Table 4: Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the associations between demographic characteristics, alcohol marketing and alcohol education and problem drinking.

Four models predicting problem drinking
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)

Boys0.75 (0.521.09)0.76 (0.541.08)0.77 (0.551.09)0.78 (0.551.10)
Girls1.001.001.001.00
Age ≤ 131.20 (0.771.88)1.20 (0.751.92)1.22 (0.761.96)1.23 (0.781.97)
Age 141.99 (1.31–3.03)1.88 (1.23–2.88)1.92 (1.26–2.93)1.93 (1.26–2.97)
Age 151.20 (0.871.66)1.15 (0.781.68)1.14 (0.771.67)1.14 (0.781.67)
Age ≥ 161.001.001.001.00
Alcohol use past 30 days12.35 (8.67–17.59)5.16 (3.42–7.80)4.87 (3.26–7.29)4.90 (3.267.37)
Bullying victimization2.10 (1.502.92)2.04 (1.462.86)2.02 (1.432.84)
Sadness1.15 (0.94–1.40)1.10 (0.90–1.35)1.12 (0.92–1.35)
No friends0.73 (0.47–1.15)0.71 (0.46–1.11)0.71 (0.46–1.11)
Missed school2.26 (1.673.07)2.20 (1.632.97)2.19 (1.622.96)
No parental monitoring1.06 (0.80–1.42)1.05 (0.77–1.42)1.04 (0.76–1.41)
Drug use2.61 (1.893.60)2.51 (1.823.47)2.50 (1.803.45)
Alcohol marketing
 Actors1.26 (0.91–1.75)1.27 (0.92–1.75)
 Billboards1.18 (0.84–1.65)1.17 (0.84–1.64)
 Provided free alcohol1.43 (1.071.90)1.41 (1.061.87)
Alcohol education
 Danger of alcohol0.83 (0.63–1.10)
 Refuse alcohol1.11 (0.83–1.49)

Each model included all listed variables. Reference categories for each variable are not shown but were those not exposed to or who did not report bullying victimization, sadness, having no friends, missed school, no parental monitoring, drug use, alcohol marketing or alcohol education.