- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 258968, 13 pages
Objective Assessment of an Ionic Footbath (IonCleanse): Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body
1Department of Research & Clinical Epidemiology, The Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, 1255 Sheppard Avenue East, Toronto, ON, Canada M2K 1E2
2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3M2
3Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Box 201, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8L6
Received 15 July 2011; Accepted 29 August 2011
Academic Editor: Gerry Schwalfenberg
Copyright © 2012 Deborah A. Kennedy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- Environmental Working Group, “Study: Chemicals, Pollutants Found in Newborns 2009,” December 2009, http://www.ewg.org/node/28365.
- W. J. Crinnion, “Environmental medicine, Part 1: the human burden of environmental toxins and their common health effects,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 52–63, 2000.
- D. L. Davis, G. E. Dinse, and D. G. Hoel, “Decreasing cardiovascular disease and increasing cancer among whites in the United States from 1973 through 1987: good news and bad news,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 271, no. 6, pp. 431–437, 1994.
- J. Brinkel, M. H. Khan, and A. Kraemer, “A systematic review of arsenic exposure and its social and mental health effects with special reference to Bangladesh,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1609–1619, 2009.
- D. Seely, K. Cooley, and H. Fritz, “Links between ADHD and environmental pollutants: implications for preventative naturopathic clinical practice,” Townsend Letter, vol. 307/308, pp. 83–88, 2009.
- A. Adenugba, S. A. Khan, S. D. Taylor-Robinson et al., “Polychlorinated biphenyls in bile of patients with biliary tract cancer,” Chemosphere, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 841–846, 2009.
- F. Falck Jr., A. Ricci Jr., M. S. Wolff, J. Godbold, and P. Deckers, “Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer,” Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 143–146, 1992.
- H. Mussalo-Rauhamaa, E. Hasanen, H. Pyysalo, K. Antervo, R. Kauppila, and P. Pantzar, “Occurrence of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane in breast cancer patients,” Cancer, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 2124–2128, 1990.
- G. N. Wogan, S. S. Hecht, J. S. Felton, A. H. Conney, and L. A. Loeb, “Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 473–486, 2004.
- J. M. Weiss, O. Bauer, A. Blüthgen et al., “Distribution of persistent organochlorine contaminants in infertile patients from Tanzania and Germany,” Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, vol. 23, no. 9-10, pp. 393–399, 2006.
- R. Kumar, N. Pant, and S. P. Srivastava, “Chlorinated pesticides and heavy metals in human semen,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 145–149, 2000.
- G. S. Cooper, D. Germolec, J. Heindel, and M. Selgrade, “Linking environmental agents and autoimmune diseases,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, supplement 5, pp. 659–660, 1999.
- S. Bradberry, T. Sheehan, and A. Vale, “Use of oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (succimer) in adult patients with inorganic lead poisoning,” QJM, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 721–732, 2009.
- S. Bradberry and A. Vale, “Dimercaptosuccinic acid (succimer; DMSA) in inorganic lead poisoning,” Clinical Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 617–631, 2009.
- Gold Standard Inc, “Succimer (Chemet—DMSA™) Monograph.,” 2009, http://www.mdconsult.com/das/pharm/body/280300990-809/0/full/1569.
- H. L. Johnson and H. I. Maibach, “Drug excretion in human eccrine sweat,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 182–188, 1971.
- J. R. Cohn and E. A. Emmett, “The excretion of trace metals in human sweat,” Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 270–275, 1978.
- A Major Difference Inc., “AMD Making a Difference in your health. [brochure],” December 2010.
- Detox Foot Spas, October 2010, http://www.reikitoronto.com/detox.htm.
- Home of the Aqua Chi, October 2010, http://www.aquachifootbath.com/.
- Why are Seawalk arrays the best on the market?, October 2010, http://www.seawalkspa.ca/array.html.
- Center for Research Strategies Inc, “Evaluation of heavy metal levels in relation to ionic foot bath session with Ion Cleanse,” 2008, http://www.ahrfoundation.net/dlfiles/study_results.pdf.
- EMC Integrity, Inc., “Ion Cleanse CE Safety Test Report,” Longmount 2008, http://www.amajordifference.com/store/item.asp?ITEM_ID=4.
- EMC Integrity, Inc., Full Compliance Immunity Test Report. Longmount, Colorado April 2008, http://www.amajordifference.com/store/item.asp?ITEM_ID=4.
- EMC Integrity, Inc., Radiation and Conduction emissions. Longmount 2008, http://www.amajordifference.com/store/item.asp?ITEM_ID=4.
- G. Nordberg, Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Academic Press, Boston, Mass, USA, 2007.
- S. C. Bondy, “The neurotoxicity of environmental aluminum is still an issue,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 575–581, 2010.
- S. V. Verstraeten, L. Aimo, and P. I. Oteiza, “Aluminium and lead: molecular mechanisms of brain toxicity,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 789–802, 2008.
- T. Gebel, “Aresnic and antimony: comparative approach on mechanistic toxicology,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 131–144, 1997.
- M. D. Pulido and A. R. Parrish, “Metal-induced apoptosis: mechanisms,” Mutation Research, vol. 533, no. 1-2, pp. 227–241, 2003.
- S. Khandpur, A. K. Malhotra, V. Bhatia et al., “Chronic arsenic toxicity from Ayurvedic medicines,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 618–621, 2008.
- V. K. Sharma and M. Sohn, “Aquatic arsenic: toxicity, speciation, transformations, and remediation,” Environment International, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 743–759, 2009.
- S. S. Wise, J. H. C. Schuler, S. P. Katsifis, and J. P. Wise, “Barium Chromate Is Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to Human Lung Cells,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 274–278, 2003.
- G. Cannino, E. Ferruggia, C. Luparello, and A. M. Rinaldi, “Cadmium and mitochondria,” Mitochondrion, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 377–384, 2009.
- H. Czeczot and M. Skrzycki, “Cadmium–element completely unnecessary for the organism,” Postpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej, vol. 64, pp. 38–49, 2010.
- H. C. Gonick, “Nephrotoxicity of cadmium & lead,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 335–352, 2008.
- P. L. Drake and K. J. Hazelwood, “Exposure-related health effects of silver and silver compounds: a review,” Annals of Occupational Hygiene, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 575–585, 2005.
- A. B. G. Lansdown, “Critical observations on the neurotoxicity of silver,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 237–250, 2007.
- X. Arzuaga, S. H. Rieth, A. Bathija, and G. S. Cooper, “Renal effects of exposure to natural and depleted uranium: a review of the epidemiologic and experimental data,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health—Part B, vol. 13, no. 7-8, pp. 527–545, 2010.
- W. Briner, “The toxicity of depleted uranium,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 303–313, 2010.
- M. Villain, V. Cirimele, and P. Kintz, “Hair analysis in toxicology,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1265–1272, 2004.
- K. J. Cummings, A. B. Stefaniak, M. A. Virji, and K. Kreiss, “A reconsideration of acute beryllium disease,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 1250–1256, 2009.
- D. M. Hollins, M. A. McKinley, C. Williams et al., “Beryllium and lung cancer: a weight of evidence evaluation of the toxicological and epidemiological literature,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 39, no. 1, supplement, pp. S1–S32, 2009.
- W. J. Crinnion, “Environmental medicine, part three: long-term effects of chronic low- dose mercury exposure,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 209–223, 2000.
- C. Freire, R. Ramos, M. J. Lopez-Espinosa et al., “Hair mercury levels, fish consumption, and cognitive development in preschool children from Granada, Spain,” Environmental Research, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 96–104, 2010.
- J. J. Wirth and R. S. Mijal, “Adverse effects of low level heavy metal exposure on male reproductive function,” Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
- R. A. Lula, “Stainless steel,” American Society for Metals, 1986.
- R. A. Lula and J. G. Parr, Stainless Steel, Edited by R. A. Lula and J. G. Parr, American Society for Metals, Materials Park, Ohio, USA, 1986.
- B. A. Shaw and R. G. Kelly, “What is corrosion?” Electrochemical Society Interface, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 24–26, 2006.
- Department of Energy, DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Department of Energy, 1993.
- C. R. Robbins, Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2002.
- T. H. Maugh II, “Hair: a diagnostic tool to complement blood serum and urine,” Science, vol. 202, no. 4374, pp. 1271–1273, 1978.