 Jul 2016 08:35:15 +0000 Varied P2P trust models have been proposed recently; it is necessary to develop an effective method to evaluate these trust models to resolve the commonalities (guiding the newly generated trust models in theory) and individuality (assisting a decision maker in choosing an optimal trust model to implement in specific context) issues. A new method for analyzing and comparing P2P trust models based on hierarchical parameters quantization in the file downloading scenarios is proposed in this paper. Several parameters are extracted from the functional attributes and quality feature of trust relationship, as well as requirements from the specific network context and the evaluators. Several distributed P2P trust models are analyzed quantitatively with extracted parameters modeled into a hierarchical model. The fuzzy inferring method is applied to the hierarchical modeling of parameters to fuse the evaluated values of the candidate trust models, and then the relative optimal one is selected based on the sorted overall quantitative values. Finally, analyses and simulation are performed. The results show that the proposed method is reasonable and effective compared with the previous algorithms. Jingpei Wang and Jie Liu Copyright © 2016 Jingpei Wang and Jie Liu. All rights reserved. Augmented Reality for Assistance of Total Knee Replacement Mon, 04 Jul 2016 09:17:49 +0000 The aim of this work was the development of a surgical assistance system based on augmented reality to support joint replacement procedures and implantation of prosthetic knee. Images of the scene were captured in order to detect the visual markers located on the lateral surface of the patient’s leg for overlapping the 3D models of the prosthesis and the joint, as well as the tool used by the medical specialist. With the marker identification, it was possible to compute its position and orientation for locating the virtual models, obtaining a monitoring system for giving accurate information about the procedure. Also it can be used as training platform for surgeons, without having volunteers or patients for performing real surgeries; instead they can train in a virtual environment. The results have shown an efficient system in terms of cost-benefit relation, taking into account the materials used for developing the system; nevertheless, the accuracy of the algorithm decreases according to the distance between the markers. Castillo Daniel and Olga Ramos Copyright © 2016 Castillo Daniel and Olga Ramos. All rights reserved. Advanced Information Technology Convergence Wed, 29 Jun 2016 12:11:33 +0000 Jucheng Yang, Hui Cheng, Sook Yoon, Anthony T. S. Ho, and Weiming Zeng Copyright © 2016 Jucheng Yang et al. All rights reserved. Design of Fixed Wideband Beamformer through Improved Maximum Energy Approach Wed, 15 Jun 2016 09:40:08 +0000 A maximum energy approach is investigated in this paper to design fixed wideband beamformer. This approach has been improved by integrating response variation (RV) into the target function to maintain the frequency invariant property of wideband beamformer over the whole passband. Two methods for designing null to suppress interference signal also have been proposed to make the wideband beamformer robust in complicated environment. Comparisons among other methods are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and enhancement of performance of the new approaches. Rui Du, Yangyu Fan, and Jianshu Wang Copyright © 2016 Rui Du et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Edge-Map Creation Approach for Highly Accurate Pupil Localization in Unconstrained Infrared Iris Images Sun, 05 Jun 2016 13:35:53 +0000 Iris segmentation in the iris recognition systems is a challenging task under noncooperative environments. The iris segmentation is a process of detecting the pupil, iris’s outer boundary, and eyelids in the iris image. In this paper, we propose a pupil localization method for locating the pupils in the non-close-up and frontal-view iris images that are captured under near-infrared (NIR) illuminations and contain the noise, such as specular and lighting reflection spots, eyeglasses, nonuniform illumination, low contrast, and occlusions by the eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrow hair. In the proposed method, first, a novel edge-map is created from the iris image, which is based on combining the conventional thresholding and edge detection based segmentation techniques, and then, the general circular Hough transform (CHT) is used to find the pupil circle parameters in the edge-map. Our main contribution in this research is a novel edge-map creation technique, which reduces the false edges drastically in the edge-map of the iris image and makes the pupil localization in the noisy NIR images more accurate, fast, robust, and simple. The proposed method was tested with three iris databases: CASIA-Iris-Thousand (version 4.0), CASIA-Iris-Lamp (version 3.0), and MMU (version 2.0). The average accuracy of the proposed method is 99.72% and average time cost per image is 0.727 sec. Vineet Kumar, Abhijit Asati, and Anu Gupta Copyright © 2016 Vineet Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Anticollusion Attack Noninteractive Security Hierarchical Key Agreement Scheme in WHMS Thu, 02 Jun 2016 14:54:57 +0000 Wireless Health Monitoring Systems (WHMS) have potential to change the way of health care and bring numbers of benefits to patients, physicians, hospitals, and society. However, there are crucial barriers not only to transmit the biometric information but also to protect the privacy and security of the patients’ information. The key agreement between two entities is an essential cryptography operation to clear the barriers. In particular, the noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme becomes an attractive direction in WHMS because each sensor node or gateway has limited resources and power. Recently, a noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme has been proposed by Kim for WHMS. However, we show that Kim’s cryptographic scheme is vulnerable to the collusion attack if the physicians can be corrupted. Obviously, it is a more practical security condition. Therefore, we proposed an improved key agreement scheme against the attack. Security proof, security analysis, and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme gains enhanced security and more efficiency than Kim’s previous scheme while inheriting its qualities of one-round communication and security properties. Kefei Mao, Jianwei Liu, and Jie Chen Copyright © 2016 Kefei Mao et al. All rights reserved. Disordered and Multiple Destinations Path Planning Methods for Mobile Robot in Dynamic Environment Wed, 01 Jun 2016 08:56:31 +0000 In the smart home environment, aiming at the disordered and multiple destinations path planning, the sequencing rule is proposed to determine the order of destinations. Within each branching process, the initial feasible path set is generated according to the law of attractive destination. A sinusoidal adaptive genetic algorithm is adopted. It can calculate the crossover probability and mutation probability adaptively changing with environment at any time. According to the cultural-genetic algorithm, it introduces the concept of reducing turns by parallelogram and reducing length by triangle in the belief space, which can improve the quality of population. And the fallback strategy can help to jump out of the “U” trap effectively. The algorithm analyses the virtual collision in dynamic environment with obstacles. According to the different collision types, different strategies are executed to avoid obstacles. The experimental results show that cultural-genetic algorithm can overcome the problems of premature and convergence of original algorithm effectively. It can avoid getting into the local optimum. And it is more effective for mobile robot path planning. Even in complex environment with static and dynamic obstacles, it can avoid collision safely and plan an optimal path rapidly at the same time. Yong-feng Dong, Hong-mei Xia, and Yan-cong Zhou Copyright © 2016 Yong-feng Dong et al. All rights reserved. Fast Direct Solution of Electromagnetic Scattering from Left-Handed Materials Coated Target over Wide Angle Mon, 30 May 2016 15:44:44 +0000 When solving the electromagnetic scattering problems over wide angle, the traditional method of moments (MoM) needs to repeat the solving process of dense systems of linear equations using the iteration method at each incident angle, which proved to be quite inefficient. To circumvent this problem, a fast numerical method based on block LDLT factorization accelerated by adaptive cross approximation (ACA) algorithm is presented to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of left-handed materials (LHM) coated target. The ACA algorithm is applied to impedance matrix filling and all steps of block LDLT factorization process, which can accelerate the computation process and reduce the memory consumption. The numerical results proved that the proposed method is efficient in calculating monostatic RCS of LHM coated target with many required sampling angles. Compared with the traditional MoM, computation time and memory consumption are reduced effectively. Guo-hua Wang and Ying-bao Geng Copyright © 2016 Guo-hua Wang and Ying-bao Geng. All rights reserved. New Application’s Approach to Unified Power Quality Conditioners for Mitigation of Surge Voltages Mon, 30 May 2016 15:35:32 +0000 This paper outlines a new approach for the compensation of power systems presented through the use of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) which compensates impulsive and oscillatory electromagnetic transients. The newly proposed control technique involves a dual analysis of the UPQC where the parallel compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled voltage source, while the series compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled current source, opposed to the traditional approach where the parallel and series compensators are modelled as current and voltage nonsinusoidal sources, respectively. Also a new compensation algorithm is proposed through the application of the theory of generalized reactive power; this is then compared with the theory of active and reactive instantaneous power, or theory. The results are presented by means of simulations in MATLAB-Simulink®. Yeison Alberto Garcés Gomez, Nicolás Toro García, and Fredy E. Hoyos Copyright © 2016 Yeison Alberto Garcés Gomez et al. All rights reserved. System and Network Security: Anomaly Detection and Monitoring Mon, 30 May 2016 10:30:34 +0000 Michele Vadursi, Andrea Ceccarelli, Elias P. Duarte Jr., and Aniket Mahanti Copyright © 2016 Michele Vadursi et al. All rights reserved. Compensatory Analysis and Optimization for MADM for Heterogeneous Wireless Network Selection Mon, 30 May 2016 06:40:35 +0000 In the next-generation heterogeneous wireless networks, a mobile terminal with a multi-interface may have network access from different service providers using various technologies. In spite of this heterogeneity, seamless intersystem mobility is a mandatory requirement. One of the major challenges for seamless mobility is the creation of a network selection scheme, which is for users that select an optimal network with best comprehensive performance between different types of networks. However, the optimal network may be not the most reasonable one due to compensation of MADM (Multiple Attribute Decision Making), and the network is called pseudo-optimal network. This paper conducts a performance evaluation of a number of widely used MADM-based methods for network selection that aim to keep the mobile users always best connected anywhere and anytime, where subjective weight and objective weight are all considered. The performance analysis shows that the selection scheme based on MEW (weighted multiplicative method) and combination weight can better avoid accessing pseudo-optimal network for balancing network load and reducing ping-pong effect in comparison with three other MADM solutions. Jian Zhou and Can-yan Zhu Copyright © 2016 Jian Zhou and Can-yan Zhu. All rights reserved. Iterative Forward-Backward Pursuit Algorithm for Compressed Sensing Thu, 26 May 2016 12:51:05 +0000 It has been shown that iterative reweighted strategies will often improve the performance of many sparse reconstruction algorithms. Iterative Framework for Sparse Reconstruction Algorithms (IFSRA) is a recently proposed method which iteratively enhances the performance of any given arbitrary sparse reconstruction algorithm. However, IFSRA assumes that the sparsity level is known. Forward-Backward Pursuit (FBP) algorithm is an iterative approach where each iteration consists of consecutive forward and backward stages. Based on the IFSRA, this paper proposes the Iterative Forward-Backward Pursuit (IFBP) algorithm, which applies the iterative reweighted strategies to FBP without the need for the sparsity level. By using an approximate iteration strategy, IFBP gradually iterates to approach the unknown signal. Finally, this paper demonstrates that IFBP significantly improves the reconstruction capability of the FBP algorithm, via simulations including recovery of random sparse signals with different nonzero coefficient distributions in addition to the recovery of a sparse image. Feng Wang, Jianping Zhang, Guiling Sun, and Tianyu Geng Copyright © 2016 Feng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Face Spoof Attack Recognition Using Discriminative Image Patches Sun, 22 May 2016 07:40:26 +0000 Face recognition systems are now being used in many applications such as border crossings, banks, and mobile payments. The wide scale deployment of facial recognition systems has attracted intensive attention to the reliability of face biometrics against spoof attacks, where a photo, a video, or a 3D mask of a genuine user’s face can be used to gain illegitimate access to facilities or services. Though several face antispoofing or liveness detection methods (which determine at the time of capture whether a face is live or spoof) have been proposed, the issue is still unsolved due to difficulty in finding discriminative and computationally inexpensive features and methods for spoof attacks. In addition, existing techniques use whole face image or complete video for liveness detection. However, often certain face regions (video frames) are redundant or correspond to the clutter in the image (video), thus leading generally to low performances. Therefore, we propose seven novel methods to find discriminative image patches, which we define as regions that are salient, instrumental, and class-specific. Four well-known classifiers, namely, support vector machine (SVM), Naive-Bayes, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), and Ensemble, are then used to distinguish between genuine and spoof faces using a voting based scheme. Experimental analysis on two publicly available databases (Idiap REPLAY-ATTACK and CASIA-FASD) shows promising results compared to existing works. Zahid Akhtar and Gian Luca Foresti Copyright © 2016 Zahid Akhtar and Gian Luca Foresti. All rights reserved. A Four Quadrature Signals’ Generator with Precise Phase Adjustment Tue, 17 May 2016 07:48:37 +0000 A four-way quadrature signals generator with precise phase modulation is presented. It consists of a phase precision regulator and a frequency divider. The phase precision regulator generates two programmable currents by controlling the conduction of the tail current sources and then changes the currents into two bias voltages which are superimposed on the clock signals to adjust the phase difference of the four quadrature signals generated by the frequency divider, making the phase difference of 90 degrees. The four quadrature signals’ generator with precise phase modulation has been implemented in a 0.18 μm mixed-signal and RF 1P6M CMOS technology. The size of the chip including the pads is . The circuit uses a supply voltage of 1.8 V, a bias current of 7.2 μA, and the bits of phase-setting input level in the design. The measured results of the four orthogonal signals’ phase error can reach ±0.1°, and the phase modulation range can reach ±3.6°. Xiushan Wu, Yanzhi Wang, Siguang An, Jianqiang Han, and Ling Sun Copyright © 2016 Xiushan Wu et al. All rights reserved. Heuristic Data Placement for Data-Intensive Applications in Heterogeneous Cloud Thu, 12 May 2016 07:00:11 +0000 Data placement is an important issue which aims at reducing the cost of internode data transfers in cloud especially for data-intensive applications, in order to improve the performance of the entire cloud system. This paper proposes an improved data placement algorithm for heterogeneous cloud environments. In the initialization phase, a data clustering algorithm based on data dependency clustering and recursive partitioning has been presented, and both the factor of data size and fixed position are incorporated. And then a heuristic tree-to-tree data placement strategy is advanced in order to make frequent data movements occur on high-bandwidth channels. Simulation results show that, compared with two classical strategies, this strategy can effectively reduce the amount of data transmission and its time consumption during execution. Qing Zhao, Congcong Xiong, and Peng Wang Copyright © 2016 Qing Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Microblog Sentiment Orientation Detection Using User Interactive Relationship Wed, 11 May 2016 14:04:25 +0000 The development and popularity of microblog have made sentiment analysis of tweets and Weibo an important research field. However, the characteristics of microblog message pose challenge for the sentiment analysis and mining. The existing approaches mostly focus on the message content and context information. In this paper, we propose a novel microblog sentiment analysis framework by incorporating the social interactive relationship factor in the content-based approach. By exploring the interactive relationship on social network based on posted messages, we build social interactive model to represent the opposition or acceptation behavior. Based on the interactive relationship model, the sentiment of microblog message with sparse emotion terms can be deduced and identified, and the sentiment uncertainty can be alleviated to some extent. Afterwards, we transform the classification problem into an optimization problem. Experimental results on Weibo data set indicate that the proposed method can outperform the baseline methods. Liang Wang, Mei Wang, Xinying Guo, and Xuebin Qin Copyright © 2016 Liang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Design of High Throughput and Cost-Efficient Data Center Networks Tue, 10 May 2016 13:30:42 +0000 Vincenzo Eramo, Xavier Hesselbach-Serra, Yan Luo, and Juan Felipe Botero Copyright © 2016 Vincenzo Eramo et al. All rights reserved. DPFFs: Direct Path Flip-Flops for Process-Resilient Ultradynamic Voltage Scaling Tue, 10 May 2016 12:06:58 +0000 We propose two master-slave flip-flops (FFs) that utilize the clocked CMOS () technique with an internal direct connection along the main signal propagation path between the master and slave latches and adopt an adaptive body bias technique to improve circuit robustness. structure improves the setup margin and robustness while providing full compatibility with the standard cell characterization flow. Further, the direct path shortens the logic depth and thus speeds up signal propagation, which can be optimized for less power and smaller area. Measurements from test circuits fabricated in 130 nm technology show that the proposed FF operates down to 60 mV, consuming 24.7 pW while improving the propagation delay, dynamic power, and leakage by 22%, 9%, and 13%, respectively, compared with conventional FFs at the iso-output-load condition. The proposed FFs are integrated into an FIR filter which successfully operates all the way down to 85 mV. Myeong-Eun Hwang and Sungoh Kwon Copyright © 2016 Myeong-Eun Hwang and Sungoh Kwon. All rights reserved. A Privacy-Preserving Outsourcing Data Storage Scheme with Fragile Digital Watermarking-Based Data Auditing Thu, 05 May 2016 16:32:10 +0000 Cloud storage has been recognized as the popular solution to solve the problems of the rising storage costs of IT enterprises for users. However, outsourcing data to the cloud service providers (CSPs) may leak some sensitive privacy information, as the data is out of user’s control. So how to ensure the integrity and privacy of outsourced data has become a big challenge. Encryption and data auditing provide a solution toward the challenge. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving and auditing-supporting outsourcing data storage scheme by using encryption and digital watermarking. Logistic map-based chaotic cryptography algorithm is used to preserve the privacy of outsourcing data, which has a fast operation speed and a good effect of encryption. Local histogram shifting digital watermark algorithm is used to protect the data integrity which has high payload and makes the original image restored losslessly if the data is verified to be integrated. Experiments show that our scheme is secure and feasible. Xinyue Cao, Zhangjie Fu, and Xingming Sun Copyright © 2016 Xinyue Cao et al. All rights reserved. Business Information Exchange System with Security, Privacy, and Anonymity Wed, 04 May 2016 10:00:50 +0000 Business Information Exchange is an Internet Secure Portal for secure management, distribution, sharing, and use of business e-mails, documents, and messages. It has three applications supporting three major types of information exchange systems: secure e-mail, secure instant messaging, and secure sharing of business documents. In addition to standard security services for e-mail letters, which are also applied to instant messages and documents, the system provides innovative features of privacy and full anonymity of users and their locations, actions, transactions, and exchanged resources. In this paper we describe design, implementation, and use of the system. Sead Muftic, Nazri bin Abdullah, and Ioannis Kounelis Copyright © 2016 Sead Muftic et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Electronic English Auction System with a Secure On-Shelf Mechanism and Privacy Preserving Wed, 04 May 2016 08:31:22 +0000 With the rapid development of the Internet, electronic commerce has become more and more popular. As an important element of e-commerce, many Internet companies such as Yahoo! and eBay have launched electronic auction systems. However, like most electronic commerce products, safety is an important issue that should be addressed. Many researchers have proposed secure electronic auction mechanisms, but we found that some of them do not exhibit the property of unlinkability, which leads to the leakage of users’ privacy. Considering the importance of privacy preservation, we have designed a new auction mechanism. Through symmetrical key establishment in the registration phase, all messages transmitted over the Internet would be protected and, meanwhile, achieve the property of unlinkability. The security analysis and performance analysis show that our protocol fulfills more security properties and is more efficient for implementation compared with recent works. Hong Zhong, Song Li, Ting-Fang Cheng, and Chin-Chen Chang Copyright © 2016 Hong Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Protecting Clock Synchronization: Adversary Detection through Network Monitoring Sat, 30 Apr 2016 11:12:48 +0000 Nowadays, industrial networks are often used for safety-critical applications with real-time requirements. Such applications usually have a time-triggered nature with message scheduling as a core property. Scheduling requires nodes to share the same notion of time, that is, to be synchronized. Therefore, clock synchronization is a fundamental asset in real-time networks. However, since typical standards for clock synchronization, for example, IEEE 1588, do not provide the required level of security, it raises the question of clock synchronization protection. In this paper, we identify a way to break synchronization based on the IEEE 1588 standard, by conducting a man-in-the-middle (MIM) attack followed by a delay attack. A MIM attack can be accomplished through, for example, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) poisoning. Using the AVISPA tool, we evaluate the potential to perform a delay attack using ARP poisoning and analyze its consequences showing both that the attack can, indeed, break clock synchronization and that some design choices, such as a relaxed synchronization condition mode, delay bounding, and using knowledge of environmental conditions, can make the network more robust/resilient against these kinds of attacks. Lastly, a Configuration Agent is proposed to monitor and detect anomalies introduced by an adversary performing attacks targeting clock synchronization. Elena Lisova, Marina Gutiérrez, Wilfried Steiner, Elisabeth Uhlemann, Johan Åkerberg, Radu Dobrin, and Mats Björkman Copyright © 2016 Elena Lisova et al. All rights reserved. Virtual Networking Performance in OpenStack Platform for Network Function Virtualization Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:29:45 +0000 The emerging Network Function Virtualization (NFV) paradigm, coupled with the highly flexible and programmatic control of network devices offered by Software Defined Networking solutions, enables unprecedented levels of network virtualization that will definitely change the shape of future network architectures, where legacy telco central offices will be replaced by cloud data centers located at the edge. On the one hand, this software-centric evolution of telecommunications will allow network operators to take advantage of the increased flexibility and reduced deployment costs typical of cloud computing. On the other hand, it will pose a number of challenges in terms of virtual network performance and customer isolation. This paper intends to provide some insights on how an open-source cloud computing platform such as OpenStack implements multitenant network virtualization and how it can be used to deploy NFV, focusing in particular on packet forwarding performance issues. To this purpose, a set of experiments is presented that refer to a number of scenarios inspired by the cloud computing and NFV paradigms, considering both single tenant and multitenant scenarios. From the results of the evaluation it is possible to highlight potentials and limitations of running NFV on OpenStack. Franco Callegati, Walter Cerroni, and Chiara Contoli Copyright © 2016 Franco Callegati et al. All rights reserved. High-Speed Transmission and Mass Data Storage Solutions for Large-Area and Arbitrarily Structured Fabrication through Maskless Lithography Tue, 26 Apr 2016 16:37:07 +0000 This paper presents the implementation aspects and design of high-speed data transmission in laser direct-writing lithography. With a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip, mass data storage management, transmission, and synchronization of each part in real-time were implemented. To store a massive amount of data and transmit data with high bandwidth, a serial advanced technology attachment (SATA) intellectual property (IP) was developed on Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA. In addition, control of laser beam power, collection of status read back data of the lithography laser through an analog-to-digital converter, and synchronization of the positioning signal were implemented on the same FPGA. A data structure for each unit with a unique exposure dose and other necessary information was established. Results showed that the maximum read bandwidth (240 MB/s) and maximum write bandwidth (200 MB/s) of a single solid-state drive conform to the data transmission requirement. The total amount of data meets the requirement of a large-area diffractive element approximately 102 cm2. The throughput has been greatly improved at meters per second or square centimeter per second. And test results showed that data transmission meets the requirement of the experiment. Yu Lu, Wei Wu, and Ke-yi Wang Copyright © 2016 Yu Lu et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Node Localization Approach with RSSI for Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks Tue, 26 Apr 2016 06:08:09 +0000 An efficient path planning approach in mobile beacon localization for the randomly deployed wireless sensor nodes is proposed in this paper. Firstly, in order to improve localization accuracy, the weighting function based on the distance between nodes is constructed. Moreover, an iterative multilateration algorithm is also presented to avoid decreasing the localization accuracy. Furthermore, a path planning algorithm based on grid scan which can traverse entirely in sensor field is described. At the same time, the start conditions of localization algorithm are also proposed to improve localization accuracy. To evaluate the proposed path planning algorithm, the localization results of beacon nodes randomly deployed in sensor field are also provided. The proposed approach can provide the deployment uniformly of virtual beacon nodes among the sensor fields and the lower computational complexity of path planning compared with method which utilizes only mobile beacons on the basis of a random movement. The performance evaluation shows that the proposed approach can reduce the beacon movement distance and the number of virtual mobile beacon nodes by comparison with other methods. Xihai Zhang, Junlong Fang, and Fanfeng Meng Copyright © 2016 Xihai Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Server Resource Dimensioning and Routing of Service Function Chain in NFV Network Architectures Sun, 24 Apr 2016 12:42:44 +0000 The Network Function Virtualization (NFV) technology aims at virtualizing the network service with the execution of the single service components in Virtual Machines activated on Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) servers. Any service is represented by the Service Function Chain (SFC) that is a set of VNFs to be executed according to a given order. The running of VNFs needs the instantiation of VNF instances (VNFI) that in general are software components executed on Virtual Machines. In this paper we cope with the routing and resource dimensioning problem in NFV architectures. We formulate the optimization problem and due to its NP-hard complexity, heuristics are proposed for both cases of offline and online traffic demand. We show how the heuristics works correctly by guaranteeing a uniform occupancy of the server processing capacity and the network link bandwidth. A consolidation algorithm for the power consumption minimization is also proposed. The application of the consolidation algorithm allows for a high power consumption saving that however is to be paid with an increase in SFC blocking probability. V. Eramo, A. Tosti, and E. Miucci Copyright © 2016 V. Eramo et al. All rights reserved. Strengthening MT6D Defenses with LXC-Based Honeypot Capabilities Wed, 20 Apr 2016 13:24:54 +0000 Moving Target IPv6 Defense (MT6D) imparts radio-frequency hopping behavior to IPv6 networks by having participating nodes periodically hop onto new addresses while giving up old addresses. Our previous research efforts implemented a solution to identify and acquire these old addresses that are being discarded by MT6D hosts on a local network besides being able to monitor and visualize the incoming traffic on these addresses. This was essentially equivalent to forming a darknet out of the discarded MT6D addresses, but the solution presented in the previous research effort did not include database integration for it to scale and be extended. This paper presents a solution with a new architecture that not only extends the previous solution in terms of automation and database integration but also demonstrates the ability to deploy a honeypot on a virtual LXC (Linux Container) on-demand based on any interesting traffic pattern observed on a discarded address. The proposed architecture also allows an MT6D host to query the solution database for network activity on its relinquished addresses as a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) object. This allows an MT6D host to identify suspicious activity on its discarded addresses and strengthen the MT6D scheme parameters accordingly. We have built a proof-of-concept for the proposed solution and analyzed the solution’s feasibility and scalability. Dileep Basam, J. Scot Ransbottom, Randy Marchany, and Joseph G. Tront Copyright © 2016 Dileep Basam et al. All rights reserved. A Fusion Face Recognition Approach Based on 7-Layer Deep Learning Neural Network Wed, 20 Apr 2016 13:10:47 +0000 This paper presents a method for recognizing human faces with facial expression. In the proposed approach, a motion history image (MHI) is employed to get the features in an expressive face. The face can be seen as a kind of physiological characteristic of a human and the expressions are behavioral characteristics. We fused the 2D images of a face and MHIs which were generated from the same face’s image sequences with expression. Then the fusion features were used to feed a 7-layer deep learning neural network. The previous 6 layers of the whole network can be seen as an autoencoder network which can reduce the dimension of the fusion features. The last layer of the network can be seen as a softmax regression; we used it to get the identification decision. Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed method performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods. Jianzheng Liu, Chunlin Fang, and Chao Wu Copyright © 2016 Jianzheng Liu et al. All rights reserved.