Table 2: (a) Distributions and risk estimates for potential cadmium exposures. (b) Distributions and risk estimates for potential dietary cadmium exposures.
(a)

ExposureLevelCasesControlsORa95% CI
% %

Urinary cadmium<0.5 μg/g creatinine1014.57144.9ref
0.5 to <1 μg/g creatinine1623.23320.93.34(1.38, 8.07)
1 to <1.5 μg/g creatinine1318.81811.45.58(2.03, 15.34)
1.5+ μg/g creatinine2434.819127.70(3.06, 19.34)
Missing/outlier68.71710.8n/a

Tobacco
Never2434.86943.7ref
 Cigarette smokingFormer1927.55836.70.75(0.32, 1.77)
Current2637.73119.61.52(0.59, 3.94)
 Pack years02434.86943.7ref
>0–<402739.15736.11.23(0.60, 2.51)
≥40–<801115.92616.50.80(0.32, 2.03)
≥80710.163.82.82(0.82, 9.66)

Residential
 Well waterNo4565.212377.9ref
Yes2434.83522.21.51(0.77, 2.97)
 Ever lived on any farmNo2434.87346.2ref
Yes4565.28553.81.56(0.81, 3.01)
 Resided w/in 1 mile of refineryNo6391.314893.7ref
Yes68.7106.31.48(0.50, 4.43)

Occupational
 Occupational any pesticidesNo6391.313585.4ref
Yes68.72314.60.47(0.17, 1.31)
 Occupational paintsNo5173.910969ref
Yes1826.149310.73(0.34, 1.60)
 Occupational cadmiumNo6898.615698.7ref
Yes11.521.31.69(0.14, 20.39)
 Worked as pipefitter/plumber/welderNo6289.915598.1ref
Yes710.131.95.88(1.33, 26.01)
 Worked in shipyardNo6594.215497.5ref
Yes45.842.53.13(0.70, 13.96)
 Worked in refineryNo6797.115598.1ref
Yes22.931.91.87(0.27, 13.19)

(b)

FoodWeekly servingsCasesControlsORa95% CITest for trend
n% %

All shellfish<0.5811.63622.8ref
≥0.5–<1 9132113.32.01
≥1–<21521.73723.42.18
≥2 3753.66440.52.61 0.0898

All seafood<0.5 45.81610.1ref
≥0.5–<157.32314.61.10
≥1–<3 2536.26138.62.15
≥3 3550.75836.72.87 0.0562

Beef<1 1217.43421.5ref
≥1–<3 2130.45635.41.03
≥3–<6 1924.54629.11.21
≥61724.62213.92.36 0.0579

Pork<2 1014.55232.9ref
≥2–<5 2637.75635.42.21
≥5–<8 1318.82918.42.14
≥8 20292113.34.44 0.0058

All red meat<4 1014.55132.3ref
≥4–<82536.24830.42.53
≥8–<12 1014.53723.41.27
≥12 2434.82213.96.18 0.0009

Rice<1 710.13119.6ref
≥1–<5 2536.27044.31.52
≥5–<10 1623.23320.91.64
≥10 2130.42415.23.58 0.0203

Wheat


<51521.74729.8ref
≥5–<10 2130.45434.21.42
≥10–<15 1623.22213.92.43
≥15 1724.63522.21.87 0.1282

All grains<1068.72415.2ref
≥10–<2020296339.91.48
≥20–<3020293824.12.50
≥30 2333.33320.93.38 0.0112

aModels include: age at interview, race, gender, pack years, current smoking, alcoholic drinks per day, family history of pancreatic cancer, and completing high school.