Table 3: Estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of variables with walking.

 VariableAdjusted OR95% CI 𝑃 -value

Built environment<0.01
Cluster 1: central cityReference
Cluster 2: city periphery0.69(0.55, 0.85)
Cluster 3: suburb0.69(0.50, 0.95)
Cluster 4: urban fringe w/poor commercial area access0.40(0.18, 0.88)
Cluster 5: urban fringe w/poor park area access0.98(0.52, 1.84)
Cluster 6: satellite city0.53(0.16, 1.71)
Percent live alone population in poverty, 19890.28(0.11, 0.70)<0.01
Age0.95(0.93, 0.96)<0.01
Education level<0.01
 12 years or lessReference
 More than 12 years1.32(1.08, 1.62)
Self-rated health<0.01
 Excellent/goodReference
 Fair/poor/very poor0.52(0.41, 0.67)
Smoking0.04
 0 pack-yearsReference
 1–40 pack-years0.88(0.70, 1.11)
 More than 40 pack-years0.66(0.48, 0.92)
Exercise (kcal per week)<0.01
 2500 kcal or lessReference
 More than 2500 kcal2.49(1.84, 3.37)
BMI<0.01
 Underweight/normal (less than 25.0)Reference
 Overweight (25.0–29.9)0.83(0.66, 1.03)
 Obese (30.0 or above)0.59(0.46, 0.77)
Stroke0.01
 No history of strokeReference
 With history of stroke0.57(0.37, 0.88)