Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Improvement of High-Power Three-Level Explosion-Proof Inverters Using Soft Switching Control Based on Optimized Power-Loss Algorithm Mon, 02 Mar 2015 10:25:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/571209/ The high-power three-level explosion-proof inverters demand high thermal stability of power devices, and a set of theories and methods is needed to achieve an accurate power-loss calculation of power devices, to establish heat dissipation model, and ultimately to reduce the power loss to improve thermal stability of system. In this paper, the principle of neutral point clamped three-level (NPC3L) inverter is elaborated firstly, and a fourth-order RC equivalent circuit of IGBT is derived, on which basis the power-loss model of IGBT and the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, using an optimized power-loss algorithm, are established. Secondly, in accordance with the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, the generic formulas of power-loss calculation are deduced to calculate the power-loss modification values of NPC3L and soft switching three-level (S3L) inverters, which will be the thermal sources during thermal analysis for maternal power-loss thermal models. Finally, the experiment conducted on the 2.1 MW experimental platform shows that S3L inverter has the same excellent output characteristics with NPC3L inverter, reduces the power loss significantly by 213 W in each half-bridge, and decreases the temperature by 10°C, coinciding with the theoretical calculation, which verifies the accuracy of optimized power-loss algorithm and the effectiveness of the improvement. Shi-Zhou Xu and Feng-You He Copyright © 2015 Shi-Zhou Xu and Feng-You He. All rights reserved. Design of IIR Digital Filters with Arbitrary Flatness Using Iterative Quadratic Programming Wed, 25 Feb 2015 14:11:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/304174/ This paper presents a design method of Chebyshev-type and inverse-Chebyshev-type infinite impulse response (IIR) filters with an approximately linear phase response. In the design of Chebyshev-type filters, the flatness condition in the stopband is preincorporated into a transfer function, and an equiripple characteristic in the passband is achieved by iteratively solving the QP problem using the transfer function. In the design of inverse-Chebyshev-type filters, the flatness condition in the passband is added to the constraint of the QP problem as the linear matrix equality, and an equiripple characteristic in the stopband is realized by iteratively solving the QP problem. To guarantee the stability of the obtained filters, we apply the extended positive realness to the QP problem. As a result, the proposed method can design the filters with more high precision than the conventional methods. The effectiveness of the proposed design method is illustrated with some examples. Yasunori Sugita Copyright © 2015 Yasunori Sugita. All rights reserved. Improved RSSI Positioning Algorithm for Coal Mine Underground Locomotive Tue, 17 Feb 2015 14:22:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/918962/ Aiming at the large positioning errors of traditional coal mine underground locomotive, an improved received signal strength indication (RSSI) positioning algorithm for coal mine underground locomotive was proposed. The RSSI value fluctuates heavily due to the poor environment of coal mine underground. The nodes with larger RSSI value corrected by Gaussian-weighted model were selected as beacon nodes. In order to reduce the positioning error further, the estimated positions of the locomotives were corrected by the weighted distance correction method. The difference between actual position and estimated position of beacon node was regarded as the positioning error and was given a corresponding weight. The results of simulation show that the positioning accuracy of Gaussian-weighted model is better than statistical average model and Gaussian model and it has a high positioning accuracy after correcting positioning error correction. In the 10 m of communication range, positioning error can be maintained at 0.5 m. Bin Ge, Kai Wang, Jianghong Han, and Bao Zhao Copyright © 2015 Bin Ge et al. All rights reserved. Robust Abnormal Event Recognition via Motion and Shape Analysis at ATM Installations Mon, 16 Feb 2015 13:44:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/502737/ Automated teller machines (ATM) are widely being used to carry out banking transactions and are becoming one of the necessities of everyday life. ATMs facilitate withdrawal, deposit, and transfer of money from one account to another round the clock. However, this convenience is marred by criminal activities like money snatching and attack on customers, which are increasingly affecting the security of bank customers. In this paper, we propose a video based framework that efficiently identifies abnormal activities happening at the ATM installations and generates an alarm during any untoward incidence. The proposed approach makes use of motion history image (MHI) and Hu moments to extract relevant features from video. Principle component analysis has been used to reduce the dimensionality of features and classification has been carried out by using support vector machine. Analysis has been carried out on different video sequences by varying the window size of MHI. The proposed framework is able to distinguish the normal and abnormal activities like money snatching, harm to the customer by virtue of fight, or attack on the customer with an average accuracy of 95.73%. Vikas Tripathi, Durgaprasad Gangodkar, Vivek Latta, and Ankush Mittal Copyright © 2015 Vikas Tripathi et al. All rights reserved. Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection Receivers for Nonlinear Optical Channels Mon, 16 Feb 2015 06:28:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/736267/ The space-time whitened matched filter (ST-WMF) maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) architecture has been recently proposed (Maggio et al., 2014). Its objective is reducing implementation complexity in transmissions over nonlinear dispersive channels. The ST-WMF-MLSD receiver (i) drastically reduces the number of states of the Viterbi decoder (VD) and (ii) offers a smooth trade-off between performance and complexity. In this work the ST-WMF-MLSD receiver is investigated in detail. We show that the space compression of the nonlinear channel is an instrumental property of the ST-WMF-MLSD which results in a major reduction of the implementation complexity in intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) fiber optic systems. Moreover, we assess the performance of ST-WMF-MLSD in IM/DD optical systems with chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). Numerical results for a 10 Gb/s, 700 km, and IM/DD fiber-optic link with 50 ps differential group delay (DGD) show that the number of states of the VD in ST-WMF-MLSD can be reduced ~4 times compared to an oversampled MLSD. Finally, we analyze the impact of the imperfect channel estimation on the performance of the ST-WMF-MLSD. Our results show that the performance degradation caused by channel estimation inaccuracies is low and similar to that achieved by existing MLSD schemes (~0.2 dB). Gabriel N. Maggio, Mario R. Hueda, and Oscar E. Agazzi Copyright © 2015 Gabriel N. Maggio et al. All rights reserved. A 3.9 μs Settling-Time Fractional Spread-Spectrum Clock Generator Using a Dual-Charge-Pump Control Technique for Serial-ATA Applications Thu, 12 Feb 2015 06:47:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/765485/ A low-jitter fractional spread-spectrum clock generator (SSCG) utilizing a fast-settling dual-charge-pump (CP) technique is developed for serial-advanced technology attachment (SATA) applications. The dual-CP architecture reduces a design area to 60% by shrinking an effective capacitance of a loop filter. Moreover, the settling-time is reduced by 4 μs to charge a current to the capacitor by only main-CP in initial period in settling-time. The SSCG is fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS and achieves settling time of 3.91 μs faster than 8.11 μs of a conventional SSCG. The random jitter and total jitter at 250 cycles at 1.5 GHz are less than 3.2 and 10.7 psrms, respectively. The triangular modulation signal frequency is 31.5 kHz and the modulation deviation is from −5000 ppm to 0 ppm at 1.5 GHz. The EMI reduction is 10.0 dB. The design area and power consumption are 300 × 700 μm and 18 mW, respectively. Takashi Kawamoto, Masato Suzuki, and Takayuki Noto Copyright © 2015 Takashi Kawamoto et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Generalization Ability for Different AdaBoost Variants Based on Classification and Regression Trees Tue, 10 Feb 2015 12:22:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/835357/ As a machine learning method, AdaBoost is widely applied to data classification and object detection because of its robustness and efficiency. AdaBoost constructs a global and optimal combination of weak classifiers based on a sample reweighting. It is known that this kind of combination improves the classification performance tremendously. As the popularity of AdaBoost increases, many variants have been proposed to improve the performance of AdaBoost. Then, a lot of comparison and review studies for AdaBoost variants have also been published. Some researchers compared different AdaBoost variants by experiments in their own fields, and others reviewed various AdaBoost variants by basically introducing these algorithms. However, there is a lack of mathematical analysis of the generalization abilities for different AdaBoost variants. In this paper, we analyze the generalization abilities of six AdaBoost variants in terms of classification margins. The six compared variants are Real AdaBoost, Gentle AdaBoost, Modest AdaBoost, Parameterized AdaBoost, Margin-pruning Boost, and Penalized AdaBoost. Finally, we use experiments to verify our analyses. Shuqiong Wu and Hiroshi Nagahashi Copyright © 2015 Shuqiong Wu and Hiroshi Nagahashi. All rights reserved. An Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for Power Distribution Network Planning Mon, 02 Feb 2015 10:00:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/753712/ Distribution network planning because of involving many variables and constraints is a multiobjective, discrete, nonlinear, and large-scale optimization problem. Harmony search (HS) algorithm is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the improvisation process of music players. HS algorithm has several impressive advantages, such as easy implementation, less adjustable parameters, and quick convergence. But HS algorithm still has some defects such as premature convergence and slow convergence speed. According to the defects of the standard algorithm and characteristics of distribution network planning, an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm is proposed in this paper. We set up a mathematical model of distribution network structure planning, whose optimal objective function is to get the minimum annual cost and constraint conditions are overload and radial network. IHS algorithm is applied to solve the complex optimization mathematical model. The empirical results strongly indicate that IHS algorithm can effectively provide better results for solving the distribution network planning problem compared to other optimization algorithms. Wei Sun and Xingyan Chang Copyright © 2015 Wei Sun and Xingyan Chang. All rights reserved. Analysis of an Underground Vertical Electrically Small Wire Antenna Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:04:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/782851/ The problem considered is a vertical electrically small wire antenna located underground, which transmits electromagnetic signals to the ground. Getting Green’s function of the vertical dipole underground was the first step to calculate this issue. A quasistatic situation was considered to make an approximation on Sommerfeld integral for easy solution. The method of moments was used to solve the current distribution on the antenna surface at different frequencies, which laid a good foundation for obtaining the electric field of the antenna. Then the axial and radial components of the electric field with the radial distance on the ground were investigated, as well as the voltage received on the ground. Furthermore, the influence of the frequency and stratum parameters on current and electric field was studied to understand the variation clearly. Shuwei Dong, Aiguo Yao, and Fanhe Meng Copyright © 2015 Shuwei Dong et al. All rights reserved. Probabilistic Routing Based on Two-Hop Information in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks Mon, 26 Jan 2015 13:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/918065/ We investigate an opportunistic routing protocol in delay/disruption tolerant networks (DTNs) where the end-to-end path between source and destination nodes may not exist for most of the time. Probabilistic routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity (PRoPHET) is an efficient history-based routing protocol specifically proposed for DTNs, which only utilizes the delivery predictability of one-hop neighbors to make a decision for message forwarding. In order to further improve the message delivery rate and to reduce the average overhead of PRoPHET, in this paper we propose an improved probabilistic routing algorithm (IPRA), where the history information of contacts for the immediate encounter and two-hop neighbors has been jointly used to make an informed decision for message forwarding. Based on the Opportunistic Networking Environment (ONE) simulator, the performance of IPRA has been evaluated via extensive simulations. The results show that IPRA can significantly improve the average delivery rate while achieving a better or comparable performance with respect to average overhead, average delay, and total energy consumption compared with the existing algorithms. Xu Wang, Rongxi He, Bin Lin, and Ying Wang Copyright © 2015 Xu Wang et al. All rights reserved. Low-Complexity Robust Capon Beamforming Based on Reduced-Rank Technique Wed, 21 Jan 2015 12:59:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/583075/ Existing robust Capon beamformers achieve robustness against steering vector errors at a high cost in terms of computational complexity. Computationally efficient robust Capon beamforming approach based on the reduced-rank technique is proposed in this paper. The proposed method projects the received data snapshots onto a lower dimensional subspace consisting of the matched filters of the multistage Wiener filter (MSWF). The subsequent adaptive beamforming will then be performed within this subspace. The combination of the benefit of the robust adaptive beamforming and the reduced-rank technique improves the performance on combating steering vector errors and lowering the computational complexity. Zaifang Xi, Xiao-feng Wu, Shuyue Wu, Zhijun Tang, and Shigang Hu Copyright © 2015 Zaifang Xi et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Reference Image Set Selection in Automated X-Ray Inspection Mon, 29 Dec 2014 13:58:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/794526/ The automatic radioscopic inspection of industrial parts usually uses reference based methods. These methods select, as benchmark for comparison, image data from good parts to detect the anomalies of parts under inspection. However, parts can vary within the specification during the production process, which makes comparison of older reference image sets with current images of parts difficult and increases the probability of false rejections. To counter this variability, the reference image sets have to be updated. This paper proposes an adaptive reference image set selection procedure to be used in the assisted defect recognition (ADR) system in turbine blade inspection. The procedure first selects an initial reference image set using an approach called ADR Model Optimizer and then uses positive rate in a sliding-time window to determine the need to update the reference image set. Whenever there is a need, the ADR Model Optimizer is retrained with new data consisting of the old reference image sets augmented with false rejected images to generate a new reference image set. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed procedure can adaptively select a reference image set, leading to an inspection process with a high true positive rate and a low false positive rate. Xinhua Xiao, Andrew Ferro, Tao Ma, Chia Y. Han, Xuefu Zhou, and William Wee Copyright © 2014 Xinhua Xiao et al. All rights reserved. Joint DOA and DOD Estimation in Bistatic MIMO Radar without Estimating the Number of Targets Tue, 09 Dec 2014 11:31:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/195650/ Existing subspace-based direction finding methods for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar assume perfect knowledge about the dimension of the signal or noise subspace, which is hard to be established without prior knowledge of the signal environment. In this paper, an efficient method for joint DOA and DOD estimation in bistatic MIMO radar without estimating the number of targets is presented. The proposed method computes an estimate of the noise subspace using the power of R (POR) technique. Then the two-dimensional (2D) direction finding problem is decoupled into two successive one-dimensional (1D) angle estimation problems by employing the rank reduction (RARE) estimator. Zaifang Xi, Xiao-feng Wu, Shuyue Wu, Zhijun Tang, and Shigang Hu Copyright © 2014 Zaifang Xi et al. All rights reserved. A Low Leakage Autonomous Data Retention Flip-Flop with Power Gating Technique Sun, 30 Nov 2014 12:34:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/695832/ With the scaling of technology process, leakage power becomes an increasing portion of total power. Power gating technology is an effective method to suppress the leakage power in VLSI design. When the power gating technique is applied in sequential circuits, such as flip-flops and latches, the data retention is necessary to store the circuit states. A low leakage autonomous data retention flip-flop (ADR-FF) is proposed in this paper. Two high- transistors are utilized to reduce the leakage power consumption in the sleep mode. The data retention cell is composed of a pair of always powered cross-coupled inverters in the slave latch. No extra control signals and complex operations are needed for controlling the data retention and restoration. The data retention flip-flops are simulated with NCSU 45 nm technology. The postlayout simulation results show that the leakage power of the ADR-FF reduces 51.39% compared with the Mutoh-FF. The active power of the ADR-FF is almost equal to other data retention flip-flops. The average state mode transition time of ADR-FF decreases 55.98%, 51.35%, and 21.07% as compared with Mutoh-FF, Balloon-FF, and Memory-TG-FF, respectively. Furthermore, the area overhead of ADR-FF is smaller than other data retention flip-flops. Xiaohui Fan, Yangbo Wu, Hengfeng Dong, and Jianping Hu Copyright © 2014 Xiaohui Fan et al. All rights reserved. Feature Extraction and Automatic Material Classification of Underground Objects from Ground Penetrating Radar Data Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:12:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/347307/ Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a powerful tool for detecting objects buried underground. However, the interpretation of the acquired signals remains a challenging task since an experienced user is required to manage the entire operation. Particularly difficult is the classification of the material type of underground objects in noisy environment. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method. First, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) transforms A-Scan data and approximation coefficients are extracted. Then, fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is used to transform approximation coefficients into fractional domain and we extract features. The features are supplied to the support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to automatically identify underground objects material. Experiment results show that the proposed feature-based SVM system has good performances in classification accuracy compared to statistical and frequency domain feature-based SVM system in noisy environment and the classification accuracy of features proposed in this paper has little relationship with the SVM models. Qingqing Lu, Jiexin Pu, and Zhonghua Liu Copyright © 2014 Qingqing Lu et al. All rights reserved. Unified Registration Model for Both Stationary and Mobile 3D Radar Alignment Wed, 12 Nov 2014 11:36:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/598463/ For mobile radar, offset biases and attitude biases influence radar measurements simultaneously. Attitude biases generated from the errors of the inertial navigation system (INS) of the platform can be converted into equivalent radar measurement errors by three analytical expressions (range, azimuth, and elevation, resp.). These expressions are unique and embody the dependences between the offset and attitude biases. The dependences indicate that all the attitude biases can be viewed as and merged into some kind of offset biases. Based on this, a unified registration model (URM) is proposed which only contains radar “offset biases” in the form of system variables in the registration equations, where, in fact, the “offset biases” contain the influences of the attitude biases. URM has the same form as the registration model of stationary radar network where no attitude biases exist. URM can compensate radar offset and attitude biases simultaneously and has minor computation burden compared with other registration models for mobile radar network. Lei Chen, G. H. Wang, and Ilir F. Progri Copyright © 2014 Lei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Fast Method for DOA Estimation with Circular and Noncircular Signals Mixed Together Wed, 01 Oct 2014 09:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/206146/ Most of the existing algorithms to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of signals deal with the situation that all signals are circular. However, it is quite often in practical engineering that circular and noncircular signals appear in the same time. To effectively detect DOA of signals in such circumstances, we propose a novel algorithm. Firstly, using received data and its conjugate, we can detect more signals because of the doubled array aperture. Secondly, through unitary transform and multistage Wiener filter (MSWF) technology, we can obtain the noise subspace of array without performing eigendecomposition. Finally, by employing the improved MUSIC algorithm,we can acquire the DOA of the mixed circular and noncircular signals through two-stage search. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Yaoping Zeng, Yixin Yang, Guangyue Lu, and Qiongdan Huang Copyright © 2014 Yaoping Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Modelling and Practical Implementation of 2-Coil Wireless Power Transfer Systems Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/906537/ Wireless power transfer (WPT) based on inductive coupling could be potentially applied in many practical applications. It has attracted a lot of research interests in the last few years. In this paper, the modelling, design, and implementation of a 2-coil WPT system are represented. The prototype system can be implemented using conventional power electronic devices such as MOSFETs with very low costs as it works in relative low frequency range (less than 1 MHz). In order to find out about the optimal working area for the WPT system, the circuit model based on the practical parameters from the prototype is built. The relationships between the exciting frequency, coupling, and output power are analyzed based on the circuit and magnetic principles. Apart from the theoretic study, the detailed implementation of the WPT prototype including the coil design, digital frequency generation, and high frequency power electronics is also introduced in this paper. Experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the circuit analysis. By carefully tuning the circuit parameters, the prototype is able to deliver 20 W power through 2.2 meter distance with 20–30% efficiency. Hong Zhou, Bin Zhu, Wenshan Hu, Zhiwei Liu, and Xingran Gao Copyright © 2014 Hong Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Fusion Method for Remote Sensing Image Based on Fuzzy Integral Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/437939/ This paper presents a kind of image fusion method based on fuzzy integral, integrated spectral information, and 2 single factor indexes of spatial resolution in order to greatly retain spectral information and spatial resolution information in fusion of multispectral and high-resolution remote sensing images. Firstly, wavelet decomposition is carried out to two images, respectively, to obtain wavelet decomposition coefficients of the two image and keep coefficient of low frequency of multispectral image, and then optimized fusion is carried out to high frequency part of the two images based on weighting coefficient to generate new fusion image. Finally, evaluation is carried out to the image after fusion with introduction of evaluation indexes of correlation coefficient, mean value of image, standard deviation, distortion degree, information entropy, and so forth. The test results show that this method integrated multispectral information and space high-resolution information in a better way, and it is an effective fusion method of remote sensing image. Hui Zhou and Hongmin Gao Copyright © 2014 Hui Zhou and Hongmin Gao. All rights reserved. Steady-State Response of Periodically Switched Linear Circuits via Augmented Time-Invariant Nodal Analysis Tue, 02 Sep 2014 09:41:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/198273/ We focus on the simulation of periodically switched linear circuits. The basic notation and theoretical framework are presented, with emphasis on the differences between the linear time-invariant and the time-varying cases. For this important class of circuits and sources defined by periodic signals, the computation of their steady-state response is carried out via the solution of an augmented time-invariant MNA equation in the frequency-domain. The proposed method is based on the expansion of the unknown voltages and currents in terms of Fourier series and on the automatic generation of augmented equivalents of the circuit components. The above equivalents along with the information on circuit topology allow creating, via circuit inspection, a time-invariant MNA equation, the solution of which provides the coefficients of both the time- and the frequency-domain responses of the circuit. Analytical and numerical examples are used to stress the generality and benefits of the proposed approach. Riccardo Trinchero, Igor S. Stievano, and Flavio G. Canavero Copyright © 2014 Riccardo Trinchero et al. All rights reserved. The Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Northwest China Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:57:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/514291/ Northwestern China has an extremely complex climate due to the varied terrain and complexities of climate change where the environment is sensitive to both regional and global climate change. We employed the Mann-Kendal test to investigate trends of precipitation distributions using annual, seasonal, and monthly data records from 1960 to 2008. On the whole, the variations in precipitation patterns are more complex than those for temperature. The trends of annual, seasonal, and monthly precipitation have shown remarkable differences between the east and west. In the west such as in northern Xinjiang and western Qinghai, the variation is a significant increase, consistent with the temperature change, whereas in the east such as in eastern Gansu, and southern Shaanxi, the variation is a remarkable decrease, opposite to the change observed in temperatures. Chuancheng Zhao, Shuxia Yao, Jun Liu, and Jian Wang Copyright © 2014 Chuancheng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Maximum Entropy Threshold Segmentation for Target Matching Using Speeded-Up Robust Features Tue, 26 Aug 2014 11:36:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/768519/ This paper proposes a 2-dimensional (2D) maximum entropy threshold segmentation (2DMETS) based speeded-up robust features (SURF) approach for image target matching. First of all, based on the gray level of each pixel and the average gray level of its neighboring pixels, we construct a 2D gray histogram. Second, by the target and background segmentation, we localize the feature points at the interest points which have the local extremum of box filter responses. Third, from the 2D Haar wavelet responses, we generate the 64-dimensional (64D) feature point descriptor vectors. Finally, we perform the target matching according to the comparisons of the 64D feature point descriptor vectors. Experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively enhance the target matching performance, as well as preserving the real-time capacity. Mu Zhou, Xia Hong, Zengshan Tian, Huining Dong, Mingchun Wang, and Kunjie Xu Copyright © 2014 Mu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Arabidopsis Growth Simulation Using Image Processing Technology Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/751927/ This paper aims to provide a method to represent the virtual Arabidopsis plant at each growth stage. It includes simulating the shape and providing growth parameters. The shape is described with elliptic Fourier descriptors. First, the plant is segmented from the background with the chromatic coordinates. With the segmentation result, the outer boundary series are obtained by using boundary tracking algorithm. The elliptic Fourier analysis is then carried out to extract the coefficients of the contour. The coefficients require less storage than the original contour points and can be used to simulate the shape of the plant. The growth parameters include total area and the number of leaves of the plant. The total area is obtained with the number of the plant pixels and the image calibration result. The number of leaves is derived by detecting the apex of each leaf. It is achieved by using wavelet transform to identify the local maximum of the distance signal between the contour points and the region centroid. Experiment result shows that this method can record the growth stage of Arabidopsis plant with fewer data and provide a visual platform for plant growth research. Junmei Zhang, Qiuhong Ke, and Ye Tian Copyright © 2014 Junmei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Broadband Adaptive RCS Computation through Characteristic Basis Function Method Thu, 21 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/195409/ A broadband radar cross section (RCS) calculation approach is proposed based on the characteristic basis function method (CBFM). In the proposed approach, the desired arbitrary frequency band is adaptively divided into multiple subband in consideration of the characteristic basis functions (CBFs) number, which can reduce the universal characteristic basis functions (UCBFs) numbers after singular value decomposition (SVD) procedure at lower subfrequency band. Then, the desired RCS data can be obtained by splicing the RCS data in each subfrequency band. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method achieve a high accuracy and efficiency over a wide frequency range. Guohua Wang and Yufa Sun Copyright © 2014 Guohua Wang and Yufa Sun. All rights reserved. Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Defected Stub Loaded Resonator Mon, 21 Jul 2014 12:12:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/176560/ A novel approach for designing a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) using defected stub loaded resonator (DSLR) is presented in this paper. The proposed DSLR consists of two fundamental resonant modes and some resonant characteristics have been investigated by EM software of Ansoft HFSS. Then, based on two coupled DSLRs, a dual-band response BPF that operates at 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz is designed and implemented for WLAN and WIMAX application. The first passband is constructed by two lower frequencies of the coupled DSLRs and the second passband is produced by two higher ones; the coupling scheme of them is also given. Finally, the dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured; a good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained, which verifies the validity of the design methodology. Dechang Huang and Zhaodi Huang Copyright © 2014 Dechang Huang and Zhaodi Huang. All rights reserved. A Three-Dimensional Wireless Indoor Localization System Sun, 20 Jul 2014 09:28:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/149016/ Indoor localization, an emerging technology in location based service (LBS), is now playing a more and more important role both in commercial and in civilian industry. Global position system (GPS) is the most popular solution in outdoor localization field, and the accuracy is around 10 meter error in positioning. However, with complex obstacles in buildings, problems rise in the “last mile” of localization field, which encourage a momentum of indoor localization. The traditional indoor localization system is either range-based or fingerprinting-based, which requires a lot of time and efforts to do the predeployment. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional on-demand indoor localization system (3D-ODIL), which can be fingerprint-free and deployed rapidly in a multistorey building. The 3D-ODIL consists of two phases, vertical localization and horizontal localization. On vertical direction, we propose multistorey differential (MSD) algorithm and implement it to fulfill the vertical localization, which can greatly reduce the number of anchors deployed. We use enhanced field division (EFD) algorithm to conduct the horizontal localization. EFD algorithm is a range-free algorithm, the main idea of which is to dynamically divide the field within different signature area and position the target. The accuracy and performance have been validated through our extensive analysis and systematic experiments. Ping Yi, Minjie Yu, Ziqiao Zhou, Wei Xu, Qingquan Zhang, and Ting Zhu Copyright © 2014 Ping Yi et al. All rights reserved. Asynchronous Advanced Encryption Standard Hardware with Random Noise Injection for Improved Side-Channel Attack Resistance Sun, 20 Jul 2014 07:14:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/837572/ This work presents the design, hardware implementation, and performance analysis of novel asynchronous AES (advanced encryption standard) Key Expander and Round Function, which offer increased side-channel attack (SCA) resistance. These designs are based on a delay-insensitive (DI) logic paradigm known as null convention logic (NCL), which supports useful properties for resisting SCAs including dual-rail encoding, clock-free operation, and monotonic transitions. Potential benefits include reduced and more uniform switching activities and reduced signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. A novel method to further augment NCL AES hardware with random voltage scaling technique is also presented for additional security. Thereby, the proposed components leak significantly less side-channel information than conventional clocked approaches. To quantitatively verify such improvements, functional verification and WASSO (weighted average simultaneous switching output) analysis have been carried out on both conventional synchronous approach and the proposed NCL based approach using Mentor Graphics ModelSim and Xilinx simulation tools. Hardware implementation has been carried out on both designs exploiting a specified side-channel attack standard evaluation FPGA board, called SASEBO-GII, and the corresponding power waveforms for both designs have been collected. Along with the results of software simulations, we have analyzed the collected waveforms to validate the claims related to benefits of the proposed cryptohardware design approach. Siva Kotipalli, Yong-Bin Kim, and Minsu Choi Copyright © 2014 Siva Kotipalli et al. All rights reserved. Multiport Technology: New Perspectives and Applications Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:22:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/194649/ Serioja Ovidiu Tatu, Adriana Serban, Alexander Koelpin, and Mohamed Helaoui Copyright © 2014 Serioja Ovidiu Tatu et al. All rights reserved. Improved Data Transmission Scheme of Network Coding Based on Access Point Optimization in VANET Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/185412/ VANET is a hot spot of intelligent transportation researches. For vehicle users, the file sharing and content distribution through roadside access points (AP) as well as the vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) have been an important complement to that cellular network. So the AP deployment is one of the key issues to improve the communication performance of VANET. In this paper, an access point optimization method is proposed based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. The transmission performances of the routing protocol with random linear network coding before and after the access point optimization are analyzed. The simulation results show the optimization model greatly affects the VANET transmission performances based on network coding, and it can enhance the delivery rate by 25% and 14% and reduce the average delay of transmission by 38% and 33%. Zhe Yang, Lingzhi Li, Wenqiang Yao, Kaisheng Xu, and Dongxin Tang Copyright © 2014 Zhe Yang et al. All rights reserved. A New Intrusion Detection System Based on KNN Classification Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network Mon, 30 Jun 2014 10:31:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/240217/ The Internet of Things has broad application in military field, commerce, environmental monitoring, and many other fields. However, the open nature of the information media and the poor deployment environment have brought great risks to the security of wireless sensor networks, seriously restricting the application of wireless sensor network. Internet of Things composed of wireless sensor network faces security threats mainly from Dos attack, replay attack, integrity attack, false routing information attack, and flooding attack. In this paper, we proposed a new intrusion detection system based on -nearest neighbor (-nearest neighbor, referred to as KNN below) classification algorithm in wireless sensor network. This system can separate abnormal nodes from normal nodes by observing their abnormal behaviors, and we analyse parameter selection and error rate of the intrusion detection system. The paper elaborates on the design and implementation of the detection system. This system has achieved efficient, rapid intrusion detection by improving the wireless ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance the Vector Routing, AODV). Finally, the test results show that: the system has high detection accuracy and speed, in accordance with the requirement of wireless sensor network intrusion detection. Wenchao Li, Ping Yi, Yue Wu, Li Pan, and Jianhua Li Copyright © 2014 Wenchao Li et al. All rights reserved.