Table 3: (a) Means, estimates, and significance levels for potential cadmium exposures on urinary cadmium concentrations. (b) Means, estimates, and significance levels for potential dietary cadmium sources on urinary cadmium concentrations.
(a)   

Exposure Weekly servings Creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium ( g/g creatinine)
MeanCoefficienta value

Tobacco use
Never0.4764ref
 Cigarette smokingFormer0.55990.99230.9705
Current1.16472.18710.0013
 Pack years00.4764ref
>0–<400.58921.08130.6806
≥40–<801.12071.48020.1229
≥801.28592.12310.0242

Residential
 Drank well waterNo0.6686ref
Yes0.56200.76030.1138
 Ever lived on any farmNo0.5901ref
Yes0.67691.12570.4449
 Resided w/in 1 mile of refineryNo0.6099ref
Yes1.38792.50560.0052

Occupational
 Any pesticidesNo0.6211ref
Yes0.75671.23950.3424
 CadmiumNo0.6291ref
Yes1.55304.79790.0117
 PaintsNo0.6064ref
Yes0.71311.66920.0057
 Worked in shipyardNo0.6234ref
Yes1.10342.21750.0403
 Worked in refineryNo0.6315ref
Yes0.93281.74010.2584
 Pipefitter, plumber or welderNo0.6342ref
Yes0.70691.36420.3775

(b)

Food Weekly servings Creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium ( g/g creatinine)
MeanCoefficienta valueTest for trend

All shellfish<0.50.5910ref
≥0.5–<1 0.74601.20480.4957
≥1–<20.63351.18130.4751
≥2 0.63041.18450.43110.6251

All seafood<0.5 0.8146ref
≥0.5–<10.55820.77480.4658
≥1–<3 0.63170.90900.7416
≥3 0.63470.95140.86480.6586

Beef<1 0.6552ref
≥1–<3 0.55710.87780.5393
≥3–<6 0.67781.07810.7274
≥60.70941.23350.41290.2175


Pork
<2 0.5437ref
≥2–<5 0.66881.18520.3826
≥5–<8 0.50100.88830.6092
≥8 0.90801.54450.06200.1490

All red meat<4 0.5488ref
≥4–<80.68071.15060.4871
≥8–<12 0.56780.97040.8926
≥12 0.77091.52210.06880.0867

Rice<1 0.5055ref
≥1–<5 0.63231.18860.4283
≥5–<10 0.75911.16730.5356
≥10 0.65181.28930.32800.4723

Wheat<50.5381ref
≥5–<10 0.54021.05380.7833
≥10–<15 0.70421.13260.5897
≥15 0.90441.71080.01050.0066

All grains
<100.5516ref
≥10–<200.52971.69850.6299
≥20–<300.64071.89780.2120
≥30 0.89602.44980.00890.0012

aModels include age at interview, race, gender, body weight, height, pack years, and current smoking status.