Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Feature Extraction and Automatic Material Classification of Underground Objects from Ground Penetrating Radar Data Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:12:25 +0000 Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a powerful tool for detecting objects buried underground. However, the interpretation of the acquired signals remains a challenging task since an experienced user is required to manage the entire operation. Particularly difficult is the classification of the material type of underground objects in noisy environment. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method. First, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) transforms A-Scan data and approximation coefficients are extracted. Then, fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is used to transform approximation coefficients into fractional domain and we extract features. The features are supplied to the support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to automatically identify underground objects material. Experiment results show that the proposed feature-based SVM system has good performances in classification accuracy compared to statistical and frequency domain feature-based SVM system in noisy environment and the classification accuracy of features proposed in this paper has little relationship with the SVM models. Qingqing Lu, Jiexin Pu, and Zhonghua Liu Copyright © 2014 Qingqing Lu et al. All rights reserved. Unified Registration Model for Both Stationary and Mobile 3D Radar Alignment Wed, 12 Nov 2014 11:36:35 +0000 For mobile radar, offset biases and attitude biases influence radar measurements simultaneously. Attitude biases generated from the errors of the inertial navigation system (INS) of the platform can be converted into equivalent radar measurement errors by three analytical expressions (range, azimuth, and elevation, resp.). These expressions are unique and embody the dependences between the offset and attitude biases. The dependences indicate that all the attitude biases can be viewed as and merged into some kind of offset biases. Based on this, a unified registration model (URM) is proposed which only contains radar “offset biases” in the form of system variables in the registration equations, where, in fact, the “offset biases” contain the influences of the attitude biases. URM has the same form as the registration model of stationary radar network where no attitude biases exist. URM can compensate radar offset and attitude biases simultaneously and has minor computation burden compared with other registration models for mobile radar network. Lei Chen, G. H. Wang, and Ilir F. Progri Copyright © 2014 Lei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Fast Method for DOA Estimation with Circular and Noncircular Signals Mixed Together Wed, 01 Oct 2014 09:44:34 +0000 Most of the existing algorithms to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of signals deal with the situation that all signals are circular. However, it is quite often in practical engineering that circular and noncircular signals appear in the same time. To effectively detect DOA of signals in such circumstances, we propose a novel algorithm. Firstly, using received data and its conjugate, we can detect more signals because of the doubled array aperture. Secondly, through unitary transform and multistage Wiener filter (MSWF) technology, we can obtain the noise subspace of array without performing eigendecomposition. Finally, by employing the improved MUSIC algorithm,we can acquire the DOA of the mixed circular and noncircular signals through two-stage search. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Yaoping Zeng, Yixin Yang, Guangyue Lu, and Qiongdan Huang Copyright © 2014 Yaoping Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Fusion Method for Remote Sensing Image Based on Fuzzy Integral Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents a kind of image fusion method based on fuzzy integral, integrated spectral information, and 2 single factor indexes of spatial resolution in order to greatly retain spectral information and spatial resolution information in fusion of multispectral and high-resolution remote sensing images. Firstly, wavelet decomposition is carried out to two images, respectively, to obtain wavelet decomposition coefficients of the two image and keep coefficient of low frequency of multispectral image, and then optimized fusion is carried out to high frequency part of the two images based on weighting coefficient to generate new fusion image. Finally, evaluation is carried out to the image after fusion with introduction of evaluation indexes of correlation coefficient, mean value of image, standard deviation, distortion degree, information entropy, and so forth. The test results show that this method integrated multispectral information and space high-resolution information in a better way, and it is an effective fusion method of remote sensing image. Hui Zhou and Hongmin Gao Copyright © 2014 Hui Zhou and Hongmin Gao. All rights reserved. Modelling and Practical Implementation of 2-Coil Wireless Power Transfer Systems Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Wireless power transfer (WPT) based on inductive coupling could be potentially applied in many practical applications. It has attracted a lot of research interests in the last few years. In this paper, the modelling, design, and implementation of a 2-coil WPT system are represented. The prototype system can be implemented using conventional power electronic devices such as MOSFETs with very low costs as it works in relative low frequency range (less than 1 MHz). In order to find out about the optimal working area for the WPT system, the circuit model based on the practical parameters from the prototype is built. The relationships between the exciting frequency, coupling, and output power are analyzed based on the circuit and magnetic principles. Apart from the theoretic study, the detailed implementation of the WPT prototype including the coil design, digital frequency generation, and high frequency power electronics is also introduced in this paper. Experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the circuit analysis. By carefully tuning the circuit parameters, the prototype is able to deliver 20 W power through 2.2 meter distance with 20–30% efficiency. Hong Zhou, Bin Zhu, Wenshan Hu, Zhiwei Liu, and Xingran Gao Copyright © 2014 Hong Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Steady-State Response of Periodically Switched Linear Circuits via Augmented Time-Invariant Nodal Analysis Tue, 02 Sep 2014 09:41:12 +0000 We focus on the simulation of periodically switched linear circuits. The basic notation and theoretical framework are presented, with emphasis on the differences between the linear time-invariant and the time-varying cases. For this important class of circuits and sources defined by periodic signals, the computation of their steady-state response is carried out via the solution of an augmented time-invariant MNA equation in the frequency-domain. The proposed method is based on the expansion of the unknown voltages and currents in terms of Fourier series and on the automatic generation of augmented equivalents of the circuit components. The above equivalents along with the information on circuit topology allow creating, via circuit inspection, a time-invariant MNA equation, the solution of which provides the coefficients of both the time- and the frequency-domain responses of the circuit. Analytical and numerical examples are used to stress the generality and benefits of the proposed approach. Riccardo Trinchero, Igor S. Stievano, and Flavio G. Canavero Copyright © 2014 Riccardo Trinchero et al. All rights reserved. The Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Northwest China Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:57:16 +0000 Northwestern China has an extremely complex climate due to the varied terrain and complexities of climate change where the environment is sensitive to both regional and global climate change. We employed the Mann-Kendal test to investigate trends of precipitation distributions using annual, seasonal, and monthly data records from 1960 to 2008. On the whole, the variations in precipitation patterns are more complex than those for temperature. The trends of annual, seasonal, and monthly precipitation have shown remarkable differences between the east and west. In the west such as in northern Xinjiang and western Qinghai, the variation is a significant increase, consistent with the temperature change, whereas in the east such as in eastern Gansu, and southern Shaanxi, the variation is a remarkable decrease, opposite to the change observed in temperatures. Chuancheng Zhao, Shuxia Yao, Jun Liu, and Jian Wang Copyright © 2014 Chuancheng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Maximum Entropy Threshold Segmentation for Target Matching Using Speeded-Up Robust Features Tue, 26 Aug 2014 11:36:21 +0000 This paper proposes a 2-dimensional (2D) maximum entropy threshold segmentation (2DMETS) based speeded-up robust features (SURF) approach for image target matching. First of all, based on the gray level of each pixel and the average gray level of its neighboring pixels, we construct a 2D gray histogram. Second, by the target and background segmentation, we localize the feature points at the interest points which have the local extremum of box filter responses. Third, from the 2D Haar wavelet responses, we generate the 64-dimensional (64D) feature point descriptor vectors. Finally, we perform the target matching according to the comparisons of the 64D feature point descriptor vectors. Experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively enhance the target matching performance, as well as preserving the real-time capacity. Mu Zhou, Xia Hong, Zengshan Tian, Huining Dong, Mingchun Wang, and Kunjie Xu Copyright © 2014 Mu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Arabidopsis Growth Simulation Using Image Processing Technology Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper aims to provide a method to represent the virtual Arabidopsis plant at each growth stage. It includes simulating the shape and providing growth parameters. The shape is described with elliptic Fourier descriptors. First, the plant is segmented from the background with the chromatic coordinates. With the segmentation result, the outer boundary series are obtained by using boundary tracking algorithm. The elliptic Fourier analysis is then carried out to extract the coefficients of the contour. The coefficients require less storage than the original contour points and can be used to simulate the shape of the plant. The growth parameters include total area and the number of leaves of the plant. The total area is obtained with the number of the plant pixels and the image calibration result. The number of leaves is derived by detecting the apex of each leaf. It is achieved by using wavelet transform to identify the local maximum of the distance signal between the contour points and the region centroid. Experiment result shows that this method can record the growth stage of Arabidopsis plant with fewer data and provide a visual platform for plant growth research. Junmei Zhang, Qiuhong Ke, and Ye Tian Copyright © 2014 Junmei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Broadband Adaptive RCS Computation through Characteristic Basis Function Method Thu, 21 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A broadband radar cross section (RCS) calculation approach is proposed based on the characteristic basis function method (CBFM). In the proposed approach, the desired arbitrary frequency band is adaptively divided into multiple subband in consideration of the characteristic basis functions (CBFs) number, which can reduce the universal characteristic basis functions (UCBFs) numbers after singular value decomposition (SVD) procedure at lower subfrequency band. Then, the desired RCS data can be obtained by splicing the RCS data in each subfrequency band. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method achieve a high accuracy and efficiency over a wide frequency range. Guohua Wang and Yufa Sun Copyright © 2014 Guohua Wang and Yufa Sun. All rights reserved. Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Defected Stub Loaded Resonator Mon, 21 Jul 2014 12:12:50 +0000 A novel approach for designing a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) using defected stub loaded resonator (DSLR) is presented in this paper. The proposed DSLR consists of two fundamental resonant modes and some resonant characteristics have been investigated by EM software of Ansoft HFSS. Then, based on two coupled DSLRs, a dual-band response BPF that operates at 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz is designed and implemented for WLAN and WIMAX application. The first passband is constructed by two lower frequencies of the coupled DSLRs and the second passband is produced by two higher ones; the coupling scheme of them is also given. Finally, the dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured; a good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained, which verifies the validity of the design methodology. Dechang Huang and Zhaodi Huang Copyright © 2014 Dechang Huang and Zhaodi Huang. All rights reserved. A Three-Dimensional Wireless Indoor Localization System Sun, 20 Jul 2014 09:28:00 +0000 Indoor localization, an emerging technology in location based service (LBS), is now playing a more and more important role both in commercial and in civilian industry. Global position system (GPS) is the most popular solution in outdoor localization field, and the accuracy is around 10 meter error in positioning. However, with complex obstacles in buildings, problems rise in the “last mile” of localization field, which encourage a momentum of indoor localization. The traditional indoor localization system is either range-based or fingerprinting-based, which requires a lot of time and efforts to do the predeployment. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional on-demand indoor localization system (3D-ODIL), which can be fingerprint-free and deployed rapidly in a multistorey building. The 3D-ODIL consists of two phases, vertical localization and horizontal localization. On vertical direction, we propose multistorey differential (MSD) algorithm and implement it to fulfill the vertical localization, which can greatly reduce the number of anchors deployed. We use enhanced field division (EFD) algorithm to conduct the horizontal localization. EFD algorithm is a range-free algorithm, the main idea of which is to dynamically divide the field within different signature area and position the target. The accuracy and performance have been validated through our extensive analysis and systematic experiments. Ping Yi, Minjie Yu, Ziqiao Zhou, Wei Xu, Qingquan Zhang, and Ting Zhu Copyright © 2014 Ping Yi et al. All rights reserved. Asynchronous Advanced Encryption Standard Hardware with Random Noise Injection for Improved Side-Channel Attack Resistance Sun, 20 Jul 2014 07:14:28 +0000 This work presents the design, hardware implementation, and performance analysis of novel asynchronous AES (advanced encryption standard) Key Expander and Round Function, which offer increased side-channel attack (SCA) resistance. These designs are based on a delay-insensitive (DI) logic paradigm known as null convention logic (NCL), which supports useful properties for resisting SCAs including dual-rail encoding, clock-free operation, and monotonic transitions. Potential benefits include reduced and more uniform switching activities and reduced signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. A novel method to further augment NCL AES hardware with random voltage scaling technique is also presented for additional security. Thereby, the proposed components leak significantly less side-channel information than conventional clocked approaches. To quantitatively verify such improvements, functional verification and WASSO (weighted average simultaneous switching output) analysis have been carried out on both conventional synchronous approach and the proposed NCL based approach using Mentor Graphics ModelSim and Xilinx simulation tools. Hardware implementation has been carried out on both designs exploiting a specified side-channel attack standard evaluation FPGA board, called SASEBO-GII, and the corresponding power waveforms for both designs have been collected. Along with the results of software simulations, we have analyzed the collected waveforms to validate the claims related to benefits of the proposed cryptohardware design approach. Siva Kotipalli, Yong-Bin Kim, and Minsu Choi Copyright © 2014 Siva Kotipalli et al. All rights reserved. Multiport Technology: New Perspectives and Applications Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:22:54 +0000 Serioja Ovidiu Tatu, Adriana Serban, Alexander Koelpin, and Mohamed Helaoui Copyright © 2014 Serioja Ovidiu Tatu et al. All rights reserved. Improved Data Transmission Scheme of Network Coding Based on Access Point Optimization in VANET Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 VANET is a hot spot of intelligent transportation researches. For vehicle users, the file sharing and content distribution through roadside access points (AP) as well as the vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) have been an important complement to that cellular network. So the AP deployment is one of the key issues to improve the communication performance of VANET. In this paper, an access point optimization method is proposed based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. The transmission performances of the routing protocol with random linear network coding before and after the access point optimization are analyzed. The simulation results show the optimization model greatly affects the VANET transmission performances based on network coding, and it can enhance the delivery rate by 25% and 14% and reduce the average delay of transmission by 38% and 33%. Zhe Yang, Lingzhi Li, Wenqiang Yao, Kaisheng Xu, and Dongxin Tang Copyright © 2014 Zhe Yang et al. All rights reserved. A New Intrusion Detection System Based on KNN Classification Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network Mon, 30 Jun 2014 10:31:50 +0000 The Internet of Things has broad application in military field, commerce, environmental monitoring, and many other fields. However, the open nature of the information media and the poor deployment environment have brought great risks to the security of wireless sensor networks, seriously restricting the application of wireless sensor network. Internet of Things composed of wireless sensor network faces security threats mainly from Dos attack, replay attack, integrity attack, false routing information attack, and flooding attack. In this paper, we proposed a new intrusion detection system based on -nearest neighbor (-nearest neighbor, referred to as KNN below) classification algorithm in wireless sensor network. This system can separate abnormal nodes from normal nodes by observing their abnormal behaviors, and we analyse parameter selection and error rate of the intrusion detection system. The paper elaborates on the design and implementation of the detection system. This system has achieved efficient, rapid intrusion detection by improving the wireless ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance the Vector Routing, AODV). Finally, the test results show that: the system has high detection accuracy and speed, in accordance with the requirement of wireless sensor network intrusion detection. Wenchao Li, Ping Yi, Yue Wu, Li Pan, and Jianhua Li Copyright © 2014 Wenchao Li et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Applying 2D Enhancement Algorithms on 3D Video Content Thu, 19 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancement algorithms are typically applied to video content to increase their appeal to viewers. Such algorithms are readily available in the literature and are already widely applied in, for example, commercially available TVs. On the contrary, not much research has been done on enhancing stereoscopic 3D video content. In this paper, we present research focused on the effect of applying enhancement algorithms used for 2D content on 3D side-by-side content. We evaluate both offline enhancement of video content based on proprietary enhancement algorithms and real-time enhancement in the TVs. This is done using stereoscopic TVs with active shutter glasses, viewed both in their 2D and 3D viewing mode. The results of this research show that 2D enhancement algorithms are a viable first approach to enhance 3D content. In addition to video quality degradation due to the loss of spatial resolution as a consequence of the 3D video format, brightness reduction inherent to polarized or shutter glasses similarly degrades video quality. We illustrate the benefit of providing brightness enhancement for stereoscopic displays. Sin Lin Wu, Jorge E. Caviedes, Lina Karam, and Ingrid Heynderickx Copyright © 2014 Sin Lin Wu et al. All rights reserved. Application of Hybrid MOPSO Algorithm to Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem Considering Voltage Stability Wed, 18 Jun 2014 13:35:09 +0000 This study presents a novel hybrid multiobjective particle swarm optimization (HMOPSO) algorithm to solve the optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) problem. This problem is formulated as a challenging nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem considering three objectives, that is, power losses minimization, voltage profile improvement, and voltage stability enhancement simultaneously. In order to attain better convergence and diversity, this work presents the use of combing the classical MOPSO with Gaussian probability distribution, chaotic sequences, dynamic crowding distance, and self-adaptive mutation operator. Moreover, multiple effective strategies, such as mixed-variable handling approach, constraint handling technique, and stopping criteria, are employed. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the ORPD problem is validated on the standard IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems under nominal and contingency states. The obtained results are compared with classical MOPSO, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D), and other methods recently reported in the literature from the point of view of Pareto fronts, extreme, solutions and multiobjective performance metrics. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HMOPSO in solving the ORPD problem while strictly satisfying all the constraints. Yujiao Zeng and Yanguang Sun Copyright © 2014 Yujiao Zeng and Yanguang Sun. All rights reserved. Joint Design of Transmission Rate and Control for Wireless Sensor Networked Control Systems Wed, 28 May 2014 09:41:26 +0000 This paper is concerned with transmission rate and control codesign of wireless sensor networked control systems (WSNCS) with time-varying delay. Jointly designing transmission rate and control is an attractive paradigm for WSNCS, since the control performance of WSNCS is highly sensitive to resource-constrained communication networks. The main idea of devised scheme is searching an optimal event-triggered transmission condition on the premise that wireless link capacity constraint is satisfied and stability of systems is guaranteed. The main aim of devised scheme is to greatly optimize control performance of WSNCS. First, two wireless network architectures characterized by multihop and star topology are put forward. Secondly, a model of WSNCS with event-triggered transmission mechanism is constructed. It is followed by stability analysis of WSNCS to obtain the asymptotical stability condition of systems. And then a search algorithm is presented for transmission rate and control codesign. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Jinna Li, Peng Zeng, Xuejun Zong, Meng Zheng, and Xiaoling Zhang Copyright © 2014 Jinna Li et al. All rights reserved. Two-Factor User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem Mon, 19 May 2014 07:59:20 +0000 A password authentication scheme using smart card is called two-factor authentication scheme. Two-factor authentication scheme is the most accepted and commonly used mechanism that provides the authorized users a secure and efficient method for accessing resources over insecure communication channel. Up to now, various two-factor user authentication schemes have been proposed. However, most of them are vulnerable to smart card loss attack, offline password guessing attack, impersonation attack, and so on. In this paper, we design a password remote user authentication with key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme has high level of security. Moreover, the proposed scheme is more practical and secure in contrast to some related schemes. Juan Qu and Xiao-Ling Tan Copyright © 2014 Juan Qu and Xiao-Ling Tan. All rights reserved. Programmed Tool for Quantifying Reliability and Its Application in Designing Circuit Systems Sun, 18 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 As CMOS technology scales down to nanotechnologies, reliability continues to be a decisive subject in the design entry of nanotechnology-based circuit systems. As a result, several computational methodologies have been proposed to evaluate reliability of those circuit systems. However, the process of computing reliability has become very time consuming and troublesome as the computational complexity grows exponentially with the dimension of circuit systems. Therefore, being able to speed up the task of reliability analysis is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into developing a MATLAB-based automated reliability tool by incorporating the generalized form of the existing computational approaches that can be found in the current literature. Secondly, a comparative study involving those existing computational approaches is carried out on a set of standard benchmark test circuits. Finally, the paper continues to find the exact error bound for individual faulty gates as it plays a significant role in the reliability of circuit systems. N. S. S. Singh Copyright © 2014 N. S. S. Singh. All rights reserved. Face Recognition Method Based on Fuzzy 2DPCA Thu, 15 May 2014 07:06:53 +0000 2DPCA, which is one of the most important face recognition methods, is relatively sensitive to substantial variations in light direction, face pose, and facial expression. In order to improve the recognition performance of the traditional 2DPCA, a new 2DPCA algorithm based on the fuzzy theory is proposed in this paper, namely, the fuzzy 2DPCA (F2DPCA). In this method, applying fuzzy K-nearest neighbor (FKNN), the membership degree matrix of the training samples is calculated, which is used to get the fuzzy means of each class. The average of fuzzy means is then incorporated into the definition of the general scatter matrix with anticipation that it can improve classification result. The comprehensive experiments on the ORL, the YALE, and the FERET face database show that the proposed method can improve the classification rates and reduce the sensitivity to variations between face images caused by changes in illumination, face expression, and face pose. Xiaodong Li Copyright © 2014 Xiaodong Li. All rights reserved. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart Tue, 13 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC), which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) and the genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test. Jingming Liang and Qifei Jian Copyright © 2014 Jingming Liang and Qifei Jian. All rights reserved. Innovative Techniques for Power Consumption Saving in Telecommunication Networks Mon, 05 May 2014 12:38:48 +0000 Vincenzo Eramo, Xavier Hesselbach-Serra, and Yan Luo Copyright © 2014 Vincenzo Eramo et al. All rights reserved. A-LNT: A Wireless Sensor Network Platform for Low-Power Real-Time Voice Communications Sun, 04 May 2014 13:42:53 +0000 Combining wireless sensor networks and voice communication for multidata hybrid wireless network suggests possible applications in numerous fields. However, voice communication and sensor data transmissions have significant differences, Meanwhile, high-speed massive real-time voice data processing poses challenges for hardware design, protocol design, and especially power management. In this paper, we present a wireless audio sensor network platform A-LNT and study and discuss key elements for systematic design and implementation: node hardware design, low-power voice codec and processing, wireless network topology, hybrid MAC protocol design based on superframe, radio channel allocation, and clock synchronization. Furthermore, we discuss energy management methods such as address filtering and efficient power management in detail. The experimental and simulation results show that A-LNT is a lightweight, low-power, low-speed, and high-performance wireless sensor network platform for multichannel real-time voice communications. Yong Fu, Qiang Guo, and Changying Chen Copyright © 2014 Yong Fu et al. All rights reserved. A Doping Bits Based BP Decoding for Rateless Distributed Source Coding Applications Wed, 23 Apr 2014 11:41:10 +0000 A novel doping bits based belief propagation decoding algorithm, for rate-adaptive LDPC codes based on fixed bipartite graph code, is proposed. The proposed work modifies the decoding algorithm, by converting the puncturing nodes to regular source nodes and by following the encoding rule at the decoder. The transmitted doping bits in place of punctured bits, with the modified decoding algorithm at the decoder, feed all the punctured nodes with reliable log likelihood ratios. This enables the proposed decoding algorithm to recover all punctured nodes in the early iteration. The fast convergence leads to decoder complexity reduction while providing considerable improvement in performance. N. M. Masoodhu Banu and S. Sasikumar Copyright © 2014 N. M. Masoodhu Banu and S. Sasikumar. All rights reserved. Cross-Modality 2D-3D Face Recognition via Multiview Smooth Discriminant Analysis Based on ELM Wed, 23 Apr 2014 10:00:46 +0000 In recent years, 3D face recognition has attracted increasing attention from worldwide researchers. Rather than homogeneous face data, more and more applications require flexible input face data nowadays. In this paper, we propose a new approach for cross-modality 2D-3D face recognition (FR), which is called Multiview Smooth Discriminant Analysis (MSDA) based on Extreme Learning Machines (ELM). Adding the Laplacian penalty constrain for the multiview feature learning, the proposed MSDA is first proposed to extract the cross-modality 2D-3D face features. The MSDA aims at finding a multiview learning based common discriminative feature space and it can then fully utilize the underlying relationship of features from different views. To speed up the learning phase of the classifier, the recent popular algorithm named Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is adopted to train the single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs). To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed FR framework, experimental results on a benchmark face recognition dataset are presented. Simulations show that our new proposed method generally outperforms several recent approaches with a fast training speed. Yi Jin, Jiuwen Cao, Qiuqi Ruan, and Xueqiao Wang Copyright © 2014 Yi Jin et al. All rights reserved. An FPGA-Integrated Time-to-Digital Converter Based on a Ring Oscillator for Programmable Delay Line Resolution Measurement Sun, 13 Apr 2014 13:22:20 +0000 We describe the architecture of a time-to-digital converter (TDC), specially intended to measure the delay resolution of a programmable delay line (PDL). The configuration, which consists of a ring oscillator, a frequency divider (FD), and a period measurement circuit (PMC), is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. The ring oscillator realized in loop containing a PDL and a look-up table (LUT) generates periodic oscillatory pulses. The FD amplifies the oscillatory period from nanosecond range to microsecond range. The time-to-digital conversion is based on counting the number of clock cycles between two consecutive pulses of the FD by the PMC. Experiments have been conducted to verify the performance of the TDC. The achieved relative errors for four PDLs are within 0.50%–1.21% and the TDC has an equivalent resolution of about 0.4 ps. Chao Chen, Shengwei Meng, Zhenghuan Xia, Guangyou Fang, and Hejun Yin Copyright © 2014 Chao Chen et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Power Saving and Feasibility Study of Migrations Solutions in a Virtual Router Network Sun, 30 Mar 2014 13:25:46 +0000 The power consumption of the network equipment has increased significantly and some strategies to contain the power used in the IP network are needed. Among the green networking strategies, the virtualization class and in particular the deployment of migrating virtual routers can lead to a high energy saving. It consists in migrating virtual routers in fewer physical nodes when the traffic decreases allowing for a power consumption saving. In this paper we formulate the problem of minimizing the power consumption as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem. Due to the hard complexity of the introduced MILP problem, we propose a heuristic for the migration of virtual routers among physical devices in order to turn off as many nodes as possible and save power according to the compliance with network node and link capacity constraints. We show that 50% of nodes may be turned off in the case of a real provider network when traffic percentage reduction of 80% occurs. Finally we also perform a feasibility study by means of an experimental test-bed to evaluate migration time of a routing plane based on QUAGGA routing software. V. Eramo, S. Testa, and E. Miucci Copyright © 2014 V. Eramo et al. All rights reserved. Energy-Aware Base Stations: The Effect of Planning, Management, and Femto Layers Sun, 30 Mar 2014 11:54:28 +0000 We compare the performance of three base station management schemes on three different network topologies. In addition, we explore the effect of offloading traffic to heterogeneous femtocell layer upon energy savings taking into account the increase of base station switch-off time intervals. Fairness between mobile operator and femtocell owners is maintained since current femtocell technologies present flat power consumption curves with respect to served traffic. We model two different user-to-femtocell association rules in order to capture realistic and maximum gains from the heterogeneous network. To provide accurate findings and a holistic overview of the techniques, we explore a real urban district where channel estimations and power control are modeled using deterministic algorithms. Finally, we explore energy efficiency metrics that capture savings in the mobile network operator, the required watts per user and watts per bitrate. It is found that the newly established pseudo distributed management scheme is the most preferable solution for practical implementations and together with the femotcell layer the network can handle dynamic load control that is regarded as the basic element of future demand response programs. G. Koutitas, L. Chiaraviglio, Delia Ciullo, M. Meo, and L. Tassiulas Copyright © 2014 G. Koutitas et al. All rights reserved.